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THE 



AMERICAN 



JOUMAL OF ARCHEOLOGY 



AND OF THE 



HISTORY OF THE FINE ARTS 



VOLUME V 

1889 




BOSTON 
GINN & COMPANY 

NEW YORK, CHICAGO 
PRINCETON: THE MANAGING EDTOR 

BALTIMORE: J. MURPHY & Co. 

LONDON: TRUBNER & Co. PARIS: E. LEROUX 

TURIN, FLORENCE and ROME: E. LOESCHER 

BERLIN: MAYER & MULLER 



CC 



EDITORS AND CONTRIBUTORS. 

Advisory Editor : Prof. CHARLES ELIOT NORTON, of Harvard University. 

Literary Editor: Mr. ARTHUR L. FROTHINGHAM, of Baltimore. 

Managing Editor: Prof. A. L. FROTHINGHAM, Jr., of Princeton College. 

Editorial Contributors : Prof. ALFRED EMERSON, of Lake Forest Uni- 

versity; Prof. HAROLD N. FOWLER, of Phillips Academy, Exeter; 

Prof. ALLAN MARQUAND, of Princeton College ; Prof. A. C. MER- 

RIAM, of Columbia College ; Dr. CHARLES WALDSTEIN, of Cambridge 

University, England; Mr. JUSTIN WINSOR, of Harvard University; 

Prof. J. H. WRIGHT, of Harvard University. 

The following writers have contributed or promised early contributions : 

UNITED STATES. 

Dr. FRANCIS BROWN, Miss I. F. HAPGOOD, Prof. F. W. PUTNAM, 
Mr. LUCIEN CARR, Mr. H. W. HENSHAW, Mr. RUSSELL STURGIS, 

Mr. JOSEPH T. CLARKE, Mr. W. H. HOLMES, Prof. CYRUS THOMAS, 

Mr. W. H. DALL, Mr. T. H. LEWIS, Mr. S. B. P. TROWBRIDGE, 

Mr. F. B. GODDARD, Mr. W. P. P. LONGFELLOW, Dr. W. HAYES WARD, 
Mr. WM. H. GOODYEAR, Mrs. Z. NUTTALL, Dr. J. R. WHEELER, etc. 

EUROPE. 

M. E. BABELON, attache" au Cabinet des Me"dailles, National Library, Paris. 
Dr. A. A. CARUANA, Librarian and Director of Education, Malta. 
Count ADOLFO COZZA, Inspector of antiquities for Etruria, Orvieto. 
L'Abbe" L. DUCHESNE, Professor of Christian Archaeology, Catholic Institute, Paris. 
M. EMILE DUVAL, Director of the Muse'e Fol, Geneva. 

Dr. A. FURTWANGLER, Professor of Archaeology in the University of Berlin. 
Mr. ERNEST A. GARDNER, Director of the British School of Archaeology, Athens. 
Prof. W. HELBIG, former Secretary of the German Archaeological Institute, Rome. 
Prof. HANS HILDEBRAND, Director of the Museums, ed. of Tidskrift, etc., Stockholm. 
Dr. G. HIRSCHFELD, Professor of Archaeology in the University of Koenigsberg. 
Dr. F.-X. KRAUS, Professor at the University of Freiburg-im-Breisgau. 
Comm. RODOLFO LANCIANI, Director of excavations and antiquities, Rome. 
Dr. ALBERT L. LONG, of Robert College, Constantinople. 

Comte de MARSY, Director of the Soc. Franc, d' Archeologie, Bulletin Monumental, etc. 
Prof. ORAZIO MARUCCHI, member of Comm. Archseol. Commission of Rome, etc. 
Prof. G. MASPERO, former Director of Antiq., Egypt ; Prof, at College de France, Paris. 
M. JOACHIM MENANT, of Rouen, France. 
Prof. ADOLPH MICHAELIS, of the University of Strassburg. 
M. EMILE MOLINIER, attache" au Muse'e du Louvre, Paris. 

M. EUGENE MUNTZ, Librarian and Conservator of the Ecole des Beaux- Arts, Paris. 
Prof. F. PIPER, Professor of Christian Archaeology in the University of Berlin. 
Mr. W. M. RAMSAY, Professor in the University of Aberdeen. 

Dr. FRANZ v. REBER, Professor in the University and Polytechnic of Munich, etc. 
M. SALOMON REINACH, attache* au Muse'e National de St. Germain. 
Comm. Gio. BATT. DE Rossi, Director of the Vatican and Lateran Museums, Rome. 
Dr. TH. SCHREIBER, Prof, of Archaeology in the Univ., and Director of Museum, Leipzig. 
Mr. ROBERT SEWELL, Madras Civil Service, F. R. G. S., M. R. A. S. 
Comm. ENRICO STEVENSON, member of the Comm. Archaeol. Commission of Rome, etc. 
M. F. TRAWINSKI, sous-chef a la Direction des Beaux-Arts, Paris. 
Dr. PAUL WOLTERS, Secretary of the German Archaeological Institute at Athens. 
Hon. JOHN WORTHINGTON, U. S. Consul at Malta. 
The Director and Members of the American School of Classical Studies at Athens. 



npHE JOURNAL is the official organ of the ARCHAEOLOGICAL INSTITUTE OF 
J- AMERICA, and of the AMERICAN SCHOOL OF CLASSICAL STUDIES AT ATHENS, 
and it will aim to further the interests for which the Institute and the School were 
founded. It treats of all branches of Archaeology and Art Oriental, Classical, 
Early Christian, Mediaeval, and American, and is intended to supply a record of the 
important work done in the field of Archaeology, under the following categories : 
1. Original Articles; 2. Correspondence from European Archaeologists; 3. Archae- 
ological News, presenting a careful and ample record of discoveries and investigations 
in all parts of the world ; 4. Reviews of Books ; 5. Summaries of the contents of the 
principal Archaeological Periodicals. 

Two departments in which the JOURNAL stands quite alone are (1) the Record of 
Discoveries, and (2) the Summaries of Periodicals. In the former, a detailed account 
is given of all discoveries and excavations in every portion of the civilized world, 
from India to America, especial attention being paid to Greece and Italy. In order 
to ensure thoroughness in this work, more than sixty periodical publications are 
consulted and material is secured from special correspondents. In order that readers 
may know of everything important that appears in periodical literature, a consider- 
able space is given to careful summaries of the papers contained in the principal 
periodicals that treat of Archaeology and the Fine Arts. By these various methods, 
all important work done is concentrated and made accessible in a convenient but 
scholarly form, equally suited to the specialist and to the general reader. 

It has been the aim of the editors that the JOURNAL, besides giving a survey of 
the whole field of Archaeology, should be international in character, by affording to 
the leading archaeologists of all countries a common medium for the publication of 
the results of their labors. This object has been in great part attained, as is shown 
by the list of eminent foreign and American contributors to the five volumes already 
issued, and by the character of articles and correspondence published. Not only have 
important contributions to the advance of the science been made in the original 
articles, but the present condition of research has been brought before our readers 
in the departments of Correspondence, annual Reviews of various branches (like 
Numismatics, Biblical Archaeology, Greek Epigraphy), and reviews of the more 
important recent books. 

The JOURNAL is published quarterly, and forms, each year, a volume of above 500 
pages royal 8vo, illustrated with colored, heliotype, and other plates, and numerous 
figures. The yearly subscription for America is $5.00 : for countries of the Postal 
Union, 27 francs, 21 shillings, or marks, post-paid. Vol. I. unbound or bound in 
cloth, containing 489 pages, 11 plates and 16 figures, will be sent post-paid on receipt 
of $4: Vol. II, containing 521 pages, 14 plates and 46 figures, bound for $5.00, un- 
bound for $4.50 : Vol. Ill, containing 531 pages, 33 plates, and 19 figures ; Vol. IV, 
550 pages, 20 plates, and 19 figures; and Vol. V, 534 pages, 13 plates, and 55 
figures ; bound for $5.50, unbound for $5. 

All literary communications should be addressed to the Managing Editor, Prof. 
A. L. FROTHINGHAM, Jr., Ph. D., Princeton College, Princeton, N. J.: all business 
communications, to the Publishers, GINN & COMPANY, Boston. 



iii 



CONTENTS OF VOLUME V, 1889. 



No. i. JANUARY MARCH. p ^ 

I. THE NEWLY-DISCOVERED HEAD OF IRIS FROM THE FRIEZE OF THE 

PARTHENON (plate ii ; figure 1), . by CHARLES WALDSTEIN, 1 
II. DISCOVERIES IN THE ATTIC DEME OF IKARIA IN 1888. II. STELE OF A 

WARRIOR (plate i ; figure 2), . . by CARL D. BUCK, 9 
1U. DISCOVERIES IN THE ATTIC DEME OF IKARIA IN 1888. III. THE CHO- 
REQ1A IN ATHENS AND AT IKARIA. INSCRIPTIONS FROM IKARIA 
Nos. 5-7 (facsimile inscription; figures 3, 4), by CARL D. BUCK, 18 
IV _ ORIENTAL ANTIQUITIES. VIII. "HUMAN SACRIFICES" ON BABYLONIAN 

CYLINDERS (figures 5-19), ... by WM. HAYES WARD, 34 

V. A COLLECTION OF BABYLONIAN WEIGHTS, . by ALBERT L. LONG, 44 

NOTES. 

I. INSCRIPTION FROM KORM ASA; RAMSAY No. 7, by PAUL WOLTERS, 47 

II. THE ARCHITECTURAL INSCRIPTION FOUND AT EPIDAUROS IN 1885, 

by J. C. KOLFE, 47 

III. EARLY BRONZES IN THE CAVE OF ZEUS, . . by A. L. F., JR., 48 

KEVIEWS AND NOTICES OF BOOKS. 

ORIENTAL ARCHEOLOGY, 49 

CLASSICAL ARCHEOLOGY, . 56 

CHRISTIAN ARCHEOLOGY, 63 

THE EENAISSANCE, 65 

COREESPONDENCE. 

Report on Excavations and Explorations in Egypt during the Season of 1888-89, 

by FARLEY B. GODDARD, 68 
The American School of Classical Studies at Athena, 77 

ARCH^XXLOGICAL NEWS. 

AFRICA (Egypt, Tunisia); ASIA (Hindustan, Persia, Caucasus, Mesopo- 
tamia, Arabia, Palestine, Syria, Asia Minor, Kypros) ; EUROPE (Greece, 
Krete, Italy, Sicily, Spain, France, Switzerland, Belgium, Germany, 
Austria-Hungary, England) ; AMERICA (United States, Mexico), 

by A. L. FROTHINGHAM, JR., 79 



No. 2. APRIL JUNE. 

1. THE DECREES OF THE DEMOTIONIDAL A STUDY OF THE ATTIC PHRA- 

TRY, by F. B. TARBELL, 135 

II. DISCOVERIES IN THE ATTIC DEME OF IKARIA IN 1888. IV. CHRONO- 
LOGICAL REPORT OF EXCAVATIONS. V. TOPOGRAPHY OF THE 
IKARIAN DISTRICT. VI. ARCHITECTURAL REMAINS (plates III, 

iv, v ; figures 21-31), .... by CARL D. BUCK, 154 
III. NOTES ON ROMAN ARTISTS OF THE MIDDLE AGES (i), 

by A. L. FROTHINGHAM, JR., 182 
iv 



CONTENTS. 



EEVIEWS AND NOTICES OF BOOKS. 

ARCHEOLOGY, 

ORIENTAL ARCHEOLOGY, 

CLASSICAL ARCHEOLOGY, 

CHRISTIAN ARCHEOLOGY, 

ARCHAEOLOGICAL NEWS. 

AFRICA (Egypt, Tunisia, Morocco) ; ASIA (Afghanistan, Mesopotamia, 
Palestine, Asia Minor, Kypros) ; EUROPE (Greece, Italy, Sicily, France, 
Germany, Austria-Hungary, England) ; AMERICA (United States, Mexico), 

by A. L. FROTHINGHAM, JR., 
SUMMARIES OF PERIODICALS. 

Bulletin de Correspondence Hellenique Bullettino d. imp. Istituto arch. germ. 
Sez. Romana Gazette Archeologique Jahrbuch d. k. deuts. archaol. Institute 
Mittheilungen d. k. deuts. archaol. Institute. Athen. Abth. Revue Archeologique, 



PAGE. 
189 
189 
190 
196 



198 



234 



No. 3- JULY SEPTEMBER. 

l.EXCA VATIONS BY THE AMERICAN SCHOOL AT THE THEATRE OFSIKYON. 
I. GENERAL REPORT OF THE EXCAVATIONS (plates VI, VII, IX), 

by W. J. McMuRTRY, 267 
II. SUPPLEMENTAL Y REPORT OF THE EXGA VA TIONS, by M. L. EARLE, 286 

in. A SIKYONIAN STATUE (plate vin), . . by M. L. EARLE, 292 

II. DISCOVERIES IN THE ATTIC DEME OF IK ARIA IN 1888. 

VII. INSCRIPTIONS Nos. 8-17, .... by CARL D. BUCK, 304 

III. EARLY-CHRISTIAN AND MEDIEVAL MONUMENTS IN ITALY. 

I. AN EARLY ROCK-CUT CHURCH AT SZ7TJRJ (plate X ; figures 33-36), 

by A. L. FROTHINGHAM, JR., 320 



CORRESPONDENCE. 

Letter from Greece on Tiryns and Mykenai, 



by WlLHELM DORPFELD, 331 



REVIEWS AND NOTICES OF BOOKS. 

ARCHEOLOGY, 337 

CLASSICAL ARCHEOLOGY, 339 

CHRISTIAN ARCHEOLOGY, . 347 

PREHISTORIC ARCHEOLOGY, . . 356 

ARCHAEOLOGICAL NEWS. 

AFRICA (Egypt, Algeria, Tunisia); ASIA (Japan, Hindustan, Central 
Asia, Caucasus, Armenia, Arabia, Syria, Asia Minor, Kypros) ; EUROPE 
(Greece, Krete, Italy, Sicily, Spain, France, Switzerland, Belgium, 
Germany, Austria-Hungary, Denmark, Russia, England) ; AMERICA 
(Mexico), by A. L. FROTHINGHAM, JR., 358 

SUMMARIES OF PERIODICALS. 

Bulletin de Correspondance Hellenique Gazette Archeologique Journal of 
Hellenic Studies Revue Archeologique, 403 



vi CONTENTS. 

No. 4. OCTOBER-DECEMBER. 

PAGE. 
I. THE THASIAN RELIEF DEDICATED TO THE NYMPHS AND TO APOLLON 

(figures 37-41), by AD. MICH^ELIS, 417 

II.EXCA VATIONS BY THE AMERICAN SCHOOL NEAR STAMATA IN ATTIKA. 
I. REPORT ON EXCA VATIONS AND SCULPTURES (plate XIl), 

by CHARLES WALDSTEIN, 423 

II. INSCRIPTIONS Nos. I-IV, . . . by F. B. TARBELL, 426 

III. DISCOVERIES BY THE AMERICAN SCHOOL AT PLATAIA IN 1889. 

I. A NEW FRA OMENT OF THE PREAMBLE TO DIOCLETIAN'S EDICT, 
DE PRETIIS RERUM VENALIUM, 

by J. C. ROLFE, and F. B. TARBELL, 428 

II. REPORT ON EXCAVATIONS (Figure 42), 

by CHARLES WALDSTEIN, F. B. TARBELL, and J. C. ROLFE, 439 

IV. DISCOVERIES BY THE AMERICAN SCHOOL AT ANTHEDON IN 1889. 

i. INSCRIPTIONS Nos. i-LXiv, by C. D. BUCK and F. B. TARBELL, 443 

V. DISCOVERIES IN THE ATTIC DEME OF IKARIA IN 1888. 
VIIT. SCULPTURES ( plates xr, xm ; figures 43-55), 

by CARL D. BUCK, 461 
ARCHAEOLOGICAL NEWS. 

AFRICA (Egypt, Algeria, Tunisia) ; ASIA (Hindustan, Mesopotamia, 
Arabia, Syria, Palestine, Asia Minor) ; EUROPE (Greece, Krete, Italy, 
Sicily, France, Germany, Turkey, Russia, England); AMERICA (United 
States), by A. L. FROTHINGHAM, JR., 478 

SUMMARIES OF PERIODICALS. 

'E<f>T)fj.fpls 'ApxotoAo'y/c^ Jahrbuch d. k. deuts. archdol. Institute Mittheilungen 

d. k. dents, arehdol Institute. Athen. Abth., 524 



ALPHABETICAL TABLE. 



AMERICAN SCHOOL OF CLASSICAL STUDIES AT ATHENS, PAPERS OF : p AGB . 

Discoveries in the Attic deme of Ikaria in 1888 ; 

ii. Stele of a Warrior, 9 

in. The Choregia in Athens and at Ikaria. Inscrs. from Ikaria, Nos. 5-7, 18 

IV. Chronological Eeport of Excavations, 154 

V. Topography of the Ikarian district, . . . . . . 158 

vi. Architectural Remains, 165 

vn. Inscriptions from Ikaria, Nos. 8-17, 304 

vin. Sculptures, 461 

Discoveries at the Theatre of Sikyon ; 

I. General Report of the Excavations, 267 

ii. Supplementary Report of the Excavations, 286 

in. A Sikyonian Statute, . . 292 

Discoveries near Stamata, in Attika, 423 

Discoveries at Plataia in 1889 ; 

i. A new fragment of the Preamble to Diocletian's Edict, De Pretiis 

Rerum Venalium, 428 

n. Report on Excavations, 439 

Discoveries at Anthedon in 1889 ; 

i. Inscriptions from Anthedon (Nos. I-LXIV), 443 

The newly-discovered Head of Iris from the frieze of the Parthenon, . 1 
The Decrees of the Demotionidai : a study of the Attic Phratry, . . 135 

Note on the School, 77 

ARCH^OLOGICAL NEWS, 79, 198, 358, 478 

Afghanistan, 202 Algeria, 362, 481 Arabia, 88, 365, 486 Armenia, 
365 Asia Minor, 90, 208, 369, 489 Austria-Hungary, 129, 227, 398 
Belgium, 126, 396 Caucasus, 87, 365 Central Asia, 365 Denmark, 399 
Egypt, 79, 197, 358, 478 England, 129, 228, 401, 514 France, 124, 226, 
394, 510 Germany, 127, 227, 396, 513 Greece, 92, 212, 374, 490 Hin- 
dustan, 85, 363, 481 Italy, 107, 217, 382, 496 Japan, 363 Krete, 107, 
382, 495 Kypros, 91, 209, 373 Mesopotamia, 87, 202, 486 Mexico, 134, 
232, 402 Morocco, 202 Palestine, 88, 207, 487 Persia, 86 Russia, 399, 
513 Sicily, 120, 223, 391, 509 Spain, 122, 393 Switzerland, 126, 396 
Syria, 89, 368, 486 Tunisia, 84, 200, 362, 481 Turkey, 513 United 
States, 133, 231, 522. 
BUCK (Carl D.). Discoveries in the Attic deme of Ikaria in 1888. 

ii. Stele of a Warrior, 9 

in. The Choregia in Athens and at Ikaria, 18 

iv. Chronological Report of Excavations 154 

v. Topography of the Ikarian district, 158 

vi. Architectural Remains, .165 

vn. Inscriptions, 304 

vin. Sculptures, 461 

Inscriptions from Anthedon, 443 

DORPFELD (Wilhelm). Letter from Greece on Tiryns and Mykenai, . . 331 
EARLE (M. L.). Supplementary Report of Excavations at the Theatre of Sikyon, 286 

A Sikyonian Statue, 292 

vii 



viii ALPHABETICAL TABLE. 

PAGE. 

FOWLER (Harold N.). Summaries of Periodicals, . 250, 254, 524, 526, 531 

FROTHINGHAM (Arthur L., Jr.). Note on Early Bronzes in the Cave of Zeus, 48 

Notes on Koman Artists of the Middle Ages, 182 

Early-Christian and Mediaeval Monuments in Italy. I. An early rock-cut 

Church at Sutri, 320 

Archaeological News, 79,198,358,478 

Summaries of Periodicals, 234,241,259,407,413 

GODDARD (Farley B.). Report on Excavations and Explorations in Egypt 

during the season of 1888-89, 68 

LONG (Albert L.). A Collection of Babylonian Weights, .... 44 

MARQUAND (Allan). Summaries of Periodicals, 245, 403 

McMuRTRY ( W. J. ) . General Report of Excavations at the Theatre of Siky on, 267 

MERRIAM (A. C.). Summaries of Periodicals, . 409 

MICHAELIS (Adolph). The Thasian Relief dedicated to the Nymphs and to 

Apollon, 417 

REVIEWS AND NOTICES OF BOOKS. 

Archeology, 189, 337 

Oriental Archaeology, 49, 189 

Classical Archaeology, 56, 190, 339 

Christian Archaeology, 63,196,347 

The Renaissance, ............ 66 

Prehistoric Archaeology, 356 

ROLFE (J. C.). Note on the Architectural Inscription found at Epidauros, in 

1885, 47 

A new fragment of the Preamble to Diocletian's Edict, De Pretiis Rerum 

Venalium, found at Plataia, 428 

Report on Excavations at Plataia, 439 

SUMMARIES OF PERIODICALS, 234, 403, 524 

Bulletin de Correspondence Hellenique, 234, 403 

Bullettino d. imp. Istituto arch. germ. Sezione Romana, 241 

'E<t>y/j.(pls 'ApxaioXoyiK-fj, .......... 524 

Gazette Archeologique, 245, 407 

Jahrbuch d. k. deuts. archaol Institute, 250, 526 

Journal of Hellenic Studies, 409 

Mittheilungen d. k. deuts. archaol. Institute. Athenische Abth., . . 254, 531 
Revue Archeologique, 259, 413 

TARBELL (F. B.). The Decrees of the Demotionidai : a study of the Attic 

Phratry, 135 

Inscriptions from Stamata, 426 

A new fragment of the Preamble to Diocletian's edict, De Pretiis Rerum 

Venalium, found at Plataia, 428 

Report on Excavations at Plataia, 439 

Inscriptions from Anthedon, . 443 

WALDSTEIN (Charles). The newly-discovered head of Iris from the frieze of 

the Parthenon, 1 

Report on Excavations near Stamata in Attika, 423 

Report on Excavations at Plataia, 439 

WARD (William Hayes). Notes on Oriental Antiquities, vm. "Human 

Sacrifices" on Babylonian Cylinders (figures 5-19), .... 34 

WOLTERS (Paul). Note on Inscription from Kormasa : Ramsay No. 7, . .47 



PLATES. 



PAGES IN TEXT. 
9-17 



i. Archaic Warrior-Stele from the excavations at Ikaria. 
n. The newly-discovered Head of Iris from the East Frieze of the 

Parthenon 

in. Ikaria. Church from the south (before demolition), showing the 

Choregic Monument 

iv. Ikaria. Excavations, looking eastward, with Choregic Monument 

to the right 

V. Ikaria. Excavations, looking eastward over the Pythion. 
vi. Theatre of Sikyon. Seats and Conduit surrounding the orchestra. ] 
vii. Theatre of Sikyon. Stage-foundations and adjoining structures. | 
ix. Theatre of Sikyon. Plan, showing excavations by the American f 

School . . . . J 

VITI. Sikyonian Statue from excavations by the American School. 
x. Interior of an early rock-cut church at Sutri, Italy. 
xi. Ikaria. Three marble Reliefs from the excavations by the Ameri- 
can School, 467, 471, 473 

xii. Stamata. Marble Torso from the excavations by the American 

School 424 

xiii. Ikaria. Fragment of marble Relief from the excavations by the 

American School. . 468 



1-8 



154-181 



267-292 



292-303 
320-330 



FIGURES. 



1. Slab from East Frieze of Parthenon (in British Museum) repre- 
senting Zeus, Hera and Iris, to which belongs the newly-dis- 
covered head of Iris, 5 

2. Stele of Aristion, in Central Museum at Athens, . . . . 10 

3. Tripod-base with inscription, found at Ikaria, .... 31 

4. Tripod-base found near the Ilissos, 32 

5-19. Babylonian Seal-cylinders, illustrating " human sacrifices," . 34-43 

20. Ground-plan of akropolis of Mykenai, 103 

21-23. Ikaria. Choregic Monument, 166-167 

24-25. Ikaria. Types of walls found 173 

26. Ikaria. Part of the Peribolos-wall, 174 

27. Ikaria. Inscribed threshold of the Pythion, . . . . 174 

28. Ikaria. One of the double marble seats, 176 

29-30. Marble Vase found at Ikaria, 177-178 

31. Griffin-heads found at Ikaria, 179 

32. vm-century Phrenician Tomb in the necropolis of Carthage, . 202 

33-35. Rock-cut church at Sutri, 322-324 

36. Examples of low and masked arches, 326 

37-41. The Thasian Relief dedicated to the Nymphs and to Apollon, . 417-422 

42. Ground-plan of Byzantine church uncovered at Plataia, . . 441 

43-55. Ikaria. Sculptures from the excavations by the American School, 461-477 

ix 



COPYRIGHT, 1890, BY A. L. FROTHINGHAM, Jr. 



JOHN MURPHY A CO., PRINTERS, 
BALTIMORE. 



THE AMERICAN 

JOURNAL OF ARCHEOLOGY 

AND OF THE 

HISTORY OF THE FINE ARTS. 



THE JOURNAL is the official organ of the ARCHAEOLOGICAL INSTI- 
TUTE OF AMERICA, and of the AMERICAN SCHOOL OF CLASSICAL 
STUDIES AT ATHENS, and it will aim to further the interests for which 
the Institute and the School were founded. It treats of all branches of 
Archaeology and Art Oriental, Classical, Early Christian, Mediaeval, and 
American, and is intended to supply a record of the important work done 
in the field of Archaeology, under the following categories: 1. Original 
Articles ; 2. Correspondence from European Archaeologists ; 3. Archae- 
ological News, presenting a careful and ample record of discoveries and 
investigations in all parts of the world ; 4. Reviews of Books ; 5. Sum- 
maries of the contents of the principal Archaeological Periodicals. 

The AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHEOLOGY is published quarterly, 
and forms, each year, a volume of above 500 pages royal 8vo, illus- 
trated with colored, heliotype, and other plates, and numerous figures. 
The yearly subscription for America is $5.00 : for countries of the Postal 
Union, 27 francs, 21 shillings or marks, post-paid. Vol. I, unbound or 
bound in cloth, containing 489 pages, 11 plates and 16 figures, will be 
sent post-paid on receipt of $4 : Vol. II, containing 521 pages, 14 plates 
and 46 figures, bound for $5.00, unbound for $4.50 : Vol. Ill, containing 
531 pages, 33 plates, and 19 figures ; and Vol. IV, 550 pages, 20 plates, 
and 19 figures ; bound for $5.50, unbound for $5. 

All literary communications should be addressed to the Managing Editor, 
Prof. A. L. FROTHINGHAM, Jr., Ph. D., Princeton College, Princeton, N. J. : 
all business communications, to the Publishers, GINN & COMPANY, Boston. 

The Journal can be obtained from the following firms, as well as from 
the publishers in Boston, New York, and Chicago : 

Baltimore, J. Murphy & Co., 44 W. Baltimore St. 
Boston, Clarke & Carruth, 340 Washington St. 

Cupples, Upham & Co., 283 Washington St. 



Chicago, A. C. McClurg & Co., 117-121 Wabash Ave. 
Cincinnati, Robert Clarke & Co., 61-65 West 4th St. 
New York, G. P. Putnam's Sons, 27 West 23d St. 
B. Westermann & Co., 838 Broadway. 
Philadelphia, Robert M. Lindsay, 1028 Walnut St. 

EUROPE. 

Berlin, Mayer & Miiller, Franzosische Strasse 38-39. 
London, Triibner & Co., 57-59 Ludgate Hill. 
Paris, E. Leroux, 28 rue Bonaparte. 
Turin, Ermanno Loescher, 19 via di Po. 
Florence, Loescher & Seeber, 20 via Tornabuoni. 
Rome, E. Loescher & Co., via del Corso. 



REVIEW OF PAST WORK. 

It has been the aim of the editors that the JOURNAL, besides giving 
a survey of the whole field of Archaeology, should be .international in 
character, by affording to the leading archaeologists of all countries i 
common medium for the publication of the results of their labors. This 
object has been in great part attained, as is shown by the list of eminent 
foreign and American contributors to the four volumes already issued, 
and by the character of articles and correspondence published. Not only 
have important contributions to the advance of the science been made in 
the original articles, but the present condition of research has been brought 
before our readers in the departments of Correspondence, annual Reviews 
of various branches (like Numismatics, Biblical Archaeology, Greek Epi- 
graphy), and reviews of the more important recent books. 

Two departments in which the JOURNAL stands quite alone are (1) 
the Record of Discoveries, and (2) the Summaries of Periodicals. In the 
former, a detailed account is given of all discoveries and excavations in 
every portion of the civilized world, from India to America, especial 
attention being paid to Greece and Italy. In order to ensure thorough- 
ness in this work, more than sixty periodical publications are consulted, 
and material is secured from special correspondents. 

In order that readers may know of everything important that appears 
in periodical literature, a considerable space is given to careful sum- 
maries of the papers contained in the principal periodicals that treat 
of Archaeology and the Fine Arts. By these various methods, all impor- 
tant work done is concentrated and made accessible in a convenient but 
scholarly form, equally suited to the specialist and to the general reader. 



PROGRAM OF VOLUME V, 1889. 

We are glad to announce that the Journal has been made the official 
organ of the American School of Classical Studies at Athens, and will thus 
be enabled to publish a large part of the results of the excavations so bril- 
liantly carried on during the last two years at Sikyon, and Ikaria. The 
report of the excavations at Ikaria will include papers on the topography 
of the Ikarian region, on the architectural remains of the shrines of Dio- 
nysos and Apollon, the inscriptions, the archaic warrior-slab, the sepulchral 
stelai, and other pieces of sculpture of different periods. The work in the 
theatre of Sikyon will be reported by MM. McMurtry and Earle. Also, 
Dr. Charles Waldstein has contributed a paper on his important discovery, 
among the recent finds on the Akropolis, of the head of Iris belonging to 
the slab of divinities from the eastern frieze of the Parthenon, which is in 
the British Museum. In view of recent acquisitions, especially by the Bal- 
timore branch of the Archaeological Institute, there will be articles, by 
Dr. Hartwig and others, on a collection of black- and red-figured vases 
signed by well-known Greek artists, such as Nikosthenes, Xenokles, Epi- 
ktetos, Duris, Philtias. The series of papers by Messrs. Clarke and Emerson 
on Greek antiquities in Southern Italy, already promised, has been delayed, 
but will soon be commenced. 

One change in the present arrangement, to be begun in volume v, wjll 
undoubtedly be welcomed by our readers. Up to the present, the book- 
reviews have not been numerous : it is now proposed to carry out the 
principle followed in the NEWS and the SUMMARIES : that is, to give a 
condensed view of the entire field by printing in each issue a large number 
of notices of the most important books recently published, under the head- 
ings, Oriental, Classical, Christian, Renaissance, and Prehistoric Archaeology. 

The various series commenced in past volumes will be continued : such 
as those by Dr. Wm. Hayes Ward on Oriental Antiquities, by MM. Miintz 
and Frothingham on Christian Mosaics. Dr. Ward will publish some 
Hittite Sculptures ; an inedited archaic Babylonian cylindrical object from 
Urumya ; and a paper on the so-called " human sacrifices" on Babylonian 
cylinders : Mr. Talcott Williams, a note on the Arch of Chosroes. Professor 
A. C. Merriam will review the late discoveries in Greek Epigraphy, and 
M. Ernest Babelon the latest publications and discoveries in Numismatics. 

The present policy of making the JOURNAL a complete record of con- 
temporary archaeological work, by its correspondence, book-reviews, news, 
and summaries, will be continued. 






NOTICES. 

London Athenaeum. We have no hesitation in saying that no other periodical 
in the English language is so well fitted to keep the student who lacks time or 
opportunity to read all the foreign journals abreast of the latest discoveries in every 
branch of archaeology. 

Gottingische Gelehrte Anzeigen. No comprehensive account of the most recent 
discoveries exists, and the new American Journal can do most meritorious work and 
fill a deficiency which, since the time of Gerhard's death, has been often deplored by 
every archaeologist who had not the good fortune to be at the fountain-heads. 

Philologische Rundschau. We may expect that the American Journal of Archse- 
ology will take an honorable position by the side of those already existing in Europe. 

Bibliotheque de I'Ecole des Chartes. As we think it (the American Journal 
of Archaeology) is called upon to render real service, not only in the United States, but 
in Europe and in France, we take pleasure in announcing it here. The plan is vast 
and well conceived. 

Archivio di Letteratura Biblica ed Orientals (Turin). Periodicals are divisi- 
ble into three categories : some have no pretensions to be classed as learned ; some 
pretend to be but are not so in reality ; others, finally, pretend to be and really are. 
The periodical which we announce ( The American Journal of Archaeology] belongs to 
the last category. 

New York Evening Post. The American Journal of Archaeology will not dis- 
appoint the hopes of the friends of the science in America. If not well supported, 
it will be because there is little real interest in America in classical and mediaeval 
archaeology. 

Chicago Evening Journal. The American Journal of Archceology is alike credit- 
able to the country and to the earnest and scholarly gentlemen who have it in charge, 
and we are pleased to know that it has already achieved an enviable reputation in 
Europe. 

London Academy. Mr. J. S. Cotton, at the annual meeting of the Egypt Ex- 
ploration Fund (London, Dec. 22, 1887), referred to the American Journal of Archce- 
ology and the American Journal of Philology, which he defined as being of a higher 
order of merit than any publications bearing similar titles in Great Britain. 



GINN & COMPANY, Publishers, 

Boston, New York, and Chicago. 



JOURNAL OF ARCHEOLOGY VOL.V, PLATE II 





Heliog.D-ujardrn 



HEAD OF IRIS 
From the east frieze of the Parthenon 



AMERICAN 

JOURNAL or ARCHAEOLOGY. 

Vol.V. MARCH, 1889. No. I. 

AMERICAN SCHOOL OF CLASSICAL STUDIES 

AT ATHENS. 

THE NEWLY DISCOVERED HEAD OF IRIS FROM 
THE FRIEZE OF THE PARTHENON. 

[PLATE II.] 



In the successful excavations that have been carried on during the 
last few years on the Akropolis at Athens, now brought to a close, the 
closing days were peculiarly fortunate for the excavators. I must refer 
the readers to the Ae\riov for an account of these excavations ; but I 
wish to publish one discovery which may perhaps be considered the 
crowning event in this series of fortunate finds, though it merely con- 
sists of a fragment of marble not more than a foot in size. It will be 
shown in the following remarks it is to be hoped, conclusively that 
the fragment is a most interesting portion of the Frieze of the Parthenon. 

"As is well known, the Frieze of the Parthenon formed a continu- 
ous band of sculpture in low relief which ran round the outer wall of 
the cella, with its two smaller halls in front and back, the pronaos and 
the tamieion. Like every peripteric temple, the rectangular temple 
proper, with its halls closed in by walls on all sides, was surrounded by 
a colonnade which supported the roof and projected over the walls of 
the actual temple. The distance from the walls to the columns (ex- 
clusive of these) varies from 2.96 to 3.57 m. (9.7 to 11.7 ft.). This 
space was paved with white marble and afforded shady walks to the 
visitors to the Akropolis. The plain wall is bounded above by a 
slightly projecting band (rawia) under which are small blocks, called 
by Vitruvius regulae, which in the Doric order to which the temple 

1 



2 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHEOLOGY. 

belongs would lead us to expect above them the triglyphon, a frieze 
subdivided by metopes (/xeroTrat, metopae) and triglyphs (r/oi<yXt^>ot). 
Instead of this triglyphon, however, we here have a continuous frieze 
(ftxopo?, Sidfafjia) which ran round the four sides of this outer wall 
like a belt, or rather like a band uniting its two ends on the forehead 
of a victor. It was 11.9 m. (39 ft.) above the pavement of the colon- 
nade, and above it a painted ornamentation after the manner of a cor- 
nice completed the decorations of the wall, which was joined above to 
the entablature of the outer colonnade by a ceiling, just as below, the 
marble pavement joined the base of the columns with the wall. The 
length of the frieze was 159.42m. (522.8ft.), of which 21.18m. (69.5ft.) 
covered each of the narrower walls of the front and back, while 58.53 m. 
(191.9 ft.) decorated each longer side of the rectangular building. It 
consists of numerous slabs carefully joined together, almost exactly 1 m. 
(3 ft. 3.95 in. according to Stuart) in height. 7 ' 1 

The subject represented on this frieze is generally acknowledged to 
be the procession on the occasion of the Panathenaic Festival. The 
participants in this procession started at sunrise on the last day of the 
Festival, the birthday of Athene, from the outer Kerameikos, passed 
through the Dipylon, the Dromos, and the chief street of the Inner 
Kerameikos, to the market-place, then to the Eleusinion, to the north- 
east corner of the Akropolis, to the west, and through the Propylaia 
to the Temple of Athene Polias, upon whose altar the hecatombs offered 
by Athens and its dependent states were sacrificed, and a great festive 
meal concluded the whole celebration. Accordingly, in the frieze on 
the narrow west end of the Temple is represented a scene of preparation 
for the procession. There are groups of horsemen, many of them already 
mounted, others in the act of mounting, another forcing the bit into 
the mouth of his restive horse, another drawing on his boots, another 
again trying to hold back a rearing horse, and so on. The long north 
and south sides present the procession proper. In it are not only the 
divisions of horsemen, the chariots with charioteers and hoplites ; but 
also groups of men and youths and maidens on foot carrying branches 
or vases, or musical or sacrificial instruments of which in ancient life 
the authors give us an account. Finally there are the sacrificial cows 
and sheep which bring us to the narrow east or front side where the 
advancing maidens are met by the magistrates supposed to be awaiting 
them on the Akropolis. With this the procession is brought to a close, 

1 WALDSTEIN, Essays on the Art of Pheidia,s, p. 191. 



THE NEWLY DISCOVERED HEAD OF IRIS. 3 

but the scene has only reached its climax ; for in the central portion 
of this frieze forming the front of the Temple are represented the gods 
and goddesses who are supposed to be witnessing the display in honor 
of Athene. Accordingly, Athene heads the right-hand division of gods, 
as Zeus heads the left-hand division ; and these two divisions are kept 
apart by the introduction of a scene supposed by many to represent 
the dedication of the Peplos to Athene, by others the preparation on 
the part of the Priest and Priestess to perform the sacrifice of the heca- 
tombs offered to the goddess. 

The gods, grouped on either side of the central scene, are seated in 
dignified repose beside one another. After Athene we have, accord- 
ing to Flasch, 2 Hephaistos, then Poseidon, then Dionysos, and then 
Demeter (called by others, perhaps correctly, Peitho). This last figure 
and Dionysos fortunately have their heads preserved, and they form 
two of the most perfect works that have come down to us from an- 
tiquity. After Demeter we have Aphrodite, against whose knee the 
youthful Eros is leaning, with whom the series of gods on this side 
comes to an end. On the other side, next to Zeus, who is seated upon a 
more elaborate throne, is his divine spouse, Hera, beside whom stands as 
an attendant a youthful female figure, according to Flasch, Iris, accord- 
ing to others, Hebe or Nike. Then follows Ares, then Artemis, then 
Apollo, and the gods on this side are brought to a close by Hermes. 

The bodies of all these figures are in comparatively good preservation ; 
but the heads of all, with the exception of the two above mentioned, 
have been so strongly corroded and worn or broken away, that no trace 
of modelling remains. The central marble slab, beginning with Iris 
and including the central scene, ended on the other side with Hephais- 
tos. The upper corners of this slab were at some period broken away 
and carried with them the head and neck of Iris, which figure was thus 
found by Lord Elgin without a head and is to be seen in this state in 
the British Museum. 

The excavations carried on to the southwest of the Akropolis, lay- 
ing bare the wall built by Kimon, and descending to great depth to the 
primeval rock of the Akropolis, showed that after the Persian invasion 
Kimon levelled the surface of the Akropolis and filled in all those 
portions where the rock sunk to considerable depth below the highest 
point. His wall, surrounding the entire Akropolis, binds the whole 
compactly together and joins the rocky bosses into the complete unity of 

2 Zum Parthenonfries: Wiirzburg, 1877. 



4 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY. 

the levelled citadel as it has now come down to us. All the objects 
found in the excavations carried on along this Kimonian wall in this 
and other portions of the Akropolis, date from a period preceding the 
Persian invasion when the enemy destroyed the buildings and monu- 
ments on the citadel. And there can be no doubt that these objects 
were thrown in during the operation of filling up and levelling the 
surface of the Akropolis when Kimon undertook the restoration of the 
Athenian citadel. 

But above the wall of Kimon, which is built with massive blocks 
of careful masonry, there is another wall of nondescript character, which 
projects to the present day above the surface of the Akropolis and forms 
a kind of parapet. This wall is composed of stones, Roman brick, and 
earthwork, and has been considered a barbarian wall. We shall recur 
presently to the date of this structure. 

Sticking in this wall, just where it joins the wall of Kimon, was 
found the marble fragment with which we are now concerned. It is 
a piece of Pentelic marble 0.275 m. in the widest portion, and 0.22 m. 
in height in the highest portion; the slab is 0.155m. thick in the 
thickest part exclusive of relief, and the highest relief is 0.05 m., 
the fracture in the back being very uneven, comparatively thin at 
the back of the head, and thickest at the top left angle : at this cor- 
ner there is a facing of about an inch in width running round the 
edge of the left side that is not visible in our plate and surrounding 
the rougher surface within it. It thus formed part of a frieze block, 
and has the same working of the sides where block joined block as is 
found in the slabs of the Frieze of the Parthenon which are 54 centi- 
metres in thickness. The face of this marble fragment (PLATE n) con- 
tains a head in low relief turned to the left, where a curved flattish 
elevation, rising from the back and shoulder of the figure, runs up- 
wards to the left edge of the fragment. The left edge and top are 
thus cleanly cut, and therefore this fragment formed the top corner of 
some relief. The head, in excellent preservation (only the tip of the 
nose has been broken away), shows that simplicity and breadth of style 
and that marked technique of low relief (the edges almost undercut 
running straight down to the background) which distinguish the work 
of the Parthenon Frieze ; and Mr. Kavvadias, the Director General 
of Excavations, and Mr. Stai's conjectured that it was a piece of the 
Parthenon Frieze. They asked me to examine the fragment, and I 
at once felt assured that it was the head belonging to Iris in the East 
Frieze of the Parthenon, the slab to which it belongs now being among 



THE NEWLY DISCOVERED HEAD OF IRIS. 



the Elgin marbles in the British Museum (Figure T). When a cast of 
this slab was produced the identification was placed beyond all doubt. 

The head and neck are turned towards the left, worked in profile, 
with a very slight turn towards the front as if to make room for a flat 
elevation rising beside the head. This elevation was evidently a wing, 
and in the original was no doubt painted to indicate its detail draw- 
ing. The modelling of the head and neck are of that broad simple 
character which mark Pheidian art, and yet with this large style 
the artist has been able to add a singular grace and charm to the 
nobility of character. The modelling of the hair is not overelabo- 




FlGURE 1. Slab from the East Frieze of the Parthenon (in the British Museum) repre- 
senting Zeus, Hera, and Iris, to which belongs the newly discovered head of Iris. 

rate, in simple broadish ridges, and yet varied in the flow of line, 
conveying well its peculiar texture. It is similar, in this respect, 
to the excellent head of Derneter in this same frieze ; yet the whole 
peculiar mode of wearing the hair is one which marks a more youth- 
ful figure. The hair falls over the brow in short curls and over the 
temples, and it had been hanging loosely down the back till, with her 
left hand, Iris collected it into a knot at the back of her head. This 
is the action of the figure in the moment represented by the sculptor. 
There are several instances in the frieze in which male figures are rais- 
ing their hands to their heads, tying the taenia, or otherwise arranging 
their hair. So, in the West Frieze (Michaelis), Plate ix, Fig. 2; North 



6 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHEOLOGY. 

Frieze, Plate xi, Fig. 38, 3 Plate xm, Figs. 97, 125; South Frieze, 
Plate xi, Fig. 121 (a similar motive to the preceding one), and West 
Frieze, Plate ix, Fig. 2. 

In general, this head, which may well be compared to the head of 
Derneter, is a youthful translation of the same type. As its dimen- 
sions (the head of the fragment is 0.09 m. from brow to chin, that of 
Demeter 0.10. m ; from bend of nostril to the lobe of the ear in the 
fragment 0.06 m. and in Demeter 0.07 m.) are comparatively smaller, 
the proportions being exactly those that obtain between the figure of 
Iris and the figure of Demeter. 

In the extant marble in the British Museum (Fig. 1), we see, on 
the right side of Iris, traces of a wing and the uplifted left arm. Now 
the wing here, corresponds exactly to the right wing on our fragment; 
and, when the fragment was placed on the cast of the relief from the 
British Museum, the wrist of the upraised left hand of Iris naturally 
continued to the extant remains of the fingers of the hand clearly to 
be seen collecting the hair into a knot on the head of the fragment. 
The little finger and the third finger have been injured somewhat, but 
the middle finger is quite intact. They are distinctly seen when looked 
at from above, but can be distinguished with sufficient clearness in the 
front view here given on PLATE n. 

In the restorations made by Stuart and copied by Worsley, the head 
is wrongly turned towards our right ; but, when the slight remaining 
fragment of the neck in the Iris of the British Museum is examined, 
it will be seen that the head was turned to our left, and this our frag- 
ment now places beyond a doubt. Henning's restoration is more cor- 
rect in this respect. I am now awaiting the arrival of the cast of the 
fragment in its thickness, which Mr. Kavvadias has kindly promised 
me. This will be sent to the British Museum, and I hope to place it on 
the figure in the original frieze, when the identification, which really 
needs no further confirmation, will be settled beyond all dispute. 

The question of the history of this central slab and of our head must 
be dwelt upon in a few words. As is known, the Parthenon remained 
in its original condition until the close of the fifth or beginning of the 

3 In this figure we have the complete motive of the Diadumenos, both hands placed 
up tying the taenia, the right hand higher than the left hand ; and, when we remem- 
ber the statue of a youthful Anadumenos by Pheidias mentioned by Pausanias (vi. 
4, 5), we may be justified in conjecturing that this subject, repeated in the famous 
statue of Polykleitos, and applied to graceful female figures of which so many adap- 
tations have come down to us, may have been the invention of Pheidias. 



THE NEWLY DISCOVERED HEAD OF IRIS. 7 

sixth century A. D., when it was converted into a Christian church. 
Some authorities now hold that this was done under Constantine. The 
alteration then made in the structure was the transference of the main 
entrance from the east to the west, and in the east end an apse was 
built. This probably necessitated the taking down of the central slab. 
Carrey, in 1674, did not see it, and omits it from the drawings of the 
frieze. Pierre Babin, in his letter to the Abbe" Pe*coil 4 in 1672, after 
describing the Frieze, mentions one slab as being not in its place, but ' 
behind the door of the Temple (then Mosque). In Chandler's time 
(1765) it was let into the wall of the fortress. He refers to it as the 
piece which probably ranged in the centre of the cell and contained " a 
venerable person with a beard reading in a large volume which is partly 
supported by a boy." 5 No doubt the priest with the boy and the cloak. 
In 1785, Worsley saw it lying on the ground before the east front of 
the Temple ; while, according to Visconti, it is again immured in a 
house whence Lord Elgin's workmen took it. 6 Thus, the slab remained 
for about thirteen centuries detached from its place on the Akropolis. 
But in taking down this heavy block the top corners were probably 
chipped off; the right one contained no figure, the left one this head 
of Iris. Now it is unlikely that this small fragment would have re- 
mained about in such excellent preservation for any length of time. 
And thus, shortly after the removal of the slab, it was probably used 
in the building of the wall in which it was found, which wall is thus 
likely to belong to the Byzantine period. Now the central figures of 
the Eastern Pediment of the Parthenon were not extant when Carrey 
made his drawings in 1 674, fourteen years before the destruction of the 
Temple by the Venetians under Morosini. These were, in all like- 
lihood, removed to make some large windows or similar structures in 
the east front of the temple, when it was converted into a church. And, 
if these figures were then thrown from their places and reduced to frag- 
ments on the ground, it is likely that portions of them are also im- 
mured in this wall, which ought therefore to be taken down and 
examined. It can easily be erected again in its present picturesque 
condition ; and I am happy to say that the Commission recently ap- 
pointed to consider what remains to be done on the Akropolis, unani- 
mously decided to examine this wall. 

By the discovery of this fragment, another important light is thrown 

*F. MICHAELIS, Der Parthenon, Anhang in, p. 336, 31. 

5 Travels in Greece: Oxford, 1776, p. 51. 

6 WALDSTEIN, ibid. p. 264. 



8 AMERICAN JO URNAL OF ARCH^OL OGY. 

upon the question of the genuineness of reduced Roman casts of the 
Frieze, the bearings of which upon the genuineness of the terracotta 
plaques at Paris, Copenhagen, and Rome I have discussed in Note F 
of Essay vn of my Essays on the Art of Pheidias. On page 265, 1 put 
the question, "Are the Roman casts, which have certainly been in ex- 
istence since 1840, reductions taken by Collard precisely from the early 
casts of Choiseul-Gouffier, reduced perhaps by Andreoli?" and I in- 
clined then to answer in the affirmative. But the fragment shows this 
not to have been the case : for in the Roman cast the head of Iris is 
turned towards our right, and has thus evidently been influenced by 
the restoration of Stuart. The Roman cast of the Frieze is thus not 
connected with the originals in a more perfect state than Lord Elgin 
forwarded them to London. Though this does not yet finally prove 
the terracottas I found, to be forgeries, it goes far to make this probable. 
It is by such discoveries that this question will finally be decided, and 
not by mere assertions on the part of those who have not carefully 
studied all the points and have in no way contributed by unwarrant- 
able expression of opinion to the settling of the problem. 

Finally, I should like to mention that I desired in treating of this 
head to dwell upon the method of representing the eye in the heads 
from the Parthenon. In a note to an article on a head in Madrid pub- 
lished by me in 1884, 7 1 pointed to the peculiar treatment of the upper 
eyelid, which treatment forms a conclusive chronological landmark for 
Greek sculpture. In all the eyes of the Archaic period down to, say, 
the year 460 B. c., the eyelids join at their outer angle on one plane. 
After this period, owing, no doubt, to the influence of pictorial art, 
and the consideration of the shadows thrown by the brow on the upper 
eyelid in real life, the upper lid is carried beyond and over the lower 
lid at the outer angles. In the sculptures of the Parthenon we have 
the first indication of this innovation, some eyes having the old treat- 
ment, others the new ; and after that period the projecting upper eyelid 
becomes the rule. I have for a long time examined eyes of ancient 
statues with this consideration, and what was conjecture has taken the 
form, of a law. I hope, with the aid and co-operation of Mr. C. D. 
Freeman, to publish the results of this investigation with numerous 
illustrative instances. 

CHARLES WALDSTEIN. 
American School, Athens, 
January, 1889. 

7 Journal of Hellenic Studies, vol. v, p. 174. 



JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY 



VOL.V PLATE I 




ARCHAIC WARRIOR STELE 

From the excavations of the American school 

AT IKARIA 



AMERICAN SCHOOL OF CLASSICAL STUDIES 

AT ATHENS. 
DISCOVERIES IN THE ATTIC DEME OF IKARIA, 

1888. 



II. STELE OF A WARRIOR * 

[PLATE I.] 

The stele represented on PLATE i was unearthed during the exca- 
vations carried on by the American School in February, 1888, at 
"Dionyso," the site of the Attic deme of Ikaria. 1 In clearing away 
the mass of rubbish which had collected in the interior of the ruined 
Byzantine church, 2 the workmen, at a depth of twenty centimeters, 
came upon what was apparently a long marble slab, broken into three 
pieces, forming the threshold between the narthex and the main body 
of the church. Upon turning over one of the three fragments, it was 
found to be sculptured ; and, when the other fragments had been care- 
fully taken out and fitted to the first, there appeared a relief which 
evoked the involuntary exclamation, " Warrior of Marathon ! " The 
material is Pentelic marble. The total height of the slab (of which the 
upper extremity is wanting), inclusive of the base or Kprjirl^is 1.72 
met. ; height of Kp^iris alone, 0.165 m. ; leaving 1.55 m. for the relief 
proper. The width of the Kp^Tri^ is 0.485 m. ; width of stele at top, 
0.41 m. ; showing a diminution of 0.075 m. The thickness of the slab 
is 0.12 m.; highest relief, 0.055 m.; lowest relief, 0.01 m.; width of 
rim about the relief, 0.01. Wanting in the figure itself are : the head 
above the neck, the right hand, and pieces of each leg just above the 
knee. The small fragment which fits in at the waist is not lost, but 
could not be found at the time the photograph was taken. The KprjTris 
bears four finely cut rosettes, but no inscription. 

The resemblance of this stele to the " Warrior of Marathon," or 

* I wish to make acknowledgment of my indebtedness to Dr. Charles Waldstein 
for assistance in the preparation of this paper, especially in the detailed archaeo- 
logical and artistic comparison between the Ikarian stele and that of Aristion. 

l Amer. Journal of Archaeology, IV, pp. 421-2. 

*Ibid., m, p. 439; iv, p. 44. 



10 



AMERICA N JO URNAL OF AE GHMOL OGY. 




FIG. 2. Stele of Aristion. 



" Stele of Aristion/' as it is more cor- 
rectly called, now in the Central Mu- 
seum at Athens, is very striking ; and 
for purposes of comparison a reproduc- 
tion of this well-known monument is 
here given 3 (Figure 2). The stele of 
Aristion was found in 1838 in the ru- 
ined village of Velanideza, which lies 
at about two-thirds the distance between 
Spata and the eastern coast of Attika, 
not, as is frequently stated, on the plain 
of Marathon, between which and Vela- 
nideza intervenes the eastern range of 
Pentelikon. It comprises three distinct 
parts : the relief itself, the base proper, 
and a smooth surface between the relief 
and the base, which Mr. Kabbadias calls 
the Kprjiris. The KprjTrts and the base 
proper (ftdOpov) must be distinguished : 
the KpTjTTis, in a sense a base, is the sur- 
face upon which stands the figure in 
relief, and is as essential a part of the 
representation as the ground upon 
which stand the figures in a picture. 
The ftdOpov, on the other hand, serves 
as the base of the whole monument, 

3 KEKULE, Die antiken Bildwerke im Theseion 
zu Athen, where are collected the references to 
all reproductions and descriptions up to date 
(1869). Of the colored reproductions the best, 
perhaps, is that in the Revue Archeologique, 1844, 
pi. i. Cf. MURRAY, History of Greek Sculpture, 
vol. i, p. 193 ; OVERBECK, Geschichte d. gr. Plastik 
(3rd ed.), vol. i, p. 150; Mrs. MITCHELL, Hist. 
of Ancient Sculpture, p. 218 ; FRIEDERICHS-WOL- 
TERS, Die Gipsabgilsse antiker Bildwerke, No. 101 ; 
KABBAAIA2, KaraXoyos TOV KevrpiKOv Movffeiov, 
No. 29 ; PERRY, Greek and Roman Sculpture, p. 
105; VON SYBEL, Weltgeschichte der Kunst, p. 
119 ; COLLIGNON, L' Archeologie Grecque, p. 133 ; 
PARIS, La Sculpture Antique; BATJMEISTER 
Denkmdler des klassischen Altertums, p. 341. 



STELE OF A WAREIOE FOUND AT IKARIA. 11 

and is an external feature corresponding to the frame of the picture. 
The height of the whole monument, inclusive of the ftdOpov, is 2.40 
met.; the /3d6pov itself has a height of 0.30 met., a width of 0.715, 
and a thickness of 0.435 m. The width of the stele at the bottom is 
0.435 m., at the top, 0.42 m., thus showing a diminution of 0.015 m. 
The thickness of the stele is 0.14 m. at the bottom, 0.12 m. at the top. 
Upon the KprjTris is the inscription, epyov 'A/Ho-ro/eXeo?, showing that 
the monument is the work of the artist Aristokles ; and upon the 
fidOpov we have 'Apicrriovos, evidently the genitive of the name of the 
person represented in the relief. 4 The form of the letters 5 is somewhat 
older than in the inscription on the altar set up by the younger Peisi- 
stratos, mentioned by Thoukydides, and found in 1877 on the bank 
of the Ilissos. 6 The date of this inscription must fall between the 
death of Peisistratos (527 B. c.) and the expulsion of Hippias (510 
B. c.) ; and, though perhaps some allowance should be made in the com- 
parison of a rural inscription with one from Athens, no one would now 
venture to date the inscription of the Aristion stele so late as the fifth 
century ; so that the popular designation of it as " The Warrior of 
Marathon " must be considered ill-founded. 7 

Turning our attention, now, to the relief upon the stele of Aristion, 
we find represented in profile a warrior armed with cuirass (of either 
stiffleather or metal, represented according to the older method, i.e., with 
no indication of the anatomical forms it covers), helmet and greaves, 
with both feet planted firmly on the ground, the right arm hanging 
by t his side and the left grasping a spear. The crest of the helmet, 
which was probably of a separate piece, is wanting, as well as the 

*Some prefer to read it, as one continuous inscription, "Work of Aristokles, son of 
Aristion : " see MURRAY, Hist, of Greek Sculpture, p. 193, note 1 : " The inscription 
immediately beneath the relief reads EPAONAPI^TOKI/ EO*, and continues 
on the plinth in larger letters, API^TIOA'O^. But this separation is a mere 
necessity of space, and, besides, had 'Aristion ' referred to the person of the relief, it 
would surely have come first." 

. 5 The letters given by Murray, in the note just cited, are not intended closely to re- 
semble those of the original. The correct forms are given by OVERBECK, Geschichte d. 
gr. PlastikW, p. 150; LOEWY, Inschriften griech. Bildhauer, No. 10. 

6 C. I. A., iv (Supplementa voluminis primi) 373 e . 

7 Dr. CHARLES WALDSTEIN maintains that, if one were to judge merely from the 
style, independently of epigraphy, so early a date would not be given to the monu- 
ment. But, on this point, authorities are not agreed : OVERBECK ( Geschichte d. gr. 
PlastikW, p. 231, note 63) expresses regret that, whereas in the first edition of his 
work he had, led by a correct Stilgefuhl, given an early date to the stele, in his second 
edition, yielding to opposing opinions, he had adopted a later date. 



12 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY. 

point of the spear ; the tip of the beard, also, was of a separate piece 
set on, probably on account of some flaw in the marble. The lower 
portion of the cuirass is represented as if made of leather strips over- 
lapping each other in such a manner as to leave freedom of movement 
to the wearer, while furnishing complete protection. The short chiton 
worn under the armor appears on the shoulder, and about the thighs 
below the leather strips. The greaves are of the usual flexible and 
tight-fitting form, following the modelling of the muscles of the calf. 
The archaic imperfection is illustrated in the ear, which is set too 
high and too far back ; in the eye, which is seen as if almost in full 
face and does not harmonize with the position of the head in profile; in 
the hand, the position of the thumb being wholly unnatural with re- 
lation to the fingers ; in the feet, which rest firmly and flatly on the 
ground; and in the severity of modelling and awkwardness of attitude 
in general. The sculptor has evidently been hampered by the narrow 
limits of the slab within which he had to work, and, in places, he has 
encroached upon the rim which surrounds and frames the relief. 

The stele still exhibits abundant traces of coloring, though the bril- 
liant coloring which it had when found has now in great measure faded 
away. The background was painted red, and the spear also shows 
traces of this color ; the beard and hair seem to have had a brownish 
tinge ; the shoulder-guard is ornamented with a star, and on the piece 
below it, of which the ground is red, is the head of an animal, but 
the colors can no longer be made out ; there are traces of dark blue 
upon the helmet and cuirass ; of the three decorative bands painted 
upon the cuirass, the upper one is a maeander, executed in red, as is 
also the tassel which hangs over the breast : the K^TTI^ shows signs of 
color, and undoubtedly bore an ornamental design. 

The comparison between the Aristion stele and that from Ikaria, 
which forms the subject of the present article, may be divided under 
four heads : first, the dimensions and general arrangement of the space ; 
second, the sculpture itself; third, the painting; fourth, their com- 
parative importance. 8 

i. Dimensions and arrangement of space. The total heights of the 
two monuments do not admit of comparison, since we have not the 
fidOpov of I. and also since much more is missing from the top of I. than 
from the top of A. But, measuring 9 on the, relief of A. from the soles 

8 For the sake of brevity, the stele of Aristion will be designated as A., the stele of 
Ikaria as /. 

9 The stele of Aristion is now inclosed in a glass case which cannot be opened, so 



STELE OF A WARRIOR FOUND AT IK ARIA. 13 

of the feet to a line drawn across the neck in a position corresponding 
to the line of breakage in I., I found the height 1.55 m., exactly equal 
to that of the extant portion of the relief of /., so that the figures were 
evidently of the same height. The /cprjTris of A. is about eleven centi- 
meters higher than that of J. The width of the steles at the /cp^Tu? 
is 0.435 m. in A., 0.485 m. in J. ; while the width at the top is 0.42 m. 
in A., 0.41 m. in J. Thus, the total diminution in A. is only 0.015, 
while /., though shorter by 0.38 m., shows a diminution of 0.075 m. 
In A. there is a diminution of 0.02 m. in the thickness of the slab, 
while in I. the diminution is 0.015 m. The width of the rim on the 
sides of the relief is the same in both. J. is sculptured in somewhat 
higher relief than A. 

In A., the inscription giving the artist's name is upon a narrow 
projecting band at the top of the /c/j^Trt?, while in Z there is a band, 
not projecting, but indicated by a fine line cut below it, on which are 
four rosettes but no inscription. It is probable, however, that the 
fidOpov of Z, like that of A., bore an inscription giving the name of the 
person to whom the monument was erected. 

The general arrangement of the space is the same in the two reliefs ; 
in J., however, the whole figure above the knees leans further forward 
than in A. The result of this is, that, while the sculptor of A. is cramped 
for space in the back of his figure, where it encroaches on the outer rim 
of the slab, notably at the shoulders, the hips, calf and heel, the sculp- 
tor of I. has ample space within the rim for his figure, though he has 
not profited by it to give to legs and hips their true relations. On 
the other hand, the variation on the two slabs in the relative posi- 
tions of the figures causes A. to have more room in front, so that the 
arm of the hand which holds the spear is visible, whereas in Z the hand 
alone projects from behind the bust with an awkwardness that calls 
attention to the cramped space. 

ii. Sculpture. In /., enough of the beard remains to show that the 
tip was not, as in A., of a separate piece ; furthermore, its projection is 
far nearer a horizontal than in A. The lower end of the helmet crest 
which is visible behind the neck of /. shows that this also was not cut 
from a separate piece. In J., the chiton on the shoulder is not repre- 
sented in sculpture, as it is in A. In A t) the armor below the armpit 
is cut away to permit free action, while in /. it is fitted tightly around 

that I was unable to take measurements from it. In giving the general dimensions, 
I have taken the figures of Kabbadias and of Rangabe*. The first measurement of 
1.55 m. was taken from a cast in the Archaeological Museum at Cambridge, England. 



14 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY. 

the whole shoulder, not, however, coining so low down over the shoul- 
der as in A. A rude attempt is made in /., not seen in A., to mark, by 
means of an oblique groove, the projection of the shoulder-muscle, as 
separated from the biceps. The right forearm is thrown further for- 
ward in I., but shows better modelling in A. It is impossible to make 
out clearly the modelling of the hand in J., owing to its mutilated con- 
dition, but the fracture leads us to think that the space occupied by it 
was larger in /. than in A. ; 10 and, though traces of the outlines do not 
show that the thumb projected below the rest of the closed hand, as 
is usually the case, there are indications that the hand was better 
modelled than in A. In /., none of the left forearm is shown, as in A. 
In A., the lower border of the cuirass is strongly marked by a project- 
ing band over the hanging strips of leather. For the leather strips of 
the cuirass, there are, in J.., five strips outside, and five in an inner series, 
without reckoning the edge of a strip in the extreme rear; whereas in 
J. there are only three strips in the inner series, and three over them, 
if these latter are strips at all and not rather 'an extension of the cuirass 
itself, with two wedge-shaped openings cut in it. 11 On the front of the 
cuirass of J. the navel is indicated, not so in A. In the modelling 
of the chiton where it falls below the armor over the thigh, A. is un- 
doubtedly far superior to J. : whereas in A. the conventional stiffness 
of the archaic folds is relieved by delicate softening of the outlines and 
varied modelling of the surface showing, on the part of the artist, a 
considerable sense for texture, as well as ability to realise it in low 
relief all the folds in I. stop abruptly on a line parallel with the edge of 
the cuirass. 12 In the thigh, again, the very delicate modelling of the 
muscles displayed in A. is not found in /., where the surfaces are left 
comparatively flat, and the outlines hard. The knees likewise are 
somewhat better in A. than in I. The indication of the sinews upon 
the greaves of the right leg is about the same in both figures ; it is more 
wavy in A., but more strongly marked in /. Instead of the three par- 
allel ridges that define the muscle of the calf on the inside of the left 
greave in A. t we have, in I., only one strongly marked incised line run- 

10 Actual measurement shows the fracture in /. to be three centimeters wider than 
the hand in A. 

11 The fact that there is no projecting band above these notches to mark the end of 
the cuirass, would seem to favor this interpretation, but it must be remembered that 
the lower border of the cuirass may well have been represented merely in color, and 
thus have disappeared. 

12 With the general treatment of the chiton in A. compare that of the standing war- 
rior on the north side of the Harpy monument, where, however, it is much less refined. 



STELE OF A WARRIOR FOUND AT IKARIA. 15 

ning along the edge of the shin-bone. The feet in both sculptures have 
the archaic characteristics of resting flat on the ground, and of being 
very long and thin with toes somewhat resembling fingers; they are 
somewhat more delicately modelled in /., and the manner in which the 
right foot is joined to the ankle is more free. Whereas, in A., the 
sculptor represented the left heel behind the toes of the right foot, in 
/., both feet are somewhat more fully shown. 

in. Painting. I was not at first able to see on the Ikarian stele 
any traces of coloring, the marble, owing to corrosion, having lost 
its original surface; but later, having an opportunity to examine 
it in Stamata, whither it has been removed, and, in a better light, I 
found that the outlines of the maeanders which decorated the cuirass 
are still very plain. I think that traces of painting of the chiton on 
the right shoulder are almost certain, and faint outlines of a third 
ornamental band about the flaps of the cuirass seemed to be visible in 
places, though these cannot be pronounced certain. 13 But, beyond these 
scanty traces, judgment of the amount of painting on our stele must 
rest on analogy ; and, here, the Lyseas stele is of so great importance 
that it must be examined in this connection. 

IV. Comparative importance. But, before leaving the stele of Ari- 
stion, I will sum up the results of the comparison, and consider the 
important but difficult question : Which of the two steles is the earlier ? 
In favor of A. being the earlier may be urged : (1) the less skilful 
adaptation of the design to the space at the artist's disposal ; (2) the 
inferior modelling of the feet. In favor of the priority in date of J. 
are : (1) the less developed and refined modelling throughout, the feet 
excepted ; (2) the greater dependence upon painting for details ; (3) 
the much more conventional treatment of the drapery ; (4) the more 
awkward and unnatural manner of holding the spear. There is no 
doubt that both sculptures belong to very nearly the same time. 
Several possibilities are open to us : I. may be the earlier, and A. an 
improvement on it made either by the same hand or by another and 
superior artist ; or A. may be the prototype of which I. is a copy by 
an inferior artist, or even a careless reproduction by the same artist. 

13 A photograph often reveals lines which prove the existence of faded coloring ; 
and, in the present case, Dr. Waldstein, previous to my second examination of the 
stele, pointed out to me that, in the photograph, there were very plain traces of two 
wide maeanders about the cuirass. There are also traces on the right shoulder which 
seem to show that the chiton was represented here in painting. [Professor Rhouso- 
poulos pointed out the maeanders March 7, 1888. A. C. M.] 



16 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHEOLOGY. 

It is not impossible, however, that both may belong to a class of analo- 
gous monuments of which the prototype has yet to be found, and have 
no more intimate connection than a common type. Dr. Waldstein, 
judging from the photograph, is inclined to think the Ikarian the 
earlier. I am disposed to believe that both are the work of the same 
artist ; whether it be that the Ikarian stele was the prior effort, upon 
which in the Aristion stele he improved, in both style and technique, 
and, considering the latter his masterpiece, inscribed his name upon it ; 
or that the stele of Aristion was the artist's great work, of which he 
executed one or more less careful reproductions with trifling variations. 
The question must rest with the individual judgment of scholars. 

Let us now consider the Lyseas stele, to the importance of which in 
the history of painted steles in general reference has been made. It was 
found at Velanideza in 1839, and at first presented a perfectly uniform 
surface, showing, however, to careful observers, traces of coloring. 
These traces, owing to the crust of lime formed over the surface, 
remained indistinct until, in 1878, the stele was carefully cleaned by 
the German architect Thiersch, the result of whose work, as shown 
in the Mittheilungen des deutsch. arch. Inst. of 1879 (plates I, u), is 
made the basis of two very instructive articles by Loeschcke. In 
the inscription upon the base, the letters are of an older type than 
those on the altar of Peisistratos son of Hippias, which cannot be dated 
after 510 B. c.; thus the date of the stele must fall toward the middle 
of the century. Loeschcke does not hesitate to date it from the time 
of the elder Peisistratos (560-527). Lyseas is represented of life-size, 
draped in a long himation, with the lustration-branch in his left hand 
which is raised nearly to the shoulder, and in his right the kantharos 
from which he is about to pour the libation. In the article referred 
to, Loeschcke draws a parallel between painting on marble, as evidenced 
in this and other steles, and that of the earliest red -figured vases ; and 
he arrives at the conclusion, that the style of the red-figured vases is, 
in contrast to that of the black-figured, derived from the traditional 
manner of painting on stone. In addition to the principal figure of the 
stele of Lyseas, there is on the /cprjTris a design in painting represent- 
ing a man on horseback followed by another, as if in a race. This 
seems in itself evidence that the corresponding portion of all similar 
monuments was painted ; and the stele at Ikaria was surely no excep- 
tion, although no traces of color can now be detected. A full list of 
early Attic steles is given by Loeschcke in the second portion of the 
article cited ; but, besides those which have already been mentioi ed, 



STELE OF A WARRIOR FOUND AT IK ARIA. 17 

the only ones of any special interest in connection with the Ikarian 
stele are two fragments, both belonging to a stele of a hoplite, but, as 
has been shown by a comparison of measurements, not parts of the 
same work. The fragment found at the chapel of Hag. Andreas near 
the village of Lebi and published by Conze, 14 represents a warrior hold- 
ing his lance in his left hand : in this, not only is the armor of a different 
nature from that of the Aristion and Ikarian steles, but the whole work- 
manship is of a more careless and inferior type. The second fragment, 
which was found at Athens, shows only the legs from the knee down- 
ward, and, though of much better workmanship than the last-named 
fragment/ 5 is still far inferior to either the Aristion or the Ikarian 
stele. As in the former, and not in the latter, the muscles of the calf 
are indicated by three curved parallel ridges. 16 

Outside of Attika, the most interesting sepulchral stele is that found 
at Orchomenos, the work of the Naxian Alxenor, which, though of less 
finished workmanship than the Aristion stele, belongs to a more ad- 
vanced stage of art, as is evidenced by the attempt at foreshortening, 
unsuccessful though it be, and also by the expression shown in the face, 
in contrast to the totally expressionless face of Aristion. 

The series of steles sculptured in relief instructive, (1) as standing 
midway between the arts of sculpture and painting and comprising 
elements of both, (2) as being in the main the work of the early Attic 
school, (3) as showing a considerable advance toward a perfected style 
receives in the Ikarian stele a very important augmentation, of which 
the interest is second only to that of the monument of Aristion. 

Athens, CARL D. BUCK, 

November 10, 1888. Member of the American School 

of Classical Studies at Athens. 

14 Arch. Zeitung, 1860, Taf. cxxxv. 2. 

15 This would not, however, be a strong argument against the identity of the two 
fragments, if it were not disproved by the measurements ; for it can be taken as an 
almost general rule, in early sculpture, that the legs below the knee are much better 
modelled than any other portion of the figure : witness the so-called Apollo of Tenea 
in Munich. 

16 At Laurion is the lower part of a similar stele representing two youths one behind 
the other (Mittheilungen, 1887, p. 296, and pi. x). 

[As an example of somewhat later date than the Aristion and Ikarian steles, I 
would call attention to a fragment preserved in the Collection of Baron Baracco in 
Rome : it is the lower part of a stele in low relief. It contains the lower limbs of a 
male figure, and, on the npy-iris, not a painting but a representation in low relief, if 
my memory does not play me false, of a chariot with charioteer and horses in rapid 
motion. A. L. F., jr.] 
2 



AMERICAN SCHOOL OF CLASSICAL STUDIES 

AT ATHENS. 
DISCOVERIES IN THE ATTIC DEME OF IKARIA, 

1888. 



III. THE CHOREGIA IN ATHENS AND AT IKARIA.* 

It is hoped that the following inscriptions discovered by the Ameri- 
can School at Ikaria, and now first published, will throw new light on 
the choregia of Attic rural demes, a subject upon which we have very 
little accurate information. In order to call to mind the various ques- 
tions which must be proposed in examining the choregia in a country 
deme, it will be useful to make a summary survey of the various stages 
through which the choregic management passed in Athens. 1 

It is usually stated, that for all the great festivals, such as the 
Greater Dionysia, the Thargelia, and the Panathenaia, each tribe, by 
the medium of its eV^eX^rat, appointed one of its wealthier members 
to act as its representative choregos. The duties of a choregos were to 
supply and suitably equip a chorus at his own expense and to provide 
for its instruction by appointing a ^opoStSacr/caXo?, whose title was 
commonly shortened to StSao-tfaXo?, who should have charge of the 
training of the chorus. This trainer was originally the poet himself, 
and for this reason Aristophanes (Acharnians, 628), referring to him- 
self, uses the word StSacr/eaXo? in precisely this sense. The time of the 
festival was the occasion for judging the comparative merits of the 
choruses and for awarding a prize to the choregos who presented the 
best-trained chorus. The prize was not the same for all festivals, but, 
for the Great Dionysia and the Thargelia, consisted of a bronze tripod 
which the victor was expected to dedicate in a conspicuous position, 
frequently building for it an elaborate structure such as the monu- 
ment of Lysikrates. 

* Professor Tarbell, the Annual Director of the School, has been kind enough to 
look over this article, and I am indebted to him for several suggestions. 

1 See article Choregia in the standard Dictionaries of Antiquities ; BOECKH, Die 
Staatshaushaltung der Athener^) p. 539 ff.; MDLLER, Lehrbuch der griechischen Buhnen- 
alterthiimer, p. 330 ff. ; and, especially for the distinction between the various classes 
of inscriptions, KOEHLER, Mittheilungen d. d. archaol. Institutes, 1878 ; REISCH, De 
musicis Graecorum certaminibus ; BEINCK, Inscriptiones Graecae ad choregiam pertinentes. 

18 



THE CHOREGIA IN ATHENS AND AT IK ARIA. 19 

In the course of this paper, it is proposed to submit some of the 
foregoing statements to a more exact examination, in the light of the 
evidence now at hand. 

The circumstances of the victory gained by the chorus are habitually 
recorded in an inscription, and the change which takes place, at differ- 
ent periods, in the phraseology of these inscriptions is very important 
as indicating corresponding changes in the management of the choregia 
itself. Koehler, who has made a careful study of choregic inscrip- 
tions, held that, while in the fifth century the tribe was accounted 
victor, 2 in the fourth century the choregos had become more eager for 
personal credit and was himself named as victor for the tribe. 3 But 
such a distinction cannot be maintained ; since, in the fourth century, 
the tribe is accounted victor in two-thirds of the inscriptions in which 
both tribe and choregos are mentioned. 

The inscription given in Note 3 is one of several which show that in 
the fourth century it was not uncommon to allow two tribes to combine 
and appoint the same man as choregos. Dittenberger, in a note to this 
inscription, observes that, whenever separate tribes furnish choruses, the 
tribe is named as victor, but, when two tribes combine, it is the choregos 
who is accounted victor ; and he interprets this as an indication that 
the attribution of the choregos as victor arose from the dislike of the 
Greeks to name several victors in the same contest. 

Reisch, noting the fact that, in nearly every case in which two tribes 
unite in one choregia, the chorus is of boys, deduces a general rule, and, 
in the single inscription in which the nature of the chorus is not stated 
(De Mus., p. 31, in), claims that irai^wv is to be understood. These 
generalizations of Dittenberger and Reisch, however, rest on what may 
be mere coincidences. In fact, the inscription on the Thrasyllos monu- 
ment, 4 in which a choregos for a single tribe is named as victor, is against 
Dittenberger's theory, though he seeks to evade the force of it, because 
this inscription has in general the phraseology of a private dedication. 
The same holds true of the inscription on the Nikias monument. 5 
Another inscription ..... o Uepi0oi8qs ^op^wv evi/ca \ ..... i&t 



2 Of. C. I. A., I, 336 : OtVeis | eV/Ka | TraiSoy \ Evpv/J.evf[s'] \ MeAereoyos 
ffTparos | eSiSaffKe | . 

3 Cf. DITTENBERGER, Sylloge Inscriptionum Graecarum, 411 : Afinos yivri<ri.fio6\o 

eVt/ca 'A/ca^aj/TiSt | TlavSioviSi iraiSuj/, EVK\T)$ \ eSiSaance, Ev5a/j.i<ritos 



4 C. I. G., 224 = DiTT., 423. 

5 KOEHLER, Mitth., 1885, p. 231. 



20 AMERICAN JO URNAL OF ARCH^EOLOG Y. 



v, \ Ol~\vidS 

r}px v6 affords absolute proof that either one or the other 
of the generalizations is unsound. If at the beginning of the second 
line the name of only one tribe is supplied, we have an instance of a 
choregos for a single tribe being named as victor, and Dittenberger's 
theory falls to the ground. If, on the other hand, the names of two 
tribes are supplied, we have a case where two tribes unite to supply a 
chorus of men, not of boys, and Reisch's generalization no longer 
holds good. 

Brinck maintains that, whenever there is a union of two tribes, 
it is for the festival of the Thargelia, and quotes, in support of this, 
the statement of Ulpian : ev rot? Sapyrj\LOi<; Svoiv <$>v\alv 

os, rofc Se peryakois &t,ovvcrioi<$ el? %o/??77O9 ef 
This theory is thought by some to be disproved by the fact 
that one of the inscriptions making mention of two tribes was found 
on the southern slope of the Akropolis ; but it is not impossible to 
hold that it was moved thither from elsewhere. Indeed, three bases, 
each with a choregic inscription referring to two tribes, have actually 
been found on the site of the Pythion, where Thargelian dedications 
were made. 

A general classification of choregic inscriptions is attempted by Reisch, 
founded on the mention or non-mention of the flute-player, and, in 
case of such a mention, on the position of his name with reference to 
that of the didaskalos. Reisch states that in the fifth century the didas- 
kalos alone appears ; the reason for this being that at that period the 
poet and musician were one and the same person, that is, that the poet, 
like Pindar, composed his own music. In the fourth century, the 
flute-player is always mentioned in the first half of the century after 
the didaskalos, in the second half, before the didaskalos, as the art of 
music gradually developed, and emancipated itself from its subjection 
to poetry. 

It was Koehler who first clearly pointed out the radical change in the 
management of the choregia which was brought about in the last part 
of the fourth century. The system under which each tribe appointed 
a choregos was abolished, and the people collectively became the nomi- 
nal choregos, but appointed, probably from the wealthier citizens, an 
officer called agonothetes, who superintended the preparation of all the 

6 REISCH, p. 32, v ; RANGABE, Antiguites Hdleniques, 972. 

7 ULPIAN ad Demosthenem, Lept., 28. 



THE CHOREGIA IN ATHENS AND AT IK ARIA. 21 

choruses. 8 Even in this period a tribe was mentioned as victor, but it is 
not clear what was now the exact relation of the separate tribes to the 
choregia. 

There remain a few choregic inscriptions differing from those which 
have been mentioned both in their phraseology and in their purpose. 
Perhaps the best example of these is the following : T^to] a6evr}<s 



ave6ecra\y\ \ [r]ak &.IQVVGWI, ra<yaX//,a KOI TO/JU 
[/3co/<toi>]. 9 Here we observe that the word aveOeaav is used, whereas 
in the inscriptions referred to above the fact of the dedication is never 
expressly stated, the principal verb being always a form of VIKW or 
Xopyryw. The inscription also tells us that the objects dedicated were 
a statue and an altar, not a tripod. There are a few other inscriptions 
in which aveO^Ke is used, one belonging to the epoch before Eukleides, 
cut in the channels of a column. Owing to these facts, a classification 
has been adopted by scholars (Kirchhoff, Koehler, Dittenberger, Reisch) 
into official and private monuments. That is, a victor would, in his 
official capacity as a representative of his tribe, dedicate the tripod which 
he had obtained as a prize, with an inscription in the usual set phrase- 
ology ; but as a private person he might also dedicate a thank-offering 
for his victory, the nature of which would be entirely a matter of his 
personal choice, and the inscription upon which would not follow a 
fixed phraseology, but would be a statement of dedication (dveOrj/ce), 
with the optional mention of some of the circumstances connected with 
the choregia. The characteristics upon which this classification is 
founded are, then, an inscription of fixed phraseology in which dveQrj/ce 
is not used, cut upon a monument intended to support a tripod ; as 
opposed to an inscription in which aveOrjice is expressed, cut upon a 
monument intended for the support of something other than a tripod ; 
though it is not inconceivable that a choregos might, in his private 
capacity, choose to dedicate a tripod, which, however, could not be the 
one given him as the official prize. For this classification to be an 
absolute one, it must be capable of including in one class or the other 
every choregic inscription. An inscription with aveOrj/ce upon a monu- 
ment holding a tripod and plainly intended as a public and official dedi- 
cation, or an inscription without dveOrj/ce upon a monument intended 
for something other than a tripod, would be an anomaly. 

8 Of. DlTT., 418 : 6 Srj^os e'xop^yct, 2ca<ri<rrparos i)px e > \ [ay(o']vo64'n]S Qeofdrns AUHTKOV- 
oiSov EiWu/*eus, | 'Epex^ei's avSpoav eVi/ca, | ~2e0Kpd.Tr)S 'P6Sios r]tf\fi, 'Epa.T<ai> ' Ap/cas e5i8a<r/cej/. 

9 KOEHLER, Mitth., 1878, p. 229 ; DITT., 422. 



22 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHEOLOGY. 

Of the stones upon which inscriptions occur that do not have aveOrjtce, 
some have cuttings which show that they surely held tripods ; some 
were found in such positions as make it extremely probable that they 
held tripods; some are upon architraves which may very well have 
belonged to large choregic monuments ; but, as to many, especially 
those found at the beginning of this century, it is impossible to find 
any evidence upon which to base a conclusion as to what they may 
have supported. The important fact is, however, that there is no mon- 
ument bearing an inscription of this class, of which there is any evi- 
dence that it held anything else than a tripod. On the other hand, we 
do find an anomaly in the inscriptions on the architraves of two cho- 
regic monuments, those of Thrasyllos and Nikias (cf. Notes 4 and 5). 
Both these inscriptions have the phraseology which should belong to 
monuments of the private class, but it is plain from their form and 
position that they are in fact monuments publicly and officially dedi- 
cated, as much as the famous one of Lysikrates. In publishing the 
Thrasyllos inscription, Dittenberger notes this fact, and accounts for it 
on the ground that at this date, just before the institution of the cho- 
regia of the people and the agonothesia, the distinction between the two 
classes of monuments was less strictly observed than before. Koehler, 10 
in treating of the Nikias monument, which was erected in the same year 
as that of Thrasyllos (one being for a chorus of boys, the other for a 
chorus of men), claims that the pretentious character of the monuments 
and the unusual form of the inscriptions are alike to be accounted for 
by the unusual circumstances attending the celebration of the festival 
of this year (319 B. c.). 

In the usual statement of the appointment of the choregos given on 
the first page, it will be observed that no account is taken of any differ- 
ence in the management of the choregia dependent on variations in the 
form of chorus furnished. We know that there were purely lyric cho- 
ruses of men and of boys, and dramatic choruses for tragedy and for 
comedy ; but, as the mention of choregia in literature, especially in con- 
nection with antidosis, naturally gives the notion of a fixed and inva- 
riable institution, it is usual to group the various classes of choregoi 
under one general statement, considering that all were appointed in the 
same manner, received the same prizes, and were, in short, identical in 
every way, except that their duties in preparing the chorus would of 
course differ according to the particular nature of the chorus. This is 

10 Mittheilungen, 1885, p. 234. 



THE CHOREGIA IN ATHENS AND AT IKARIA. 23 

the view taken in the various dictionaries of antiquities, and accepted by 
all the authorities which are referred to at the beginning of this paper, 
with the exception of the last two, who depart more or less from it. It 
is observed by Reisch, that none of the inscriptions having the usual 
phraseology of monuments of the official class contains any reference to 
a dramatic chorus. Out of twenty-six such inscriptions or fragments 
collected by him, nineteen distinctly mention the kind of chorus, and 
it is always lyric, of either men or boys ; of the remaining seven, three 
are complete and do not state the nature of the chorus, and four are 
broken, so that, if the chorus was mentioned, it is no longer possible 
to know its nature. There are, however, a few choregic inscriptions 
plainly referring to a dramatic chorus, one being of the private class 
and referring to a comic chorus (/ceo/^w&ofc being used), and two, pub- 
lished by Koehler, 11 which are important enough to be given in full. 

Mia-ycovos 
AtoScopo 
&ifcaio<yevr)<> efiiSacrKev. ' ' Kpifypwv 



The Dikaiogenes mentioned in the last line of the first is held to be 
identical with the tragic poet who flourished in the beginning of the 
fourth century. The first peculiarity to be observed in these two in- 
scriptions is the fact that two persons are named together as choregoi. 
A passage in the Scholia to Aristophanes' Frogs, 406, 12 informs us that, 
in the archonship of Kallias (406 B. c.), it became customary for two 
persons to act together as choregoi for the tragic and comic choruses 
at the Dionysia. This passage is the authority for the statement, fre- 
quently made (as in Boeckh, Staatsh., (3) I, p. 538), that synchoregia was 
one of the stages of the general system of choregia ; but the words of 
Aristotle quoted by the Scholiast, which limit it to the dramatic chorus, 
are supported by the fact that it is not mentioned in any of the inscrip- 
tions relating to the lyric chorus, while in the two inscriptions just 
given, referring to the drama, it is found in use. However, the law 
under Kallias embodied only a permission for two choregoi to bear the 
expense of the chorus in common, not a command, as is proved by 
Lysias, xxi. 4, Demosthenes, Meid. 59 and 156 ( of. C. I. A., n, 1275), 
where the choregos serves alone, though all three cases fall later than the 

u Hermes, n, p. 23 ; c/. REISCH, p. 44. 

12 eTrl yovv rov KoAAiov TOVTOV ^rifflv 'Apt(TTOT\T)S '6n ffvvfivo e5oe 
vvffia TOLS Tpaycpdols Kal Kto/j.cpSo'is. 



24 AMERICAN JO URNAL OF ARCH^EOLOG Y. 

archonship of Kallias. In this respect, a precedent had already been 
established as early as 41110 B. c., when two trierarchs are found 
serving together (Lysias, xxxn. 24) ; but instances occur later of the 
individual trierarchy (Boeckh, Staatsh.^ I, p. 638). 

The second point to be observed in connection with the two inscrip- 
tions given above is the fact that there is no evidence that the stone 
upon which they are inscribed ever bore a tripod. On the other hand, 
there is, so far as I know, no positive evidence that it did not ; and 
as this is. an inscription with the official phraseology, if we feel com- 
pelled to believe that all choregoi received the same prize, we must 
believe also that this stone held a tripod. Now Plutarch (Them., 5) 
states that Themistokles gained a victory as choregos for a tragic 
chorus, and set up a irlva% of victory with the inscription, 



is an extraordinary word to use, if it was literally a tripod which The- 
mistokles set up. 13 The inscription given in the text is probably a copy 
of a genuine inscription (the manuscripts, of course, retain no sign of 
the pre-Eukleidean alphabet), since an inscription on a choregic monu- 
ment dedicated by a certain Aristeides and quoted by Plutarch (Aris- 
teid. 1) has actually been found, and it agrees word for word with the 
text. We learn also, from Plutarch's remarks on this inscription, 
that it was customary even in his time to pay very careful attention 
to both the phraseology and the palaeography of an inscription, using 
these as criteria for dating them, just as is the practice now. Accept- 
ing it, then, as a genuine inscription, we observe that it presents the 
same phraseology as the two given above, except that here the archon's 
name is added for the purpose of dating it. As it belongs to the period 
before the archonship of Kallias, one choregos only is mentioned. Here, 
then, are three inscriptions set up by dramatic choregoi, as to two of 
which there is no evidence that they were on a monument supporting 
a tripod, while, as to the third, it seems certain that the object dedi- 
cated was not a tripod. Is there anything in literature to show that 
dramatic choregoi received tripods as prizes ? Theophrastos charac- 
terizes a mean man as one who, when he had gained a victory with a 
tragic chorus, would dedicate a wooden taenia to Dionysos and put his 
name upon it. 14 This seems to imply that it was optional with a tragic 

13 [It may have been a relief representing a tripod, in marble or in bronze. Cf. G. 
I. A., n, 766, 835, 680, 683 c; LOEWY, Inschriften gr. Bildhauer, No. 533; ARISTOT., 
Pol, viii. 6 (1341 a). T. W. L.] 

14 [olos viK-fia-as t payySols TCUVICLV U\(J/TJJ/ avaOfTwai T$ Aiovtcry. Character. 22. This 



THE CHOEEGIA IN ATHENS AND AT IKARIA. 25 

choregos what kind of a thank-offering he should make. But those 
choregoi who received a tripod as a prize were certainly expected to dedi- 
cate this, though there is no record that such dedication was required by 
an actual law. The speaker in Lysias, Orat. xxi. 4, 15 after a victory 
with a comic chorus, dedicates apparently the costumes and other prop- 
erties used in the play, though the exact sense in which he uses cvcey?}? 
may be doubtful. Among all the references to choregic tripods which 
I have been able to find (the twelve given by Brinck, p. 12, and three 
additional ones), there is not one as to which it can be affirmed that the 
chorus was dramatic. In nine instances the chorus is expressly described 
as lyric, and in the other six cases there is nothing to define the kind 
of chorus referred to. The force of these facts has been admitted by 
Bergk, 16 and is strongly put by Brinck in the dissertation referred to 
above. Lolling also, in speaking of the Street of the Tripods, says 17 
that it is named from the small temple-like structures, welche zum Anden- 
ken an die mit lyrischen Choren davongetragenen Siege errichtet warden. 
To return to the two inscriptions under discussion ; we observe a third 
peculiarity, namely, that no mention is made of the tribe, the same thing 
holding true of the inscription quoted by Plutarch. Also in two frag- 
ments 18 belonging to a list of the choregic victors, both musical and 
dramatic, it is to be noted that in the case of lyric choruses the name 
of the choregos is preceded by the name of the tribe, while, in the case 
of tragic and comic choruses, there is no mention of the tribe. This 
seems very peculiar if the dramatic choregos was appointed by his tribe 
in the same manner as the others. But does the common statement, that 
the choregos was appointed by his tribe, necessarily imply that every 
choregos was so appointed ? Let us briefly review the authorities for 
the tribal appointment of the choregos. Two of these 19 are mere casual 
statements, and give no evidence as to the kind of chorus referred 
to. The passage of Ulpian (quoted above, Note 7) seems, to be sure, 
to speak in a general way of the tribal appointment of the choregos. 

is probably the victor's taenia (ARISTOPH., Ran., 393), represented in relief or other- 
wise, and would form part of the (r/cet^ mentioned by LYSIAS, xxi. 4. A. C. M.j 

15 cTri 8e EvKXeiSov &pxovros icwfJupSo'is xP"ny^ v K-r](j)i<ToS6pCf} eviKcav, /col avJi\coffa ffvv rfj 
rrjs ffKV7)S avaOecrei eKKaiSeKO. fj.vas. 

16 Griechische Literaturgeschichte, in, p. 60, note. 

17 Hellenische Landeskunde und Topographic, in MULLER, Handbuch d. klass. Alter- 
thumswissenschaft, in, p. 326. 

18 C. I. A., n, 971 a, 971 6 = DiTT., 405, 406. 

19 DEM., Philip. I. 36; PLTJT., Quaest. conviv. I. x. 1. 



26 AMERICAN JO URNAL OF AEGHMOLOG Y. 

The speaker in Antiphon's speech on the chorus-boy 20 was choregos 
for two tribes at the Thargelia ; but the chorus was lyric, not dramatic. 
The chief authority, however, is the oration of Demosthenes against 
Meidias, where he graphically describes his offer of himself as choregos 
to his own tribe, that it might not be for a third time without a rep- 
resentative ; but he expressly states that he was choregos for a lyric 
as contrasted with a dramatic chorus. 21 Of the two arguments to this 
oration, written by Libanios, the first speaks of both lyric and dramatic 
choruses contesting at the Dionysia, and immediately upon this states 
that the tribes furnish the choruses and that the choregos is the one who 
pays the expenses in connection with the choregia. This, it must be 
acknowledged, would seem to indicate that the dramatic were appointed 
in the same manner as the lyric choregoi. But the second argument, 
which is longer and more specific, states that a choregos was appointed 
from each tribe, TT/JO? TO rpefaw ^opov^ nraiSwv re KOI avbp&v, and 
adds, eXd/jiftave Be ^p^ara et? rpotyrjv rcov rov %opov. eTna-rdo-rjs Se 
T?)? eoprris rj<ya)viovTO 777305 a\\rj\ov<; ol %op??7ol KOI rjpifyv, V/JLVOV? 
et? rov kiovva-ov aSovres, KOL rc3 VIKWWTI rpiirov^ TO a&Kov r)V, KT\. 
Now, we have seen that the choregia in the case of dramatic differs in 
some respects from the choregia in case of lyric choruses. The prize 
was not the same in both cases, and an important change in the dra- 
matic choregia was introduced without affecting the system of the lyric 
choregia. It is true that the appointment of the choregoi is a more 
important feature, but, if we can rid our minds of the presumption 
that the choregia was a consistently invariable institution, the same 
for choregoi of both kinds, we see how little evidence there is to show 
that dramatic choregoi were appointed in any way by the tribe. 

Having thus stated the most important features of the choregia for 
the city festivals, we may ask, What do we know of the choregia for the 
rural festivals? Especially for the Rural Dionysia, the most ancient of 
all the festivals of Dionysos, celebrated during the month of Poseideon 
(Dec.-Jan.) in the various country denies, and perhaps nowhere, except 
at Peiraieus, with so much brilliancy as at Ikaria, so intimately con- 
nected with the myth of Dionysos, the birthplace of Thespis and the 
primitive home of both tragedy and comedy. 

The meagre information which we possess on this point has been col- 
lected by Haussoullier. 22 Two decrees of the deme of Aixone, in praise 

20 7repl rov xopevrov, 11. 

31 $ 156, rpaytpftols Kexop^rj/ce iroff OUTOS, eyci) Se ouA.7jTO?s avSpdffiv. 

22 La Vie Municipale en Attique, p. 169. 



THE CHOREGIA IN ATHENS AND AT IK ARIA. 27 

of their two choregoi for having performed their duties, constitute the 
sum total of the epigraphic material which M. Haussoullier found at 
his disposal ; and from this he concludes that two choregoi were regu- 
larly appointed each year, in exactly what manner he does not attempt to 
say, but probably from the few wealthy citizens, and without any special 
formalities. He then raises the question, whether there was a contest 
between the choregoi, and answers this in the negative, 23 stating, as his 
reasons for this belief, that the choregoi at the city festivals contested 
as representatives of their respective tribes, while in the country festi- 
vals all the choregoi were members of the same deme, and, being com- 
paratively few in number, would be likely to make common cause in 
giving as brilliant a spectacle as possible. This view of Haussoullier 
simplifies matters considerably; but, if we should find that there actu- 
ally was a contest, many questions would spring up. Was there any 
distinction between official and private dedications? Was there any dis- 
tinction between monuments dedicated by dramatic choregoi and those 
dedicated by lyric choruses ? . Indeed, were there in the rural demes 
both dramatic and lyric choruses ? What was the object dedicated ? 
In one of the inscriptions of Ikaria already published, 24 the deme 
praises its two choregoi, as is done in the two Aixonean decrees, and 
thus adds nothing to our information. The following three inscrip- 
tions are, however, the first of their kind, and constitute an important 
addition to our material. 

INSCRIPTIONS FROM IKARIA. 
NO. 5. 

Upon the edge of a marble slab (indicated in Figure #), found in 
the wall of the church : height of letters, 0.012. They are roughly cut, 
and the f has an apex giving it somewhat the appearance of P. This 
is seen also in the inscription of the Lysikrates monument. 



ev/ca. 

" Mnesilochos son of Mnesiphilos won the victory as choregos for 
the tragic chorus." 

No. 6. 

Marble base found in the church wall : height, 0.53 m.; width, 0.43 
m. ; thickness, 0.225. The front is finished perfectly smooth except 

23 So also MiJKLER, Lehrbuch der gr. Buhnenalierthumer, p. 327. 
u Am. Journal of Archaeology, vol. iv, No. 4, pp. 421-3. 



28 



AMERICAN JO UENAL OF ARCHMOLOG Y. 



about 0.09 m. at the bottom, which has been left rough, as when in posi- 
tion this would be concealed by earth. In the top are three holes for 
securing the object dedicated, the middle one being 0.065 m. X 0.05 m., 
and 0.05 m. deep ; the smaller holes at the two sides, 0.045 m. deep. 
Height of letters, 0.029 m. 







" Archippos son of Archedektes dedicated [this] to Dionysos. Nikos- 
tratos was didaskalos." 

No. 7. 

Marble stele found lying upon a wall of a late period, running in a 
southeasterly direction from the N. w. corner of the peribolos wall of 
the precinct. Height, 1 .70 m. ; width, 0.40 m. ; thickness, 0.33 m. A 
moulding runs around the top, of which the surface is perfectly smooth, 
and thus affords no evidence of what object was dedicated upon it. 
Height of letters, 0.02 m. in first three lines, 0.015 in the others. 

EPrA3034>AMOMAXO "Epyaa-os ^avo^a^o 

'E/oya<ro 



"Ergasos son of Phanomachos, Phanomachos son of Ergasos, Diog- 
netos son of Ergasos, having won the victory as choregoi for the tragic 
chorus, dedicated [this]." 



THE CHOEEGIA IN ATHENS AND AT IKARIA. 29 

Now, all these inscriptions show conclusively that, contrary to the 
view of Haussoullier and Miiller, there was actually a contest between 
the choregoi, and that the victors were accustomed to dedicate some 
object to commemorate their victory. There appears to be the same 
distinction as at Athens between official and private dedications ; for 
the first inscription lacks aveO^Ke, and the object dedicated was a tripod, 
as is proved by the cuttings in the top of the slab, while in the two 
other inscriptions aveOrj/ce and aviOeaav are used, and, so far as the 
evidence goes, the object dedicated was not a tripod. This distinction 
of official and private dedications may seem uncalled for in a country 
deme ; and we may conjecture that it was simply an imitation of the 
custom in the city. 

These inscriptions tell us only of dramatic choruses, Nos. 5 and 7 
referring to tragic choruses, and, if the identification of Nikostratos 
suggested below be accepted, No. 6 to a comic chorus. 25 The phrase 
TpayauSols %opr)ya)v is found elsewhere in inscriptions, and we may 
compare the passage of Demosthenes quoted in Note 21 with Lysias 
xxiv. 9. We also learn from No. 5, which belongs in the fourth cen- 
tury, but is later than Nos. 6 and 7, that at Ikaria a tragic choregos 
made in his official capacity a dedication of a tripod. So it seems 
that a tripod was the prize for the dramatic chorus here, though this 
was not the case in Athens. 26 In No. 6, it is remarkable that xopTjywv 
is not expressed, 27 but the eSi&acrKe of the last line is sufficient to 
show that the inscription is choregic. In the first line, 'Ap^e&e is a 
part of no name to be found in Pape-Benseler 28 or in Fick, 29 but 
would be a correctly formed name (after the analogy of 
, TIoXvSeKrrjs, Fick, p. 110), and the perpendicular stroke 
after the E may well belong to a kappa. As there would be room on 
the stone for only three letters, we must read genitive in omicron. This, 

25 It is possible that theatrical and musical performances were so intimately con- 
nected at Ikaria that there were no choruses distinctively and solely musical; but it 
would be rash to assert this merely on the negative evidence of three inscriptions. 

26 [It is hardly probable that the practice in Athens and Ikaria would differ so essen- 
tially; and Koehler's explanation of C. LA., n, 1298 (KAIBEL, Epigram. Gr., 924; 
LOEWY, Inschr. Sild., 533) seems reasonable enough to justify the assumption that 
tripods might be dedicated at times, for dramatic victories, in Athens as well as in 
the country. More than this can hardly be affirmed in the present dearth of posi- 
tive evidence either way. A. C. M.] 

27 [<7. 7. A., n, 1248 and 1283 have the same omission. A. C. M.] 

28 Worterbuch der griechischen Eigennamen. 

29 Die griechischen Personennamen. 



30 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHEOLOGY. 

together with the forms of the other letters, places the inscription in the 
early part of the fourth century. 30 

Can the Nikostratos of the last line be identified with any person 
known to us in literature? Amongthe numerous Athenians of this name 
connected with the stage, we find a tragic actor who lived about 420 B. c. 
(Xen., Sympos., 6. 3 ; Plutarch, Glor. Athen., 6), and the youngest 
son of Aristophanes, referred to by Athenaios (xin. 587) as a poet of 
the middle comedy. The date of the actor is too early to admit of 
identifying him with the Nikostratos of our inscription. With regard 
to the son of Aristophanes little is definitely known, and we must 
resort to comparisons to arrive at an approximation to his date. Ari- 
stophanes' death is usually placed at 380 or 376 B. c., but there is nothing 
to show how long he lived after his last extant work, the second edition 
of the Plutus, which was brought out in 388 B. c., except that he seems 
to have done a portion at least of the work on two plays which appeared 
in the name of his son, Araros. Araros first exhibited under his own 
name in 375 B. c., but must have been active under his father's guidance 
for some time previous to this. It is reasonable to believe that Niko- 
stratos made his first essays during the last years of his father's life, 
and a rural deme would aiford a young poet an excellent field for the 
bringing out of his youthful productions, before he had acquired repu- 
tation enough to secure admission to the great contests in the city. So 
it seems plausible, and even probable, that the Nikostratos of our in- 
scription was the son of Aristophanes. 

In No. 6, the dedicators are Ergasos and his two sons, one of whom 
is named after his grandfather Phanomachos. With this we should 
compare the inscription quoted above (Note 9) belonging to about the 
same date, and in which the dedication is also by a father and his two 
sons. Koehler, in publishing this inscription (Mitth., 1 878, p. 229), does 
not express an opinion as to how three persons can be named as victorious 
choregoi, but perhaps holds the same opinion as Reisch (De MiLsieis, p. 
46), who believes that the inscription does not refer to a single victory, 
but was dedicated in commemoration of several different victories. 31 

30 The form of the omega with its side lines nearly parallel is precisely that found 
in Ionic inscriptions of the middle of the fifth century and later, but this is, I think, 
a coincidence rather than a survival. However, this form is characteristic of the 
early part of the fourth century. The sporadic examples of omega in Attic inscrip- 
tions of the fifth cent, already show a tendency to become rounder, though the legs 
are very flaring, even throughout most of the fourth century. 

31 [Of- LYSIAS, xix. 42: 'Apia-To^avris roivvv yrjv pey Kal oliciav e'/cT^o-aro ir\4ov % irevre 
TO\dt>T(ov, KaTfx P'f)yT1o'* 8e inrep aurov Kal TOV -irarpbs irevTaKiffx^ias Spax/ids. A. C. M.] 



THE CHOREOIA IN ATHENS AND AT IKAEIA. 



31 



But a more plausible explanation, in my opinion, is that the three 
persons from one family joined in the expense of furnishing a chorus, 
and so in a private dedication called themselves victors in common 
although one of their number must have been the official choregos, and 
his name alone would appear on a monument of the official class. 
Ergasos is a name found twice in an Eleusinian inscription of 329/8 
B. C., and is probably the short form of ^pyacrlcw, the name of a coun- 
tryman mentioned by Aristophanes (Vesp. y 1201). The inscription 
belongs to the early decades of the fourth century. 

A cut of the tripod-base of inscription No. 5 is given (Figure 3) inas- 
much as bases for choregic tripods which show clearly the holes for 
setting in the tripod are not common, and as this base presents a few 
variations from those known already. Of the tripods set up by victo- 
rious choregoi at Athens no fragment of any value is known, and, to 
form an idea of the shape of such tripods, we are dependent on the 
innumerable instances in vase-paintings and reliefs, 
on the fragments of bronze tripods found in other 
parts of Greece, and on the bases for tripods which 
are known. In vase-paintings and reliefs, the tripod 
is usually represented without any central support, 
though there are instances in which this feature 
appears. The legs are commonly represented as 
plain upright pieces ending in animals' feet. The 
fragments of the large tripods discovered at Olympia FlG - 3 Tripod-base 

show no trace of a central support, and the legs are /0 ^ at * karia > 

& which is Inscription 

simple uprights, not ending in animals feet. The jy 0> 5 

miniature tripods, however, which have been found 
there, and must serve as the standard for completing the fragments of 
the large ones, have, in some instances, a small central support of inter- 
twining wires. The diameter of the bowl is about equal to the height 
of the legs; but all these Olympian examples belong to a very early 
period, and we know, from the representations on vases and reliefs, that 
the ratio of proportion was ordinarily nothing like this; the diameter of 
the bowls so represented would be less than half the height of the legs. 
Of bases of actual tripods, two are represented in cuts by Fabricius. 32 
One of these is in situ on the Akropolis behind the Propylaia, near 
the fragment of wall belonging to the old Propylaia, and dates at 
least from the beginning of the fifth century B. c. The three holes 
for the feet of the tripod are perfectly round, but cut deeper near 

32 Das platdische Weihgeschenk, in Jahrbuch d. deutsch. archdol. Instiluts, 1886, p. 187. 




32 



AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY. 



the edge, leaving a kind of knob in the middle. Betvreen the three 
holes, a circular area is left rough, showing that a cylindrical central 
support was here present. The second base given by Fabricius has also 
a circular space in the middle left rough, but the cuttings for the legs 
are in this example not round but u shaped. The tripod on the Lysi- 
krates monument also had a central support, as is shown by the deep 
central hole in the top of the anthemion. 33 The famous serpent-column 
in the Atmeidan at Constantinople was the central support between the 
three legs of the Plataean tripod, as is clearly shown by Fabricius in the 
article referred to above. But the most interesting base for comparison 

with our own is a circu- 
lar slab 34 found in 1878 
near the bank of the Ilis- 
sos ; and a cut of it is here 
given (Figure 4). In the 
same place as the slab, 
were found three cylin- 
drical bases with choregic 
inscriptions 3S of the first 
half of the fourth cen- 
tury; and this slab must 
have formed the cap of a 
similar base, it being too 
large to belong to any of 
those actually found. In 
this slab the central circle 
is not merely a place left 
FIG. 4. Tripod base found near the Missos. rough, but an actual de- 

pression 0.02 m. deep. 

For the support of the legs there are holes, about 0.05 m. square, cut 
to the depth of 0.07 m.; and an irregularly shaped area extending 
from these holes nearly to the outer circumference of the slab is slightly 
cut away (greatest depth, 0.015). This irregular cutting is held by 
Koumanoudes to indicate that the legs of the tripod ended in the feet of 
animals. In the base found at Ikaria, precisely the same arrangement 
appears for the support of the legs. There are square holes cut to the 

33 STUART and EEVETT, Antiquities of Athens, vol. I, chap, iv, pi. 9. 
3 * KOUMANOUDES, 'A0^j/otoj/, i, p. 170. 

v, i, p. 169 = DiTT., 411, 412, 413. 




THE CHOREGIA IN ATHENS AND AT IK ARIA. 33 

depth of 0.055 m., and, inclosing these, irregular areas cut out to a slight 
depth; so that the tripod-legs must here, too, have ended in feet. The 
central hollow is 0.05 m. deep, and radiating from it are three narrow 
cuttings of the same depth. Exactly in the middle is a small square 
hole running through the whole thickness of the slab, and apparently 
intended for the passage of a rod to secure the central member more 
firmly. The inscription is on the side CD (Figure 3\ close to the 
upper edge. 

Athens, GAEL D. BUCK, 

December 12, 1888. Member of the American School 

of Classical Studies at Athens. 



NOTES ON ORIENTAL ANTIQUITIES. 



VIII. "HUMAN SACRIFICES" ON BABYLONIAN CYLINDERS. 

In a chapter on " Human Sacrifices," in his Recherches sur la Glyp- 
tique orientate (vol. I, pp. 150-58), M. Menant, to whom we are so much 
indebted for the classification and interpretation of Oriental cylinders, 
describes the scenes in which a naked man, on one knee and with his 
hands raised in an attitude of fear and supplication, is seized by a 
" pontiff," whose right hand is raised to kill him with a weapon. This 
" pontiff," thus officiating in a " human sacrifice," he identifies with 
another of the most frequent figures on the cylinders that in which 
a bearded personage, also in a short robe which leaves both legs free, 





FIG. 5. 



FIG. 6. Metrop. Museum. 



has one arm hanging down by his side, or a little withdrawn behind 
him, and holds in his left hand, which is lifted across his waist, a sort 
of baton (Fig. 5). There are slight variations of this figure, such as 
his holding a basket in his right hand, but the general character is 
always preserved so as to leave no doubt of his identity. 

If M. Me"nant be correct in identifying these two figures, then the 
latter, which is found many scores of times on hematite seals, is a con- 
ventionalized form of the personage who is represented in a more active 
attitude on the other cylinders. I wish to offer a study on this scene, 
that we may decide whether or not we have here a pontiff offering a 
human sacrifice. My own study of the cylinders has convinced me that 
M. Lajard's notion of initiations and mystic scenes must be given up, 
and that M. M6nant is often misled by a similar tendency to discover 
ceremonies of worship, where the deities themselves are really repre- 
sented. The large majority of cylinders contain, I think, chiefly fig- 
34 



NOTES ON ORIENTAL ANTIQUITIES. 



35 



ures of gods. Where human figures appear, they are to be distinguished 
sometimes by their nudity, sometimes by their simple garments and bare 
heads, and sometimes by their attitude of worship and their presenta- 
tion of offerings. Generally, more than one deity appears on a cylin- 
der, and these deities have their conventional attitude and dress ; and, 
except in the earlier cylinders, no freedom is allowed in drawing them 
so as to represent a scene that is taking place between them and their 
worshippers : but the design is, rather, to bring together the figures of 
a number of protecting deities and thus strengthen the talismanic vir- 
tue of the seal. The later seals, even the common hematite ones, are 
of comparatively little value for the identification of the figures, and 
we must go back, when we can, to the earlier, unconventional, and artis- 
tically freer and better cylinders of serpentine, agate, and jasper, pro- 
duced near the time of Sargon I and Dungi. Thus, it is these earlier 





FIG. 7.Menant, fig. 95. 



FIG. 8. Menant,fig. 96. 



cylinders that show us Isdubar and Hea-bani in company, in various 
attitudes, fighting the bull and the lion. The later hematites have re- 
duced the various free representations of these demigods to a fixed form, 
omitting the animals with which they fought. So, also, the scene on the 
earliest large serpentine cylinders, where Samas is represented as hav- 
ing come out of the gate of the East, which the porter has opened to 
him, and as mounting up over the hills of Elam (see explanation of 
these seals in Am. Journal of Archaeology, 1887, pp. 50-56), has been 
reduced, on the common later hematite cylinders of the period between 
2000 and 1000 B. c., to a single changeless figure of a bearded person 
in a long robe, with one foot on a stool, and a notched sword in one 
hand. Unfortunately, we get less help than we might hope for, in the 
investigation now in hand, from the older seals, inasmuch as the scene 
under discussion is chiefly, or wholly, found on the hematite cylinders. 
So far as I know them, the cylinders which present this scene in full 
are the following. 



36 



AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY. 



1. A hematite cylinder in the Metropolitan Museum of New York, 
obtained by me in Baghdad, and provisionally numbered G 1 (Fig. 
6). I mention this first, because the group is more complete than in 
any other that I know, as it adds an attendant holding the " victim " 
who is, according to M. Me"nant, being slain for sacrifice. A small 
naked figure, on one knee, turns his head back, and lifts one hand over 
his head in imploring terror. Behind this victim stands the usual "pon- 
tiff," or sacrificing priest, of M. Me"nant, clad in a short skirt, with one 
foot advanced toward his victim. He holds in his left hand what ap- 
pears to be a club, or mace, while his right hand holds a curved weapon 
lifted over his head, with which he seems about to strike the suppliant. 
In front of the victim stands another figure, dressed in a short skirt, 
carrying a bow (or shield) over his left shoulder, while with his right 





FIG. 9. Lajard, xxxu. 



FIG. 10. Menant, iv. 5. 



hand he holds down the head of the imploring victim. Two other con- 
ventional figures need no description. 

2. MENANT, Recherehes sur la G-lyptique orientale, i, p. 152, fig. 
95 : a hematite cylinder (Fig. 7). The naked victim is in the same 
attitude, except that, while one hand is lifted over his head, the other 
is grasped by the left hand of the god (or "pontiff") who, in the same 
dress and attitude as on the previous cylinder, lifts his curved weapon 
over his head. There are four other figures whose connection with the 
scene is doubtful, although one of them is the seated goddess in full 
front face, whom Menant calls Beltis, and to whom he regards this 
human sacrifice as being offered. The common flounced beardless fig- 
ure, with both hands lifted, when seen, as here, with Samas, is proba- 
bly his wife Aa, although she may be the female complement of other 
gods. The two other figures are Samas and a worshipper. 

3. Ibid., p. 153, fig. 96 : a " basalt" cylinder (probably a small black 
serpentine cylinder, of the same period as the hematites) (Fig. 8). The 
scene is precisely the same as on the last, except that the " victim " is of 



NOTES ON ORIENTAL ANTIQUITIES. 



37 



full size, and, as drawn by M6nant, the " pontiff" holds his weapon in 
his left hand. The other figures are a griffin attacking a wild-goat. 

4. LAJARD, Culte de Mithra, pi. xxxn, fig. 2 : material not stated 
(Fig. 9). The same "pontiff," as above, holds the same weapon over 
his head ; but his left hand holds a bunch of eight radiating objects shaped 
like a slender nail with two heads. Before him cowers the victim in 
the usual attitude. There are two other figures, one apparently a god 
holding an emblem, and the other a man pouring a libation. 

5. MENANT, op. cit., i, pi. iv, fig. 5 : material not stated (Fig. 10). 
The same scene as the last, except that the six radiating objects held in 
the hand have but one head each. There is not room for the victim 
to hold his hand over his head, and it is pressed against his side. There 
are three other figures on this cylinder, the one to the right being Samas. 





FIG. 11. Lajard, LIV. A. 5. 



FIG. 12. Lajard, LIV. B. 5. 



In the next two cylinders, the god rests his foot upon the victim. 

6. LAJARD, op. eit., pi. LIV-A, fig. 5 : hematite cylinder (Fig. 11). The 
same god (or " pontiff") with his left hand lifted, holding the weapon 
over his head, and with a bunch of nine radiating objects in his right 
hand, as in Figure 9, but looking more like flowers held by the stems, 
rests his foot on the prostrate body of the small naked victim, who 
holds up one deprecating hand. There are three other figures, two of 
them apparently duplicates of the god represented in Figure 5. 

7. Ibid., LIV-B, fig. 5 : hematite cylinder (Fig. 12). The same scene, 
except that the radiating star-like object in one hand is not fully de- 
veloped, and that the victim is not entirely naked. There are three 
other figures on this cylinder, but quite unconnected with the scene. 

8. DE CLERCQ, Catalogue raisonne, fig. 167 : hematite cylinder (Fig. 
13). The same scene, except that the figures have been so conven- 
tionalized, or are so imperfectly drawn, that the weapons and objects in 
the hands of the god have disappeared, and the victim has no arms. 

9. Hematite cylinder belonging to me (Fig. 14). This cylinder has 



38 



AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHEOLOGY. 



suffered the loss of two or three millimeters at the top. The god (or 
" pontiff"), in a long robe, holds one hand lifted, though the weapon 
held over his head has disappeared with the mutilation of the stone. 
In his other hand he holds an emblem which forks into a double zigzag. 
Before him cowers the kneeling naked victim, who is also attacked from 
behind by a composite winged animal, with open mouth, having the head 
and body of a lion and the legs of a cock. The victim is very pecu- 
liarly provided with three arms, two being presented to the griffin, and 
one directed toward the "pontiff." Although, so far as I know, this is 
the only case in which a double relation has given three arms to a figure, 
the principle is one known to Babylonian art. On six or eight cylinders, 
a figure is represented with two faces to indicate that he is paying atten- 
tion both to the god before him and to the personages behind, whom he 





FIG. 13. De Clercq, fig. 167. 



FIG. 14. Collection W. H. Ward. 



is leading to the god. For a similar reason, the colossal Assyrian lions 
and bulls have five legs. But, for our purpose, it is more important 
to notice that the "pontiff" may be represented as clad in a long robe 
instead of in the customary short one, and that the attack may be also 
made by this composite mythological creature. 

All these cylinders show, almost beyond question, the same god, or 
"pontiff" (although his dress is varied in Figure 14), and also the same 
victim. Other cylinders have reduced the scene still more. The god 
appears alone, as in CULLIMORE, Oriental Cylinders, No. 19 ; and DE 
CLERCQ, Catalogue raisonne, Nos. 232, 271 ; both rudely drawn. A 
cylinder brought from Kypros by General Di Cesnola (Transactions of 
the Society of Biblical Archeology, vol. v, p. 442) contains both the god 
and the crouching figure, but separated from each other by another figure. 
To these I add two others, which vary from the usual figures of the god 
already described only in having, instead of the short robe, the long open 
robe of Samas, with one naked leg advanced. These are, MENANT, 
op. cit., vol. i, p. 147, fig. 90, where this god, with his weapon over his 



NOTES ON ORIENTAL ANTIQUITIES. 



39 



head, cannot easily be Samas, because Samas appears in his own form on 
the same cylinder. The other, CULLIMORE, op. tit., fig. 119, is a very 
interesting one (Fig. 15) : here the god holds in one hand the bifur- 
cated zigzag emblem, and in the other his characteristic weapon lifted 
over his head ; before him three victims lie slain on the ground. One 
can hardly help seeing here such a god as Ram man, holding a thun- 
derbolt and destroying his enemies. It is true that the god has his 
foot lifted on an animal, as Samas is sometimes drawn ; but the god 
(or "pontiff") whom we are now considering, also, as we have seen, 
has his foot lifted and advanced and sometimes resting on his prostrate 
victim. 

The naked cowering victim occasionally appears alone, as in DE 
CLERCQ, op. tit., figs. 139, 179. Perhaps the small naked kneeling 





FIG. 15Cullimore, fig. 119. 



FIG. 16. Collection W. H. Ward. 



figure in LAJARD, pis. xvin-6, xxiv-3, and in CULLIMORE, figs. 
95, 135, is the same victim. More frequently, the same, or a similar, 
cowering naked figure appears attacked only by the winged composite 
creature mentioned above, or by a simple upright lion, as in LAJARD, 
pi. xm, fig. 5 ; DE CLERCQ, figs. 73, 75 ; on no less than three in the 
Metropolitan Museum, New York ; and on a fourth hematite cylinder 
lately acquired by me. The last (Fig. 16) is interesting because the 
victim carries a shield. 

I have said that the older cylinders are apt to show less conven- 
tionalized and more instructive types than do the hematite seals. If 
this group has yet been found clearly marked on the older Babylonian 
seals, I am not aware of it. It may be, however, that a considerably 
different type on the older cylinders, in which also Me"nant sees the 
human sacrifice, is the source of the representation we have been con- 
sidering. MENANT gives a single example of it (vol. I, p. 158, fig. 
98) on a carnelian (Fig. 17). A more complete example is a green 
jasper figured in LAJARD, pi. XL, fig. 4 (Fig. 18). In both of these, 



40 



AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY. 



one personage, in a two-horned cap, attacks and puts his foot upon a 
second figure who falls on one knee, and who wears a similar hat. An 
impression which I have of a large archaic lapis lazuli cylinder that 
belonged to M. Siouffi, French Consul at Mosul in 1884, also shows 
the same scene. The last two are also allied, through their accom- 
panying fighting figures, with cylinders classed by MSnaiit as repre- 
senting human sacrifices, in DE CLERCQ (Catalogue raisonn^, figs. 176, 
177, 180, 181). I would incline more confidently to Menant's opinion, 
that these represent the same scene that appears on the later hematite 
cylinders already mentioned, were it not that the personage whom the 
victor steps upon also wears the divine horned cap. We must remem- 
ber, however, that the distinction in the head-dress between gods and 
men does not seem to be so clearly drawn in the earlier seals, in which 
the head-dress of the god was doubtless drawn from that ordinarily 





FIG. 17 Menant, fig. 98. 



FIG. 18. Lajard, XL. 4. 



worn, and which later became obsolete, but was continued in art for 
the gods, as their representation became fixed. 

The same god (or " pontiff") whom we have been considering, with 
his weapon lifted over his head, and wearing indifferently either the 
usual short dress or the long open robe which leaves one leg exposed, 
seems to appear on a number of cylinders, leading by a cord a bull or 
a composite winged animal. In many of these cases, the god carries 
in the other hand the zigzag forked object which we have already ob- 
served, or the cord seems to end with this bifurcated, or trifurcated, or 
even quadri furcated emblem. One example (Fig. 19) is in CULLI- 
MORE, Oriental Cylinders, fig. 132 ; also given in LAJARD, Quite de 
Miihra, pi. xxxvii, fig. 1. Other examples are in CULLIMORE, figs. 
96, 107 ; DE CLERCQ, Catalogue raisonne, figs. 153, 175; and in 
LAJARD, pis. xvi, fig. 1 ; xxvin, figs. 5, 9 ; xxxv, fig. 2. On two 
cylinders belonging to the Metropolitan Museum, the god holds the 
zigzag emblem on the bull, but does not lead the bull by a cord, he 
simply stands on him. This scene is reduced, in a number of cases, 



NOTES ON ORIENTAL ANTIQUITIES. 41 

to the forked zigzag alone on the bull, as in CULLIMORE, figs. 60, 67 ; 
LAJARD, pi. xvm, fig. 5;.DE CLERCQ, figs. 169, 173, 230. 

I have given this exhaustive account of the class of cylinders identi- 
fied by M. Me"nant as representing a human sacrifice, and of the others 
which contain similar or related figures, that we may judge, by as full 
an induction as possible, what they signify. 1 

We have, then, the characteristic figure of a personage, generally 
short-skirted, with a weapon generally held over his head, sometimes 
threatening a naked man, sometimes leading a dragon or a bull by a 
thong, in one case (though here he wears a long skirt) with three 
victims of his fury before him, whom he has hurled to the earth; 
sometimes represented alone, that is, unrelated to other figures on the 
cylinder ; sometimes carrying in his other hand before him a cluster 




FIG. 19. Cullimore, fig. 



of radiating objects, and sometimes an emblem with two, three, or four 
zigzagging forks. The naked cowering figure appears not only before 
him, but also alone, and before a lion or a composite monster with 
mouth open to devour him. In one case, he is before a lion, and the hand 
over his head holds a shield ; and in one case, in which he is threat- 

1 1 have omitted several of a very different character, gathered under this head and 
described by MENANT, in DB CLERCQ, Catalogue raisonne, because they cannot come 
under this class. Thus, figs. 176 and 181, Which evidently present the same scene, 
show one personage, armed with a club, pushing another against what seems to be a 
hill. But, in one of these cases, the attacking personage has what look like flames 
radiating from his whole body, and, in the other case, he has evident wings, and is 
therefore clearly a divine personage and not a pontiff. Besides, fig. ISlbis shows the 
same winged figure stabbing, with a dagger, a human-headed bull certainly not a 
case of human sacrifice. In fig. 177, the personages attacked have the heads of birds, 
as in LAJARD, Culte de Mithra, pi. xxxui, fig. 3 1, and pi. XL, fig. 4, which proves the 
group in all these cases to be mythological. In fig. 178 we have the sun-god rising 
over the mountains ; and what M. Menant regards as the victim may be a worshipper 
kneeling before him. In figs. 180 and 180 bis, we have one personage vanquished by 
another, but no indication of a sacrifice. 



42 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY. 

ened by the usual god, or "pontiff," his head is held by a second figure 
carrying a bow. In yet another case, he is attacked in front by the 
god and behind by the composite monster. 

All these circumstances do not suggest a sacrificing priest, but, as 
seems clear to me, a god of anger or vengeance. There would be no 
evident reason for sometimes representing the priest alone ; there would 
be the god. The attendant of the sacrificing priest would hardly carry 
a bow on his shoulder; a divine attendant of an armed god might him- 
self be armed. The peculiar emblems in the left hand, the radiating 
objects, or the zigzag object, seem certainly to belong to a god. The 
only suggestion of a human sacrifice, that I discover, is on the cylinder 
(Fig. 7) where the victim is before a seated goddess ; but it is so com- 
mon to have several gods represented on the cylinders that this has no 
weight against the other indications. 

Assuming, then, the figure with hand uplifted, threatening his vic- 
tim, to be a god, the question follows, Who is this god ? The indi- 
cations are not fully satisfactory. The sickle-like weapon held over 
his head is the same as Merodach carries by his side in his pursuit of 
Tiamat ; but this can hardly be Merodach. He must be one of those 
gods that are represented as the destroyers of wicked men, such are 
Ramman, Adar, and Nergal. If, as is not impossible, the upright 
lion, or lion with the legs of a cock, which we have often seen attack- 
ing the same victim, is Nergal, then the other god, whom we are now 
considering, cannot be Nergal, as they both appear in Figure 14- The 
rabbins say that the Nergal of Kutha had the form of a cock, but it 
is doubtful if they have any foundation for it except the conceit of 
the connection of Nergal with tarnegol, "a cock." On a cylinder in De 
Clercq's collection (Catalogue raisonne, fig. 76) Hea-bani appears fight- 
ing this composite creature, which militates against its being Nergal. 

If we exclude Nergal, the emblem in the left hand of the god, either 
radiating or zigzag, might very well be the thunderbolt, as the zigzag 
is called by Lenormant (Berose, p. 94). In that case, the god would 
appear to be Ramman, who may thus be represented destroying his 
enemies, or wicked men, with his peculiar weapon. So, also, in his 
Histoire andenne de I' Orient (vol. I, p. 62), Lenormant gives a figure 
of this god (in a long robe) with the zigzag emblem, as a figure of 
Ramman taken from a cylinder. The bull, however, which he often 
leads, would seem to point to Adar, if it be Adar who is represented 
on Assyrian seals (LAJARD, Culte de Mithra, pis. xxxv, fig. 9 ; LIV 
A, fig. 10) adorned with a star, or ball, on his helmet, standing on a 



NOTES ON ORIENTAL ANTIQUITIES. 43 

bull, and often accompanied by the goddess Istar similarly adorned 
with stars. But it may be worth mentioning that the inscription on 
fig. 153 in DE CLECRQ, Catalogue raisonne, where we see the god lead- 
ing the bull, makes the owner a worshipper of the god Ramman. Still, 
we can put little weight on this indication alone. I do, however, very 
decidedly incline to see Ramman in the god whom Me"nant calls " the 
pontiff." I am not quite sure that I am not in error in supposing that 
the long-robed god with the zigzag emblem is the same as the god in 
the short robe who also threatens the victim. I also add that it is pro- 
bable that Me"nant is right in identifying his short-robed " pontiff/ 7 
attacking the naked victim, with the conventional form of the short- 
robed "pontiff" in Figured. While the inscriptions on cylinders are 
very frequently quite unrelated to the gods figured upon them, yet, as 
I observe a predominance of the inscription Samas, Act, on cylinders 
which show the god with foot lifted, and the flounced goddess, I seem 
to find a predominance of the names of Ramman and Sala on cylin- 
ders that bear Figure 5 with the same flounced form of goddess, who 
may be the female complement to any god. 

In order to settle these and many other identities connected with the 
cylinders, it is essential that we have a more careful study of the attri- 
butes and descriptions of the gods as recorded on the tablets. We know 
that Merodach carries his sickle-shaped scimetar, and that Samas car- 
ries a notched sword : but the hatchet (probably of Adar), the zigzag 
fork, the bundle of radiating objects, the light baton carried across his 
breast by the short-robed Ramman (?) of Figure 5, the mace or club, 
the ring (probably agu), need to be fully identified through the inscrip- 
tions, and thus the gods who carry them made known. Until then, 
perhaps our conclusions, in the case of the cylinders now under discus- 
sion, will remain rather negative than positive, showing the failure of 
the evidence for M. Me"nant's very seductive theory, which would illus- 
trate not only the translation of a hymn on human sacrifice offered by 
Professor Sayce, but also II Kings, xvn. 31, where we are told that 
the men of Sepharvaim, settled in Samaria, burnt their children to 
Adrammelech and Anammelech, that is, Adar and Anu, the gods of 
Sepharvaim. 2 

WILLIAM HAYES WARD. 

New York CUy. 

2 The great debt we owe to M. Mdnant for his laborious classification and explana- 
tion of the Oriental cylinders will allow some correction of his results by other stu- 
dents, without at all discrediting the value of his original investigations. 



A SMALL COLLECTION OF BABYLONIAN WEIGHTS. 



A brief description of a small collection of objects of antiquity, 
believed to belong to the Babylonian system of weights, will be found 
to possess a certain degree of interest. 

TABULAR LIST OF THE WEIGHTS AND THEIR RELATIVE VALUES. 



No. 


Object. 


Grammes. 


Grains 
Troy. 


Denomination. 


1. 


Lion of lead. 




569. 


8,780 


One Mana. 


2. 


Tablet of Lead. 




67.45 


1,041 


3 Double Staters. 


3. 


Hematite Stone. 




154.75 


2,388 


f of Mana. 


4. 


Fusiform hematite stone, in-"" 


} 










scribed, in cuneiform char- 




123.33 


1,902 


4* " " 




acters, " fifteen measures." 


\ 








5. 


Hematite stone, without mar] 


t. 


14.58 


235 


T " " 


6. 


Hematite Conoid, marked on 




Q I A 


1 9^ 


1 (i (( 




the base. 




O.lvJ 


LAO 


~5TJ 


7. 


Hematite Spheroid, marked 
on the base. 




6.31 


97.4 


rtTT " " 


8. 


Duck of white chalcedony, 












with winged human figure 




5.25 


81 


20 (( (( 




in intaglio on bottom. 










9. 


Hematite Spheroid,with duck | 


7 98 




1 (( 11 




cut on face. 




i t7O 




5W 


10. 


Square lead, with design on face. 


1467. 


22,636 


Three Mana. 


11. 


Square lead, with figure of 
elephant. 


i 


1012. 


15,615 


One 



Nos. 1 and 2 are of lead, and, although of Greek origin, yet, as 
coming from Kyzikos, they have a place here, as it is well known that 
the early coinage of Kyzikos was based upon the Babylonian standard. 
No. 1 is a square piece of lead bearing, in high relief, the figure of a 
lion, and under the forepaws the mark I. Its weight is 569 grammes 
or 8,780 grains Troy. It represents the Mana of Kyzikos, and is but 
little heavier than the heaviest of the lighter Mana weights (561 grs.) 
published by Brandis. 1 It is possible that by oxidation its present 

1 Das Miintz, Mass und Gewichtswesen, p. 100. 

44 



A SMALL COLLECTION OF BABYLONIAN WEIGHTS. 45 

weight exceeds slightly its original weight. No. 2 is a small square 
lead tablet bearing the letters KYZ and TPI^ with the club of Hera- 
kles between them. Its weight is 67.45 grammes = 1041 grains Troy. 
It represents three double staters, and shows the later Babylonian 
division by 50 instead of by 60. Dividing the No. 1 by 50, we have 
W = 11.38 gram., i. e., 175 grains ; doubling that, 11.38 x 2 = 22.76 
gram. = 350 grains, as the double stater, three of which would weigh 
1050 grains 68.28 gram. The difference of nine grains might have 
been caused by wear and perforation. 

No. 3 is an irregular semicylindrical hematite stone, polished on one 
side and perforated near the end. It bears no marks save two strokes 
(II) at the larger end. Its weight is 154.75 gram., i. e., 2,388 grains 
Troy. It is the one third, or IS, of a Mana of 7,164 grains Troy = 
464.25 gram. 2 

No. 4 is one of special interest. It is a fusiform hematite stone, 
and bears, in cuneiform characters, the inscription <V7 J=T, "fifteen 
measures " (or units of measure). It is slightly chipped, but, upon 
carefully filling out the fracture and calculating, by displacement, its 
original weight has been very closely ascertained. It has weighed 
123.33 gram., i. e., 1902 grains Troy. Taking the unit to be A of the 
Mana, this weight represents H, or one fourth, of a Mana of 493.33 
gram. = 7,608 grains Troy. 

No. 5 is similar to No. 4 in shape, but smaller, without inscription, 
apparently perfect, save a slight crack, and weighs 14.58 gram. 235 
grains Troy ; corresponding very closely to the Sacred Shekel, or jh of 
the Lighter Mana. 

No. 6 is a small hematite conoid, perforated, and marked on the 
base LIJ* and Qfto. Its weight is 8.10 gram. = 125 gr. Troy, and 
is eV of a Mana. 

No. 7 is a small hematite spheroid, perforated, marked on the base 
<sf<*Jf , which I am as yet unable to explain satisfactorily. Its weight 
is 6.31 gram. = 97.4 gr. Troy. It shows the secondary division of 
the unit, <n> of the *o, representing the rffo of the Mana. 

No. 8 is a pretty little white chalcedony stone duck, perforated, and 
having on the base the winged human figure, in making which the 
lapidary has evidently had reference to bringing the stone to the exact 
weight. It is in perfect preservation, and I think may be taken as a 

2 A green basalt weight in the Brit. Mus. with a trilingual inscription, described by 
Mr. Budge in Proceedings of Soc. of Bib. Arch., June 1888, weighs 2,573 grains Troy. 



46 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHEOLOGY. 

standard weight. It weighs 5.25 gram. = 81 gr. Troy. It would be 
the yHfo of a Mana, weighing 472.50 gram. = 7,280 gr. Troy. 

No. 9 is a small spheroidal perforated hematite stone, with the en- 
graved figure of a duck or bird, and some marks which are not very 
plain. I am not quite sure that it is a weight/ but, as it weighs very 
nearly 8 gram.= 123.4 gr. Troy, and represents the i?V of the Mana, 
I have given it a place here. 

No. 10 is a large square lead, bearing, upon the face, some design 
which it is difficult with certainty to determine ; and, on the reverse, 
two dots, one larger than the other. Its weight is about 1467 gram. 
= 22,636 gr. Troy. 

No. 11 is a square lead bearing the figure of an elephant, but with- 
out any numeral marks. Its weight is about 1,012 gram. = 15,615 gr. 
Troy. It thus corresponds very closely to the Mana derived from the 
" Talent of the King," as given by Brandis (op. tit., p. 100) ; and the 
preceding one (No. 10) is so nearly three times this weight that I con- 
clude this to be the meaning of the large and small dot upon the base. 
This seems to be very nearly the normal Mesopotamian Mana, and 
No. 10, the & or & of the " Talent of the King." 

The above described eleven weights, although presenting the usual 
variations, may serve to throw some light upon the subject of the rela- 
tive standards of Assyria, Babylonia, Mesopotamia, and Asia Minor, 
a subject by no means exhausted. 

ALBERT L. LONG. 

Robert College, Constantinople, 
November 15, 1888. 



NOTES. 



INSCRIPTION FROM KORMASA; RAMSAY No. 7. 

Ramsay theilt oben (American Journal of Archaeology, iv, s. 265) eine 
Inschrift aus Kormasa mit, die er zweifelnd, und f iir einiges auf Deu- 
tung verzichtend, so liess : f E/>yu% AOVKLOV THAAOTTOY yvveicl /ce 
'E/o/i-5 &> TTpo/jiOLptt) dvecTTrjcre fAvrjfjLTjs xdpuv ' el jjuev ISia ^oiprj, & <j)i\e 
NEIAEXEPEI SwXoTTOfcot? rj\i,e /SXeVe. Fiir den Namen der Frau 
weiss auch ich nichts vorzuschlagen ; den Schluss mochte ich so lesen : 
el jjuev ISia jjuoipr) axj)ei\ev, el Se ^epal SoXoTrotofc ' rjXte (SKeire. " Wenn 
er im Folge seiner fj,oipr) starb, so musste es sein, und wir miissen uns 
zufrieden geben, starb er aber durch Morderhand, dann mfe ich die 
allessehende Sonne an/ 7 AoXoTroto?, das ich nur aus Sophokles (Trachi- 
nierinnen, 832) belegt finde, steht hier fur 



Athens, Greece. 



PAUL WOLTERS. 



THE ARCHITECTURAL INSCRIPTION FOUND AT EPIDAUROS IN 1885. 

Mr. J. C. ROLFE, a member of the School at Athens, recently read 
a paper there upon some peculiarities of the architectural inscription 
from Epidauros, of which a summary has already been given in this 
Journal, vol. in, pp. 319-20. The stone is inscribed on both sides, 
and, as a narrow column is written beside the main column on each 
face, Mr. Rolfe concludes that the whole account existed in some 
written form (?) before it was inscribed on the marble. He observes 
six divisions in the document, with the following characteristics : 



i. Lines 1 31, verb form ?}\6To ; spurious diphthong ov=ou } 5 times 



23 



21 

1 



ii. Lines 31- 54, 


1 


e'Aero ; 


i 


in. Lines 54- 88, 


1 


e'/Aero ; 


i 


iv. Lines 89-112, 


1 


e Aero ; 


( 


v. Lines 113-271, 


i 


e'/Aero ; 


t 


VI. Lines 271-305, 


i 


eAero ; 


( 



0=0 u, 11 times. 



2 

13 
1 

16 



No. iv is also characterized by 0= 15 times out of 76, No. v by 
0=02 times out of 131, No. vi by = 28 times out of 106 ; and 
No. I by the ethnikon of the contractors being employed, though not so 
in the other divisions. The six divisions seem to show a change of 
scribe for each, and this change coincides with periodical payments made 

47 



48 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHEOLOGY. 

to the architect at lines 32, 54, 11 1, but not at 88, where the record of a 
payment, Mr. Rolfe thinks, may have been omitted. Another payment 
in line 10 would necessitate a minor division of No. I at that point. 



EARLY BRONZES DISCOVERED IN THE CAVE OF ZEUS ON 
MOUNT IDA IN KRETE. 

The following notes were made too late for insertion in my article 
in the last number of the Journal (iv, pp. 431-49). 

In a late number of the Journal Asiatique (Nov. Dec. 1888, p. 517), 
M. Hal6vy calls attention to a passage in a Babylonian hymn to the 
sun, in which he finds the Babylonian original of the Hebrew word 
for ark, rDfl. It is also interesting as giving a description of the 
Babylonian Sacred tree, from which the Assyrian tree was doubtless 
derived : it shows that, while with the latter it was especially connected 
with Assur, with the Babylonians it was connected with Samas, the 
sun-god. The lines are translated as follows : 

" I invoke thee, o sun-god in the midst of the clear heavens, 
Thou restest in the shade of the cedar ; 
Thy feet (= thy rays) rest on the cypress chest (= ark)." 

It would be interesting to collect the passages in Babylonian litera- 
ture that refer to the Sacred tree. 

The peculiarity, noted on p. 444, in the Shield of the Goats, of revers- 
ing the animals in each zone so that half have their backs and half the 
feet turned toward the centre of the shield, had already been noted by 
Perrot, in the votive shield from Lake Van which he reproduces in 
fig. 225 of vol. ii. He speaks of it as a a curious arrangement of which 
we can point to no other example." Perhaps Perrot's theory of the 
Assyrian origin of this class of objects is the one which has the great- 
est probability. 

Another example where Izdubar holds the lion over his head is on 
a cylinder published in Lajard, Quite de Mithra, pi. xxv, No. 3. 

A. L. FEOTHINGHAM, JR. 



REVIEWS AND NOTICES OF BOOKS. 



ORIENTAL ARCHEOLOGY. 

EENEST BABELON. Manuel d' Archeologie Orientate. Chaldee Assy- 
rie Perse Syrie Judee Phenicie Carthage. [Bibliothque 
de TEnseignement des Beaux-Arts] 8vo, pp. 318. Paris, 1888, 
Quantin. 

About a year ago, M. Maspero published, in this excellent series, a volume 
on Egyptian Archseology : the present volume is its fellow, and the two 
together cover the entire history of art before the rise of Greece. M. 
Babelon has been well prepared for the task by special studies, as shown 
in his extremely competent revision and continuation of Lenormant's great 
work : Histoire aneienne de V Orient. As he remarks, there were two artistic 
currents in the ancient East, one originating in Egypt, the other in Meso- 
potamia ; in them all other minor streams of artistic development have 
their source. M. Babelon here treats of the second of these great currents 
in all its ramifications. 

i. Babylonian art. In this chapter, the writer founds himself almost 
entirely on the results of the excavations by M. de Sarzec at Telloh, and 
discusses the subject under the heads of (a) architecture, (b) statues and 
reliefs, (c) small sculpture and industrial arts, (d) glyptics. A careful 
description is given of the palace at Telloh, and the theory of the invention 
and use of the dome and vault by the Babylonians is adopted, on grounds 
which to us are quite inconclusive. It appears, however, that in its ground- 
plan at least the Babylonian royal palace was the prototype of the Assyrian. 
The various stages in the development of early Babylonian sculpture from 
about 3000 to 2000, as shown by the Telloh sculptures, are clearly given, 
as well as the later style during the period of decline. 

ii. Assyrian art. Under (a) architecture, we have chapters on the ele- 
ments of construction, showing how the Assyrians, having stone quarries 
near at hand, made a considerable use of stone to face their brick walls, and 
so had the advantage over the Babylonians, who were confined to bricks 
and could procure stone only from foreign quarries ; and that the usual 
method of covering spaces was by vaults and domes, both Babylonians and 
Assyrians making but a sparing use of free supports. Sargon's palace is 
naturally taken as the type, but other phases of Assyrian architecture are 
treated under the heads of many-storied temples and towers, and cities and 
their fortifications. In his treatment of (b) statuary and sculpture in relief, 
4 49 



50 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHEOLOGY. 

the writer is at home in the characteristics of the different periods and in 
the general style, but is somewhat prone to minimize its excellencies and 
enlarge on its defects. There are other chapters on works in metal; works 
in wood and ivory ; on leather and stuffs ; and on jewelry and cylinders. 

in. Persian art. For Persian, as for Babylonian art, perhaps the most 
important studies and excavations have been made by a Frenchman. The 
writer's review of this branch of his subject is founded in great part on M. 
Dieulafoy's Art Antique de la Perse and his excavations at Susa, as well as 
the great worl of Flandin and Coste. There are chapters on civil archi- 
tecture, on sculpture, on painting and enamel work, on religious and sepul- 
chral monuments, and on engraved stones and jewelry. 

IV. The Hittites. In treating of Hittite archaeology, the writer divides 
it into (a) the monuments of Syria, a mere barbarous reproduction of Assyr- 
ian art ; (6) those of Kappadokia, which show a compromise between the 
influences of Egypt and Assyria, though the latter is especially strong ; and 
(c) those of Asia Minor. 

v. Jewish art. The temple of Jerusalem is restored according to M. de 
Vogue's theories, which are closely followed in every respect. The decora- 
tion and furniture of the temple, the civil architecture and the tombs, are 
treated separately. 

vi. Phoenician and Kypriote art. The temples, of which so little is known , 
the better-known civil architecture, the tombs, sculpture in its different 
phases and periods, especially in Kypros, and keramics, glass, bronzes, jew- 
elry and engraved stones, are summarily exhibited in as many chapters. 

The method of the book is clear, the style pleasant, the erudition sure, the 
correspondence of parts good, and the illustrations numerous, well-chosen, 
and, though small, are executed with accuracy and artistic delicacy. It 
will serve admirably as a text-book. 

A. L. FROTHINGHAM, JR. 

ISAAC BLOCK. Inscriptions tumulaires des anciens cimetidres Israelites 

d'Alger. 8vo, pp. ni-142. Paris, 1888. 

The first three chapters are devoted to an historical account of the Jewish 
cemeteries of Algiers. These are followed by a description of forty-eight 
sepulchral slabs with the text and translation of their inscriptions, which 
are sometimes bilingual, Hebrew and Spanish. To this is added a full bio- 
graphy and bibliography of the persons buried under these slabs, beginning 
in the xm century. H. D. DE GRAMMONT in Revue Critique, 1889, No. 3. 

GUIL. BUECHNER. De Neocoria. 8vo,pp.l32. Giessen, 1888, Kicker. 

This is a treatise on the obscure question of the Asiatic cities called, on 

inscriptions or coins, neocoria, because they possessed one or more temples 



REVIEWS AND NOTICES OF BOOKS. 51 

of the Caesars. The writer studies the relation between the neocoriat and 
the provincial cultus. A double list of cities called neocoria and of metro- 
f polia shows many names in common : the writer concludes that every neo- 
coriat city must have had a temple for provincial cultus. Sometimes the 
title of neocoria indicated not imperial worship but that of some local 
divinity. A careful and tedious examination of the coins enables the 
writer to settle approximately the time when the Asiatic cities became 
neocoria. An appendix is devoted to the priests of the provinces of Asia. 
Contrary to Waddington and Marquardt, he proves that there was not one 
high-priest of Asia with delegates in all the cities of the KOLVOV 'Ao-i'as, but 
as many high-priests as there were provincial temples. The work is care- 
ful and solid. S. REINACH, in Revue Critique, 1889, No. 3. 

W. M. FLINDERS PETRIE, with chapters by A. S. MURRAY and F. 
LL. GRIFFITH. Tanis. Part II, 1886. Nebesheh (Am) and Defen- 
neh (Tahpanhes). Fourth memoir of the Egypt Exploration Fund. 
4to, pp. 44 with xn pis.; and pp. vm-116 with LI pis. London, 
1888, Triibner. 

The first part of this memoir, on Tanis, is a continuation of the descrip- 
tion of the monuments, commenced in Tanis I, and there discontinued in 
the midst of the monuments of Ramessu II. The descriptions are minute 
and careful, and include monuments of Merenptah, Ramessu III, Siamen, 
Sheshonk III, Taharka, and the Ptolemaic period. A chapter by Mr. 
Griffith is devoted to translations of the inscriptions published in both Tanis 
volumes. Nos. 1-65 are from Tanis I, and include Pepi I (vi dynasty), 
Amenemhat I (on his statue), Usertesen I (on his statues), Usertesen II, 
Amenemhat II (all of the xn dynasty) ; Sebekhetep, Mermashau (xin 
dyn.), Apepi, the Hyksos ; a quantity of inscriptions of Ramessu II and 
Merenptah. Nos. 66-174 are given in the plates of this volume. This 
series of inscriptions forms almost a corpus of the inscriptions of the great 
temple of Tanis. From them Mr. Griffith draws conclusions, (1) as to 
the local worship of Tanis, (2) as to the position of Tanis in the political 
geography of Egypt, (3) as to the history of the kings. 

The succeeding monograph is on Tell Nebesheh. Chapter i deals with 
its position and history. It borders on the salt swamps which surround the 
marshes of lake Menzaleh, 8 miles s. E. of San = Tanis, and is on land which 
has been so lowered and denuded by the wind, in the course of ages, that 
in most cases the foundations of subterranean tombs have been carried 
away. This fact, common throughout this low region of Egypt, accounts 
for the absence of early monuments, as the level has been lowered some- 
times as much as 15 feet. The monuments of the vi and xn dynasties 



52 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY. 

have usually been swept away many centuries ago, as those of the xix and 
even of the xxvi dynasty are often entirely destroyed. The name of the 
ancient city was Am, capital of the xix nome (Am Pehu) of Lower Egypt. 
It seems to have been settled at the same time as its neighbor Tanis, un- 
der the xu dynasty, Am being perhaps the legal and religious capital, 
while Tanis was superior in size and civic importance. The temple of 
Am, founded in the xu dynasty or earlier, was completely rearranged by 
Ramessu II, who reestablished there the worship of Uati, dedicating a 
beautiful statue of that goddess and a pair of colossi of himself, covering 
the walls with inscriptions, and erecting clustered columns like those of 
Gurneh. The general resemblance between these two temples is remarkable. 
Tanis and Am alternated in favor. Tanis was neglected during the Renas- 
cence, but rose under the Boubastites ; while Am was then neglected, but 
recovered under the Saites, when Tanis was neglected ; while, under the 
Ptolemies and Romans, Tanis nourished and Am fell to ruin. Chapter n is 
devoted to the temples, of which there are two, one large and one small. 
In front of the propylon of the temenos stood a monument of Merenptah, 
unique in being a column of red granite around which were carved scenes 
of adoration and offering, while on its summit stood a group of the king 
kneeling overshadowed by a hawk. The smaller temple was built by 
Aahmes II. There are some inscriptions of the " chief of the chancellors 
and royal seal-bearer," who have a series of scarabs like those of the kings 
of the xn-xiv dynasties : these viceroys occupy a unique position in Egyp- 
tian history and were probably the native viziers of Hyksos kings. This 
is used to explain the appointment of Joseph, which " was not an extra- 
ordinary act of an autocrat, but the filling up of a regular office of the 
head of the native administration." Chapter in is on the cemetery. The 
earliest tombs were of the xix and xx dynasties, the latest, of the Persian 
period. The tombs belong to two if not three classes : (1) the great hashes 
or chamber-tombs, built on the surface and rising to a height of 10 or 15 
feet, the earliest of which appear to belong to the xxvi dynasty ; (2) sub- 
terranean tombs, with wells of access ; (3) a development of the subter- 
ranean tombs, consisting of large square hollows lined with brick walls 
and having stone chambers built in the space. Among the later tombs are 
two important contemporary but extremely distinct classes the Kypriote 
and the Saitic. The former are so called from the pottery found in them. 
Chapter iv treats of the town, in which, though several long lines of street 
may be followed, the houses are mostly separate insulae. Chapter v, by Mr. 
Griffith, analyses the inscriptions, and describes the ushabti or figurines 
of limestone, sandstone, red pottery and glazed ware ; the statuary and 
sarcophagi. In Chapter vi, Mr. Griffith gives an account of the excava- 
tions at the small mound of Gemaiyemi, 3? miles N. w. of Nebesheh, where 



REVIEWS AND NOTICES OF BOOKS. 53 

a temenos and temple were found with foundation deposits, vases, bronzes, 
models, etc., of Ptolemaic or Roman periods. It was evidently the place 
of residence of a group of artistic workers whose unfinished and less port- 
able work has here been discovered. Chapters vii-xin are devoted to 
Defenneh. "In the sandy desert bordering on Lake Menzaleh, some 
hours distant on the one hand from the cultivated Delta and on the 
other hand from the Suez canal, stand the ruins of the old frontier for- 
tress of Tahpanhes, Taphne, Daphnai, or Defenneh, built to guard the 
highway into Syria," where the fort still remaining was built by Psamtik I 
of the xxvi dynasty, and garrisoned by the Ionian and Karian merce- 
naries. It was built c. 664 B. c. It became the rallying place for the 
Jewish emigrants fleeing from Judaea and the Babylonian king, the great- 
est emigration being recorded in the well-known text of Jeremiah. Here 
Nebuchadnezzar spread his royal pavilion at the time of his invasion, 
on the vast platform, or surrounding open court, at the place where Jere- 
miah, at the command of Jehovah, had taken great stones and hidden them 
in the mortar. Chapter vm treats of the Kasr and camp. The ruined 
mass of the fort is popularly known by the name of Kasr-el-bint-el- 
Yehudi, " the palace of the Jew's daughter," and is another instance of the 
exactness and long continuance of popular traditions, as it reminds us that 
the " king's daughters " dwelt there. The most important find in the fort 
was that of the foundation deposits of Psamtik I, the oldest and finest yet 
discovered. Chapter ix, on the pottery, is pf unusual interest, as it is the 
complement of the work at Naukratis, and is important for the history of 
Greek painted pottery. The types most usual at Naukratis are absent at 
Defenneh, and vice versa ; and there seems good reason to believe that 
several classes of the pottery of Defenneh were made in the country. Their 
age is certain : it is included within the hundred years which elapsed between 
the foundation of the fort, c. 665, and the complete removal of the Greeks 
by Aahmes, c. 565. The dates given to varieties of the Naukratis ware, 
between 565 and 595,' are sustained by corresponding varieties at Defen- 
neh, which, as seen above, must date from the same period. Mr. Murray 
publishes, in Chapter x, some interesting observations on some of the Defen- 
neh vase-paintings, mostly of the archaic black-figured ware. One frag- 
ment is noticed in detail as having a striking likeness to scenes on the 
Francois vase. Chapter xi is devoted to the small antiquities, and Chap- 
ter xn to the weights. In the latter, a very important general study of 
ancient weights is made, accompanied by elaborate catalogued tables. At 
Naukratis, 874 were found ; at Nebesheh, only 21 ; while, at Defenneh, 
the supply was inexhaustible. In all, over 4000 weighings were performed. 
Some of the weights were of stone, but the great majority were of metal. 
The standards used were found to be the following : Egyptian kat standard ; 



54 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHEOLOGY. 

Assyrian shekel standard ; Attic drachma standard ; Aiginetan drachma 
standard ; Phoenician shekel standard ; Eighty-grain standard ; Persian 
siglos standard ; Koman uncia standard ; Arab dirhem standard. There 
are three interesting plates of curves. PI. XLVIII shows the " Naukratis 
curves of weights, 1885 and 1886 " : pi. XLTX the " Defenneh curves of 
weights," and pi. L the "comparisons of curves" (1) of (a) Naukratis, (6) 
Defenneh, and (c) all previous collections ; (2) of the (a) Naukratis Assyr- 
ian X - 1 /, (6) Asiatic Assyrian X -V 6 -, (c) Naukratis Phoenician, (d) 
Asiatic Phoenician ; and (3) of the (a) Naukratis Assyrian X |, (6) the 
Asiatic Assyrian X f , and the (c) " Eighty grain." The conclusion is 
drawn, that, for the later periods of Egyptian history, there were different 
families of kat weights, perpetuated and transmitted without their arche- 
types ever being quite masked in the process, and that these families were 
distributed throughout the country. The origin of the different standards 
is discussed in detail. The last, Chapter xm, is on the site called Qan- 
tarah, by Mr. Griffith. A. L. FROTHINGHAM, JR. 

H. POGNON. Les Inscriptions Babyloniennes du Wady Brissa. Ou- 
vrage accompagne" de 14 planches. R. 8vo, pp. 22 and 199. Paris, 
1887, Vieweg. 

For the past ten years, M. Pognon has been a constant contributor to 
Assyriological study and literature. His government positions in the East 
have given him exceptional opportunities for study and original investiga- 
tion in this line. Previous to the publication of the work in hand, he has 
given us L J Inscription de JSavian (1879) and Inscription de Merou-Nerar 
I er (1884). Both of these works were close critical studies of the inscriptions 
named, and were contributions of a very decided nature to Assyriology. 

This new work contains inscriptions which are now published for the 
first time. Their originals are found in the Lebanon Mountains, about 
two days' march east of Tripoli of Syria. Two hours north of the village 
of Hermel, on the left bank of the Orontes river, is found Wady Brissa. 
One and one-half hours up this wady brings one to the Babylonian inscrip- 
tions published by M. Pognon. On the right side of the wady, upon the 
rock-wall, the inscription is written in archaic Babylonian characters. On 
the left side of the wady, the inscription, not identical with that of the 
right side, is written in the cursive, or later, Babylonian characters. On 
the right side, a rectangular space about 16 ft. X 10 ft. had been chiselled 
out and polished down to a smooth surface, to receive the inscription. Upon 
this surface, however, are seen the remains of a basrelief. The dim out- 
lines of a man in an erect position, seizing an animal, probably a lion, 
which stands on his hind feet and raises one paw to strike his adversary, 



REVIEWS AND NOTICES OF BOOKS. 55 

are readily discernible. This relief occupies the extreme left of prepared 
space. Over and under this figure, and filling all the available space, are 
found nine columns of inscriptions. The entire surface has been badly 
mutilated by the natives, supposing that it marked hidden treasures. In 
fact, the lower border of rough rock which encloses the whole space has 
been entirely cut away, even below the level of the ground. The entire 
inscription contains 291 lines and parts of lines. 

On the left side of the wady, the rock-wall had been prepared in like 
proportions. Upon the surface is found the Babylonian inscription in 
cursive characters. It is in a much better state of preservation than its 
mate. Upon this surface also, one notes the remains of a basrelief. It 
seems to have been a man standing before a leafless tree. The remaining 
fragments of the relief are simply the top of the tree, and the tiara of the 
man. The scribe of this inscription had miscalculated. The inscription 
not only covers all the prepared rectangle at his disposal, but, of its ten 
columns, between three and four are written upon the rock outside of the 
originally prepared space. Of this inscription we have intact 420 lines 
and parts of lines : so that the two inscriptions give us about 700 lines 
of additional Babylonian inscriptions from the time of Nebuchadnezzar. 

The archaic inscription contains very little that will add to our knowl- 
edge of Nebuchadnezzar. The principal theme is his loyalty to the gods, 
in worship, festivals, and restoration of temples, palaces, and Babylon. 
In the third column there is a digression for Nebuchadnezzar, in that men- 
tion is made of an expedition over difficult ways and across the desert. 
The cursive-character inscription repeats somewhat from the archaic. But 
there is a considerable amount of material found only here. Nebuchad- 
nezzar constructed a levee between the Tigris and Euphrates. He made 
an expedition into the mountains of Lebanon and here the inscription is 
too mutilated to be made out. Undoubtedly, if the inscription were intact, 
we should here find an exception to Nebuchadnezzar's supposed rule in 
his inscriptions. We should discover a detailed account of his sieges and 
victories in the West. 

In his translation, M. Pognon leaves large numbers of ideograms unread 
and unpronounced, especially in the enumeration of the articles received 
as tribute, and the offerings to the gods. This method is rather more com- 
mendable than that employed by the Rev. C. J. Ball, M. A., in his trans- 
lations of the Nebuchadnezzar inscriptions in the Proceedings of the Society 
of Biblical Archceology (vol. x, No. 2, pp. 87-129 ; No. 3, pp. 215-30 ; No. 
4, pp. 290-99 ; No. 7, pp. 359-68). M. Pognon asserts his substantial agree- 
ment with M. Halevy in the belief that there is no such language as the 
Accadian. This belief is gaining ground constantly, and counts among its 
adherents to-day even the learned author of the new Assyrisches Wb'rterbuch, 
Professor Friedrich Delitzsch of Leipzig. 



56 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY. 

The first 22 pages of our work are printed and contain the author's trans- 
lations. Next follow 123 pages of philological notes on the inscription. 
The most uncommon ideograms then follow on 20 pages. The phonetic 
words expressed in cuneiform characters are then arranged, on 53 pages, 
after the order of the Hebrew and Arabic alphabet. This arrangement 
and expression of the words is too mechanical and stilted. It would be 
much more simple and plain to every one, and serve all its ends as well, 
if expressed in Latin characters. All the foregoing, except 22 pages, is 
autographed in a clear and beautiful hand. Four phototype plates then 
follow, giving two views of each side of the wady where the inscriptions 
are found. They are not first-class in workmanship, and give one but a 
poor idea of the things they attempt to present. Ten folding autograph 
facsimile plates give us in a clear, steady, strong hand the whole body of 
inscriptions, both archaic and cursive. They are a real and valuable con- 
tribution to the already large number of inscriptions belonging to the time 
of Nebuchadnezzar. 

IRA M. PRICE. 

Morgan Park, III. 

CLASSICAL ARCHAEOLOGY. 

P. H. ANTICHAN. Grands voyages de decouvertes des Anciens. 8vo, 

pp. 318. Delagrave, Paris. 

The first half of the volume deals with mythical voyages, the Argonauts, 
the Odyssey, the Aeneid the second half deals with Alexander's Journey 
to India, the voyages of the Phoenicians, Himilco, Pytheas, Hanno, the 
voyage under Necho, Sataspes' travels, Skylax, Eudoxos, Polybios, the 
Ptolemaic geography, and the traditions of the Atlantidai. By no means 
uncritical, the little volume is simple, intelligible and well-written. Berl. 
phil. Woch., 1888, No. 52. 

HUGO BLUMNER. Uber die Bedeutung der antiken DenJcmdler als Jcul- 
turhistorische. Rede, gehalten am 28 April 1888 beim Antritte des 
Rektorats. R. 8vo, pp. 28. Meyer u. Zeller, Zurich, 1888. 
Following his predecessor's energetic appeal for the retention of the 
ancient languages in the gymnasial curriculum, Dr. Bliimner emphasizes 
the importance of the study of ancient art in connection with the literary 
and historical study of ancient authors. To-day, when discoveries are 
being made in Greece which give new solutions to old problems and raise 
new questions, no philologist can deny that the monuments are of the high- 
est importance in furnishing material in the departments of political his- 
tory, religion, and mythology, and, more than all, in the history of culture. 
OTTO KERN in Woch.f. Uass. Phil, 1889, No. 4. 



REVIEWS AND NOTICES OF BOOKS. 57 

HEINRICH BRUNN. Geschichte der grieehischen Kunstler. Zweite 
Auflage. Vollstandig in circa fiinfzehn Lieferungen. Ebner und 
Seubert, Stuttgart, 1889. 

This is a reproduction of the first edition without changes, with the ex- 
ception of a new paging and the introduction of a few typographical errors. 
It will place the book on the market for less money, but otherwise interests 
no one. The ground broken by Brunn thirty years ago has produced so 
much fruit in the knowledge of Greek art and artists that it.is greatly to 
be regretted that the history of art, for which his history of artists was 
considered only as preparatory, has not yet made its appearance. If, in 
the new edition, merely the names of artists recently discovered or a com- 
pendium of recent literature were given, these would be additions of value. 
F. KOEPP in Berl phil. Woch., 1888, No. 49. 

ROBERT BURN. Roman Literature in relation to Roman Art. Pp. x 
315, with illustrations. London, 1888, Macmillan. 
The object of the author is to show how some of the erroneous tendencies 
in Roman history and glyptic art had their origin in the national charac- 
ter and circumstances. There are five essays, on (1) Portraiture ; (2) His- 
torical and National Tendencies ; (3) Composite and Colossal Art ; (4) 
Technical Finish and luxurious Refinement; (5) Romano-Greek archi- 
tecture. The conclusion is, to find in the Romans extreme realism, a pon- 
derous love of detail, a tendency towards the colossal, and over-refinement 
and the display of technical skill. The final chapter on architecture is 
good, and taken mostly from the author's previous work, Rome and the 
Campagna. CECIL SMITH in Classical Review, Nov. 1888. 

HANS DROYSEN. Kriegsaltertkumer. I Halfte. Aus Hermann's Lehr- 
buch der griech. Antiquitaten. n. 2, 1. pp. 184. Neuhersg. von 
Bliimner u. Dittenberger. Freiburg in B. 

This work is distinguished from other treatises on the subject, except 
Riistow u. Kochlys's Geschichte des grieehischen Kriegswesens, in making 
the art of war of primary and political, and other issues of secondary, im- 
portance. The first book treats of weapons, classes of troops, and elementary 
tactics of the Greeks ; the second, of the art and conduct of war until the 
time of Philip of Macedon ; the third, from Philip to Pyrrhos ; the fourth, 
of the Hellenistic period. It is more comprehensive and more critical than 
Riistow and Kochlys. ADOLF BAUER in Berl. phil. Woch., 1888, No. 40. 

C. HASSE. Wiederherstellung antiker Bildwerke. Zweites Heft. Mit 
7 lithographierten Tafeln. Fol., pp. 21. Jena, 1888, G. Fischer. 
It is a cause for congratulation when an anatomist undertakes recon- 
structions of ancient sculpture, as he is usually in a better position than 



58 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY. 

an artist or an archaeologist to determine from the muscular indications how 
the original design was executed. Such attempts, however, made upon 
anatomical considerations alone are not always successful, as, for instance, 
the reconstruction of the Aphrodite of Melos, suggested by Hasse himself 
in 1882. It were better also in the present attempts, if our author had 
made more careful use of archaeological literature. For the reconstruction 
of the Ilioneus, he brings forward no new material, and acknowledges his 
incapacity to determine it in the absence of the head. In restoring the 
Torso Belvidere, anatomical considerations determine the position as one 
of rest, but do not afford a basis for placing in the left hand of the Hera- 
kles the apple of the Hesperides. P. WEIZSACKER in Woch. f. klass. Phil., 
1888, No. 51. 

RODOLFO LANCIANI. Ancient Rome in the light of recent discoveries. 

With 100 illustrations. 8vo, pp. xxix-329. New York, 1888. 

All those who were privileged to listen to Comm. Lanciani's course of 
lectures on Rome, delivered in this country during the winter of 1886-87, 
will enjoy seeing them in book form in this elegant volume. It is divided 
into the following chapters : i. Renaissance of archaeological studies. II. 
Foundation and prehistoric life of Rome. in. Sanitary condition of ancient 
Rome. iv. Public places of resort, v. The Palace of the Caesars, vi. 
The House of the Vestals, vn. The public libraries of ancient and mediceval 
Rome. vin. Police and fire department of ancient Rome. ix. The Tiber 
and the Claudian Harbor, x. The Campagna. xi. The disappearance of 
works of art, and their discovery in recent years. Under these headings the 
widest possible field is covered. In Rome's history, we pass from the time 
previous to its foundation, through all the various periods, to that of the 
present modernizations : we are also led, step by step, not only through all 
the sections and groups of important buildings of ancient Rome, but to 
the port of Ostia and over the Campagna. Certain subjects are dwelt upon 
at especial length, because illustrated by the more recent discoveries, as, 
for instance, the House of the Vestals, the police, the bronze statues, and 
the harbor of Ostia, the excavation of which Professor Lanciani is himself 
directing. 

There is no claim in this book to absolute novelty of material or of 
opinion : it professes to be simply a popular presentation of the latest 
results. As such it is extremely attractive from the easy style of the prose, 
the excellence of the illustrations, and the general typographical elegance. 
The greater part of the preface is devoted to an apology for the present 
condition of Rome, the rebuilding of the city and the consequent damage 
to monuments. It is no doubt true that much exaggeration has been shown 
in the attacks on the municipality and the government, and that a great 



REVIEWS AND NOTICES OF BOOKS. 59 

part of the harm done is a private account to be settled between the specu- 
lative building associations and private owners. In this part of his work 
and in the interesting chapter on the renaissance of archaeological study, 
the author, through a tendency to view the Italian Middle Ages through 
exclusively Koman glasses, not only falls into the injustice of stigmatizing 
the entire period previous to the Renaissance as one of " barbarism " 
whose " poverty and ignorance " " made the raising of new structures 
either difficult or impossible," thus ignoring even the share in an early 
Renaissance (of which Frederick II was the central figure) taken by the 
Roman school which we are accustomed to individualize under the name 
of the " Cosmati " but he also is led into giving to the Tribune Cola di 
Renzo the title of the first archaeologist, a title to which our learned friend 
M. Miintz would probably not agree, as it does not accord with the mass 
of material which he has brought forward to prove a Renaissance in North 
Italy during the xiv century. But it would be hardly fair to seriously 
raise a question with the author regarding a period which he has not made 
his special study. Several corrections regarding the chapter on the Pre- 
historic life of Rome have recently appeared in the N. Y. Nation from the 
pen of Mr. Henry W. Haynes and others, especially in regard to the mis- 
take of attributing the earliest tombs to a period anterior to the use of iron, 
i. e., to the bronze age. Lanciani is quite right, according to the best evi- 
dence, in denying Middleton's assertion of the preexistence of an Etruscan 
city on the site of Rome, and in supporting its Alban origin, so completely 
proved by the recent discoveries in the archaic necropolis. In his chapter 
on the obscure question of the sanitary conditions of ancient Rome, he is 
obliged to resort to the vague hypotheses of the " purifying action of tel- 
luric fires, of sulphuric emanations, and of many kinds of healing mineral 
springs," in order to explain the better sanitary condition of the entire 
region in the earliest period of the city ; and he considers the change for 
the worse to be due to the extinction of volcanic life in Latium. Professor 
Lanciani might, however, on this subject have used the results of the recent 
interesting investigations of the well-known French archaeologist, M. Rene 
de la Blanch ere, 1 into the entire system of drainage of the region of the Cam- 
pagna in the neighborhood of Velletri and a great part of Latium, employed 
by the pre-Roman tribes to drain off the infiltrating waters from the high 
lakes into the sea. In Imperial Rome Professor Lanciani is thoroughly at 
home : no one knows it better in a practical way, through the experience of 
many years of personal work, and the picture he gives us of it is wonder- 
fully graphic and real. 

A. L. FROTHINGHAM, JR. 

1 A brief summary of these investigations is given in the Journal of Archaeology, 
vol. iv, pp. 211-12. 



60 AMERICAN JO UENAL OF AEGH^OLOQ Y. 

MAX MAYER. Die Giganten und Titanen in der antiken Sage und 
Kunst. Berlin, 1887, Weidmann'sche Buchhandlung. 
This book intends to be a contribution to the study of Greek religion 
and archaeology. It is ingenious but paradoxical, and unsatisfactory from 
both lack of clearness and narrow range of hypotheses chiefly solar. He 
expounds the myth of the giant satisfactorily, although he does not suffi- 
ciently emphasize their character as elemental forces. His chapter on the 
character and myth of the Titans contains many unproved conclusions 
and unreal arguments. The writer denies any early worship anterior to or 
separate from that of Zeus as chief god, and considers the Titanic person- 
ages as hypostases of Zeus, Poseidon, or Helios. A large part is occupied 
with attempts at a philological analysis of names for which the author 
shows no special acquirements : he emphasizes unreal contradictions, makes 
much of apparent verbal connections, and attempts to crystallize what is 
vague. Although little independent archaeological judgment is shown, the 
latter part contains a valuable compendium of monuments relating to the 
gigantomachy. Classical Review, Nov., 1888. 

WALTHER MULLER. Die Theseusmetopen vom Theseion zu Aihen in 
ihrem Verhdltniss zur Vasenmalerei. Ein arehdologischerJBeitrag. 8vo, 
pp. 63. Gottingen, 1888, Akad. Buchhandlung. 
After having compared the metopes of the Theseion with the painted 
representations of the deeds of Theseus by Euphronios and his school, 
Gurlitt concluded that not the metopes but an older monumental work, 
possibly a frieze in the temple of Theseus, afforded the prototype for the 
vase-painters. W. Klein, in his Euphronios, considered these metopes the 
first monumental expression of the deeds of Theseus, to which Euphronios 
and his school were immediately indebted. W. Muller now takes up the 
subject as a special question, collects a large number of examples from 
vase-paintings, and, comparing them with the eight metopes, reaches a con- 
clusion which coincides with that of Gurlitt. M. GURLITT in Berl. phil. 
Woeh., 1888, No. 46. 

L. PRELLER. Griechische Mythologie. Vierte Auflage von CARL 

EGBERT. Bd. I, erste Halfte. 

This fourth edition is a far greater improvement on the third than that 
was on its predecessor, in thorough revision, alteration and enlargement, 
thus increasing the usefulness of the work and placing it abreast of recent 
advance in the subject. These improvements are due to Professor Kobert. 
His changes are of several kinds, e. g. : (1) the frequent elimination of the 
naturalistic origin assigned to Greek gods by Preller ; (2) a greater com- 
pleteness in the history of the artistic representation of each deity ; (3) 



REVIEWS AND NOTICES OF BOOKS. 61 

the remodelling of many passages with fuller literary references and more 
precise knowledge ; (4) the recognition that cultus does not change like 
mythology, and is consequently important for the study of early mytho- 
logical conditions ; (5) numerous additions from the cults of Asia Minor, 
and a fuller recourse in general to the historical method. W. M. RAMSAY 
in Classical Review, Nov., 1888. 

OTTO PUCHSTEIN. Das lonische Capitell. Siebenundvierzigtes Pro- 
gramm zum Winckelmannsfeste der arch. Gesell. zu Berlin. 
This is a critical treatise in which the Ionic capitals hitherto brought to 
light are classed according to the age and geographical distribution of the 
various types. Great success is shown in the strict classification into groups, 
thus making evident the separate influence of certain forms of the capital 
through long periods, as shown in successive monuments. The writer, how- 
ever, seems seriously at fault in his references to the history of the early 
development into the perfected Greek Ionic capital, especially in attributing 
a totally different origin to the horizontal and vertical spirals, considering 
the first to be a purely linear ornament, and the second a floral form in 
linear presentation. J. T. CLARKE, in Classical Review, Oct., 1888. 

ETTORE DE RUGGIERO. Dizionario epigrafico di antichitd, romane. 

Fasc. 1-10 ( Abacus- Aeternus). Roma, Pasqualucci. 

The first ten parts form only the beginning of this extensive work, in 
which Ruggiero is accomplishing even more than he promised. Instead 
of the brief explanations with which he wished to accompany the inscribed 
monuments, he furnishes us with thorough-going treatises, which not only 
illustrate but advance the present condition of our knowledge. If merely 
all public and private legal relations should be treated with the same elab- 
oration as in the article Aedilis, divided as it is into many divisions and 
subdivisions, it is questionable if the author would live to complete the 
task. Such, however, is the care with which Ruggiero has gathered and 
managed his materials, that it is to be hoped that he will himself do as 
much of the work as is possible. Not only Italian, but other epigraphical 
and archaeological sources have been freely utilized. The work will be 
specially valuable for the history of Roman law. A. CHAMBALU in Berl. 
phil. Woch., 1888, No. 51. 

BRUNO SAUER. DieAnfdngederstatuarischenGruppe. Ein Beitrag zur 
Geschichte der griechischen PlastiJc. 8vo, pp. 82. Leipzig, 1887, 
Seemann. 
After a brief introduction, the author considers Greek statuary groups 

prior to the time of Myron, and promises to continue the subject in a sub- 



62 AMERICAN JO UENAL OF ARCH^EOLOG Y. 

sequent work. It is unfortunate that he leaves out of sight statuettes and 
relief sculpture, and confines his attention exclusively to larger sculpture 
in the round, as archaeology has already suffered sufficiently from the exclu- 
sive consideration of the larger as distinguished from smaller works of art. 
Gable sculptures, for example, are not properly understood except as the 
limit in the development of gable reliefs. This should not be forgotten when 
they are considered with sculptures which stand in the line of development 
of independent groups. His treatment of individual groups, especially 
that of the Tyrannicides, is at once thorough and sympathethic. O. BIE 
in Berl. phil. Woch., 1888, No. 48. 

OTTO SCHTJLTZ. Die Ortsgottheiten in der grieehischen und roemischen 

Kunst. 8vo, pp. 84. Berlin, 1889, Calvary. 

The great majority of Hellenic divinities preserved to the end their 
primitive local character, in particular the divinities of the earth, sea, 
mountains, rivers, and springs. It is difficult to recognize them in works 
of art. The author distinguishes rightly between personifications of local- 
ities (e. g., river Kladeos) and local divinities (demon Sosipolis in Elis). 
Representations of local divinities increase greatly after the time of Alex- 
ander the Great with the increasing taste for personifications and the 
picturesque. The author makes a special study of the river-gods, and 
enumerates, to illustrate them, a quantity of reliefs, paintings, and coins ; 
this latter part being somewhat confused on account of a lack of classifi- 
cation. S. REINACH in Revue Critique, 1889, No. 3. 

L. UELICHS. Tiber grieehisehe Kunstschriftsteller. 8vo, pp. 48. Wurz- 

burg, 1887. 

This pamphlet treats of Greek writers on art and artists : (1) of artists 
like Polykleitos and Pamphilos, who wrote systematic and technical in- 
structions for their pupils ; (2) of lay writers on art and artists, as Duris 
of Samos, Xenokrates, Antigonos and Polemon. The meaning of the author 
is not always clearly expressed, but his work exhibits sound critical judg- 
ment and acquaintance with his subject. Wocli.f. Mass. Phil., 1888, No. 44. 

MAX ZOEKLER. Grieehisehe und romisehe Privatalterthumer. K. 8vo, 

pp. 427. Breslau, 1887, Koebner. 

The favorable reception given to the author's Romische Staats-undRechts- 
alterthumer led to the publication, two years later, of this compendium of 
Greek and Roman private antiquities. The work shows a clever arrange- 
ment of material, but lacks accuracy and completeness. As a text-book 
it cannot replace H. Bliimner's edition of K. F. Hermann's Lehrbuch der 
grieehischen Privatalterthumer, and A. Mau's edition of Marquardt's Privat- 
leben der Romer. O. SCHULTHESS in Woch.f. Mass. Phil., 1888, No. 44. 



REVIEWS AND NOTICES OF BOOKS. 63 

CHRISTIAN ARCHEOLOGY. 

RUDOLF EITELBERGER-ALBERT ILG. Quettenschriften fur Kunst- 
geschichte und Kunsttechnik des Mittelalters und der Neuzeit. Begrun- 
det von Rudolf Eitelberger von Edelberg. Fortgesetzt von Albert Ilg. 
Neue Folge. I. Band. Der Anonimo Morelliano. I. Abiheilung. Text 
und ijbersetzung von Dr. THEODOR FRIMMEL. 8vo, pp. 126. Wien, 
1888, Carl Graeser. 

In 1871, Rudolph Eitelberger began to publish a collection of original 
documents illustrating the history of art during the Middle Ages and the 
Renaissance, under the patronage of the Austrian Ministry of Worship 
and Public Instruction. Of this useful and important publication eighteen 
volumes, edited by various writers, had appeared in 1882 before the death 
of the general editor. These included Cennino Cennini's treatise ; the 
early mediaeval writers, Heraclius and Theophilus ; documents for Byzan- 
tine art collected by linger ; Condivi's life of Michelangelo ; Leonardo da 
Vinci's Book of Painting ; and the writings of Dolec, Albrecht Diirer, 
Biondo, Alberti, and others. Dr. A. Ilg, a pupil of Dr. Eitelberger, has 
now been charged with the continuation of this task on the same plan, 
except that the period succeeding the Renaissance is included. It is with 
great pleasure that we find that those works which had remained incom- 
plete will be finished, as this will involve the continuation of Dr. Unger's 
important collection of Byzantine documents. Among the works to be 
published in the new series the following are announced : (1) Morelli's 
Anonimo, by Dr. Th. Frimmel ; (2) Filarete's Trattato, by Dr. W. von 
Oettingen ; (3) Piero della Francesca's Trattato, by Dr. Sitte ; etc. 

The volume before us includes the Italian text with a page-for-page 
German translation of Morelli's Anonimo, otherwise termed Marcanton 
Michiel's Notizia d'opere del disegno. This edition shows a careful study 
of the one MS. of the text, later additions and corrections being carefully 
noted, as well as all the points in which the readings differ from those 
adopted in Morelli's and Frizzoni's editions. Part n will doubtless soon 
follow with a critical treatment of the text and its contents, and, perhaps, 
interesting attempts at identifications. 

It is well known that the book of the Anonimo, written in the first half 
of the sixteenth century, is one of the most precious records of Italian 
art and art collections. It professes to be nothing more than a summary 
description of monuments, and a catalogue of works of art seen by the 
writer ; but the very period in which it was written shows its value ; in 
fact, it comes next to Vasari in point of interest. The cities visited are 
Padova (careful descr. of everything in S.Antonio), Cremona, Milano, Pavia, 



64 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY. 

Bergamo, Crema, and Venezia, the descriptions of the first and the last being 
especially full. The works of art in churches and in the hands of private 
individuals are described with dates, names of authors, and details of sub- 
ject : whenever the object was considered antique it was so noted. It will 
be seen that the theatre of the author's visits was North Italy exclusively. 
The visits are sometimes dated : those in Venice being of different dates, 
in the years 1512, 1521, 1525, 1528, 1529, 1530, 1531, 1532, 1543. 

A. L. F, JR. 

HEINRICH HOLTZINGEE. Handbuch der altchristlichen Architektur. 
Form, Einriehtung und Ausschmuckung der altchristlichen Kirchen, 
Baptisterien und Sculptur-Bauten. Mit circa 180 Illustrationen. 
Vollst. in ca. 8 Ifgn. Erste Lieferung. 8vo, pp. 48. Stuttgart, 1889, 
Ebner & Seubert. 

Only the first number of this work has been issued, so that a full notice 
of it will be deferred to a future date. In the interest, however, of those 
who are seeking for a clear, simple, systematic and masterly exposition of 
the subject of early-Christian architecture, these few lines are written in 
recommendation of this book. It can already be said of it, as is claimed 
by the author, that here the subject is for the first time treated from the 
archaeological (instead of from the purely historical or aesthetic) standpoint. 
In this number we have : i. Position and Orientation of the churches, n. 
Peribolos, Atrium and Narthex, considered under the headings of (a) name, 
(6) origin, (c) form. in. The main building : A. Basilicas; 1. The body; 
(a) position; (6) proportions; (c) ground-plan; (d) cross-section, including 
lighting, galleries, iv. Single members of the construction, such as piers, 
cross-arches, columns, columnar orders, shafts, capitals, imposts. The sub- 
ject is not only subdivided with judgment and ingenuity, but is treated with 
clearness and with a touch that shows a thorough mastery of the material. 
In previous works on this subject, even if a good acquaintance be shown with 
existing monuments not only in Italy but in Syria and Africa, no account 
is taken of literary sources. This very important side of the subject is one 
to which Dr. Holtzinger has given great attention and for which he has 
collected abundant material. He makes use not only of such well-known 
works as those of Optatus, Prokopios, Eusebios, Sokrates, Paulinus, the 
Liber Pontificalis of Rome, but of more unusual sources, such as Coricius 
of Gaza, Tertullian, many inscriptions, the Liber Pontificalis of Ravenna. 

This method makes the work invaluable : (1) for a guide in class-room 
instruction ; (2) as a skeleton for the specialist, who can classify his notes 
under these headings. Finally, for any one desiring to learn about the 
subject; this is the clearest form of presentation, though, for questions of 



RE 'VIEWS AND NOTICES OF BOOKS. 65 

style and historic sequence, the reading of it should be supplemented by 
that of Reber's handbook or Schnaase's, Liibke's, or Kugler's, larger works. 

A. L. F., JR. 

CARL NEUMANN. Griechische Geschichtechreiber und Geschichtsquetten 
im zwolften Jahrhundert. 8vo, pp. vi-105. Leipzig, 1888, Duncker 
u. Hurnblot. 

The main object of this book is to give an account of the historical works 
of Anna Komnena, of Theodores Prodromes, and of Johannes Kinnamos ; 
but the author also touches upon many interesting points of Byzantine his- 
tory and literature. His attempt to define Byzantine civilization is helpful, 
but should be accepted as a provisional definition only. Amongst the results 
of his investigations may be cited the proof that there were two writers of 
the name Prodromos, and that in the text of Johannes Kinnamos we have 
only an epitome of the original work. An interesting parallel is found 
between the poems of Ptochoprodromos and those of Walther v. d. Vogel- 
weide. WASCHKE in Berl phil Woch., 1888, No. 49. 

OTTO POHL. Die afcchristliche Fresko- und Mosaik-Malerei. 8vo, pp. 

203. Leipzig, 1888, Hinrichs. 

The book is divided into five sections : 1. Relation of the Christians to 
the art of the ancient world. 2. Monuments : (a) Catacomb-pictures ; (6) 
Mosaics. 3. Documents. 4. Interpretation of early-Christian paintings. 5. 
Decadence of early-Christian painting. In the second section, the existing 
early-Christian pictures are mentioned in chronological order, and refer- 
ences are given to the catacombs, churches, etc., when they are found, and 
to the books in which they are reproduced. In the fourth section, he opposes 
the extreme Catholic position of E. Frantz (Geseh. d. christl. Malerei), that 
these pictures arose under clerical guidance in illustration of Catholic 
dogmas, and also the extreme classical view of A. Hasenclever (Altchristl. 
Grdberschmuck), who sees in early-Christian art nothing more than a soul- 
less imitation of the antique. The style of the work is fascinating and will 
win for the author many adherents to his views. F. W. SCHWARZLOSE in 
Berl. phil. Woch., 1888, No. 36. 

THE RENAISSANCE. 

EUGENE MUNTZ. Histoire de PArt pendant la Renaissance [tome] 
I. Italie. Les Primitifs. Ouvrage contenant cinq cent quatorze 
illustrations inserts dans le texte, quatre planches, etc. 4to, pp. 
744. Paris, 1889, Hachette. 

Finally, we are to have a general history of art during the period of the 
Renaissance, covering not only every one of its branches but all the various 
5 



66 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHEOLOGY. 

countries in which it developed under different forms and aspects. It is 
by a writer in whom we may have perfect confidence, for he has shown 
himself by previously published works 1 a thorough master of the subject 
and the period. This is the first of several bulky quarto volumes. It is 
devoted to Italy and to its early Renaissance of the xv century. It can- 
not be expected that a full idea be given of its contents in this short notice. 
In the introduction, M. Miintz gives a short but graphic picture of the broad 
features of Italian society in the xv century, its classes and its tendencies, 
of the condition of literature and of the general role of art as connected 
with the public and private life of the period, and of the general periods 
into which the art of the Renaissance may be divided. Before attacking 
the history of art proper, the writer studies the various factors which 
determined its development. He has adopted the following sequence: (1) 
the patrons (lords, communes, and private individuals) who directed and 
encouraged the efforts of artists, grouped according to regions and accom- 
panied by a map of artistic Italy in the xv century a life-like sketch of 
the society in which the artists lived ; (2) the sources and constituent ele- 
ments of the early Renaissance antiquity on the one hand and nature 
and contemporary society on the other, with especial stress on the realistic 
side, i. e., on the elements taken from the life of the day ; (3) the body of 
the work, treating of the arts in themselves, divided into (a) Architecture, 
from Brunellesco to Bramante (book in) ; (6) Sculpture, from Donatello to 
Verrocchio (book iv) ; (c) Painting, from Masaccio to Mantegna (book v) ; 
(d) Engraving and the decorative arts (book vi). 

This first volume embraces, then, the whole of the early Renaissance in 
Italy, finishing in the last quarter of the xv century. The subject is well 
adapted to a separate treatment, and the treatment is clear and systematic. 
The varwus points made by the text are fully supported by admirably 
chosen illustrations, done, for the great part, in the new half-tone process 
which is becoming so deservedly popular in all countries. A rapid glance 
is sufficient to bring out certain general qualities of excellence running 
through the book. We notice, for example, a broad acquaintance with 
the literature of the Renaissance and with contemporary documents ; an 
element which contributes to round out a picture which otherwise would 
be incomplete. Besides, M. Miintz has not the fault of so many, a con- 
temptuous ignoring of the Middle Ages, with which he is thoroughly in 
touch, and so is able to better appreciate the transition to the Renaissance. 
In handling the vast accumulation of material which he has been col- 
lecting with marvellous industry, he shows the skill in arrangement, the 

1 Les Precurseurs de la Renaissance, 2 vols ; Les Arts d la Cow des Papes ; La Renais- 
sance en Italie et en France d I'epoque de Charles VIII; Donatello (in Les Artistes Ce- 
lebres) ; Les Collections des Medicis au XV* siecle; Raphael: Sa vie et ses ceuvres. 



REVIEWS AND NOTICES OF BOOKS. 67 

lightness of touch, and clearness of exposition that characterize the best 
French writers. The interest of the reader is kept unflagging by the con- 
stant introduction of ideas, inferences, deductions and analogies suggested 
by the facts. The writer's optimism is evident ; he is himself conscious of 
of it, and administers every now and then an antidote, exposing some of 
the evident weaknesses or errors of the Renaissance. 

M. Mu'ntz thus resumes, at the close, his own impressions of this period : 
" The multiplicity! of thej means of expression chosen or discovered by the 
artists and Maecenases of the fifteenth century would alone be sufficient 
to show to what degree the quattrocentists possessed plastic sense, and how 
far this faculty predominated over all others over the literary sense, the sci- 
entific sense, and even the moral sense. They sought after progress and per- 
fection anywhere, among the ancients as well as among the Germans or the 
Eastern nations; they opened their souls . . to every thrilling impression 
that could be expressed by the arts of design, united the ardent worship of 
nature with an almost superstitious respect for classic tradition, and, by 
combining these very distinct elements, produced a style less pure and less 
powerful than that of the following period, but certainly more picturesque, 
vigorous, characteristic, and life-like." 

A. L. FROTHINGHAM, JR. 



CORRESPONDENCE. 



REPORT ON RECENT EXCAVATIONS AND EXPLORATIONS IN 
EGYPT DURING THE SEASON OF 1888-89. 

During the winter just past, the soil of Egypt has yielded to the ever- 
busy villagers the usual abundance of saleable antiquities ; and the decree 
that these may not be exported without consent from the museum at Bfil&q, 
is not so uniformly enforced as to prevent smuggling. Instead of being 
put on public sale, which is now permitted everywhere, the best small ob- 
jects are apt to go, as soon as found, into private collections, at prices vary- 
ing from 5 to 50 dollars. 1 On the other hand, those who dig to interpret 
what they find have also made progress, though the results, taken together, 
correspond rather to the lowness of the Nile this year, though they should 
have been favored by it. 

TELL BASTA=BOUBASTIS. M. Naville, with whom I have stayed, com- 
pleted here, between Feb. 4 and Mar. 30, the third and last season of work 
for the Egypt Exploration Fund upon this important site. [At the Gen- 
eral Meeting in London on April 12 M. Naville is to make a brief report.] 

The previously exposed area of the temple, which was densely strewn 
from 1 to 4 met. below the surface with granite blocks, has been extended 
lengthwise by several meters, and a few more fragments have thus been 
revealed. The use of the fallen pile as a mill-stone quarry, and the soft- 
ness of the mud beneath it, have made it impossible to trace angles or 
foundations. Fragments of a pavement of basalt are found on all sides, 
but there is no certain trace of the low surrounding wall mentioned by 
Herodotos. The small lotus-bud columns of a gateway (?) lie north of the 
western end, six or seven rods from where the blocks are most thickly 
strewn ; but the remains of the once lofty eastern entrance are too frag- 
mentary to be of use. 

The general depression of the temple site, the level bed of the surround- 
ing lake, and the strata of ruined dwellings rising high on every side, 

1 Nevertheless, the Museum is rapidly growing, and the removal to the spacious 
quarters at Gizeh will perhaps be welcome. It is to be hoped that all its treasures 
will then become available to students, and that it will be able to carry out its 
own or some other system of labelling. The Budget already contains an item of 
1000 towards the expense of the transfer. If other foreign schools be established 
here upon a plan similar to that of the Mission Fran$aise en Egypte, to afford facilities 
for the study of Egyptology in Eygpt, it may be expected that the student-colony 
will be forced to remove, build, and reside near the Gizeh palace. 

68 



CORRESPONDENCE. 69 

accord precisely with the description that Herodotos wrote after he had 
looked down upon " the most beautiful temple in Egypt," where 70,000 
persons assembled to do homage to the goddess. Like most mounds in 
the Delta, this ancient town, which covers about three-fourths of a square 
mile, is gradually being carried away to be spread upon the fields of the 
villagers. Corners and sections of mud-brick walls still rise irregularly 
above the layer of potsherds that have been sifted out ; but old street-lines 
are rarely traceable, and ultimate levelling is almost certain to follow. 

The finding, last year, of many statues of all periods, especially while 
rolling the blocks of the second hall the Festival Hall of Osorkon II 
gave promise of similar rewards for work to be done in the eastern and 
western ends : but the famous Hyksos heads remain incomplete, and no 
more examples of the broad face and crisped hair of the Ancient Empire 
have appeared. All the stones of the first hall have been turned, and a 
careful search has been made among the less-frequently inscribed remains 
covering the great area in which were the fragments of the shrine to the 
west of the hypostyle hall. It is only the number of inscribed and sculp- 
tured blocks that has been materially increased. One of these shows the 
original red paint upon the red granite throughout the deep carving of a 
full-length figure, with accompanying words ; and on another fragment of 
basalt the figure of Nefer Turn is still distinctly yellow. Further, the num- 
ber of kings who left their names at Boubastis has risen to twenty-six. 

The high antiquity of the temple, and the extended influence of the 
fourth dynasty within the Delta are made clear by the recent discovery, 
in the eastern hall, of the standards of Khufu and of Khefren (the pyra- 
mid kings) deeply and carefully cut and perfectly preserved. That Khu- 
fu's block, a heavy architrave, shows the usurpation of Rameses II is only 
one of many signs that the temple had been more than once ruined 
and rebuilt. The cartouches of Pepi of the vi dynasty were the oldest 
that had already been found : now, Amenemhat I appears in addition to 
Usertesen I and II of the xn dynasty, under which the temple seems to have 
been increased upon the grandest scale. Here belong the massive lotus- 
bud capitals and columns and the Hathor-head capitals 2 of the hypostyle 
hall ; and the deep cutting characteristic of the period is traceable even 
upon blocks imperfectly erased in later times. Next comes a rare monu- 
ment of the xin dynasty with the cartouche of Sebekhotep I. 

The presence of colossal Hyksos statues five or six meters high, the 
architrave of Apepi, and the statue of Khian, argue that these rulers must 
have found the temple in reasonably good repair ; and they must have left 
it so, for Amenhotep II and Amenhotep III and the reformer Khuenaten 

* A specimen of each of these enormous monuments a matter of 30 or 40 tons 
lias lately been sent to Boston. 



70 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY. 

of the xvni dynasty also inscribed their names at this point, so far to the 
north. It was after Seti I that the great period of usurpation came, marked 
by the work of Rameses II, who rudely erased the inscriptions of his prede- 
cessors, appropriated their statues, reconstructed fundamentally, and spread 
the monotony of his signature. Memorials of Merenptah and of Rameses 
III were afterwards erected, and it will be remembered 'that many statues 
of Rameses VI have been found at Boubastis. 

The temple may well have been in ruin after the wars that intervened 
about this time. The Hathor capitals must have fallen, for Osorkon II 
has inscribed his name on the under side of one in putting it to some dif- 
ferent use. This xxn dynasty rebuilt Boubastis. It is only a fragment 
that bears Sheshonk's name : the great builders were the Osorkons I and 
II, who renewed and practically appropriated the first and the second 
halls. The name of Achoris alone succeeds until the xxx dynasty, when 
Nectanebo I enlarged the western hall and built the shrine, upon which 
the most delicate of carving has scarcely been affected by time. With 
Hophra, Nectanebo II, and Ptolemy Euergetes, the list of kings is ended. 

During Roman times the eastern end of the temple site seems to have 
served other than religious uses. Fragments of statues were built into a 
low wall at the southeast corner, near which there ran a small limestone 
water-conduit emptying into a cistern. Below the present water-line an 
upright column and a few rude slabs or blocks, also of limestone, were all 
that remained of another late construction. It was above some Roman 
bricks, near the middle of the eastern hall, that was found one of the two 
granite blocks that alone had remained horizontal. On it, above a thin 
layer of bronze and resting upon an inverted saucer of bronze, there was set 
in metallic cement and bound by granite wedges a concave-sided eight- 
inch cube of bronze with a hemispherical socket above (corresponding to 
one below) as for a pivotal hinge. The other horizontal block (of about 
two cubic meters) appeared to have served at a doorway at the western 
end. The name of Nectanebo I was written on it, upside down. 

From about a meter and a half below the surface and near what was 
probably the eastern gateway, comes a fine alabaster copy of the Melian 
Aphrodite, though also the head and the feet are gone. The fragment is 
between three and four decimeters high. 

The site of the temple of Thoth was next sought out. Herodotos says 
that it lay three stadia to the eastward along the market street. This 
thoroughfare is still easy to trace between the bordering ruins, but the 
direction is more nearly s. E. by s., like the fronting of the greater tem- 
ple. Less than half a mile away, where the mound slopes off to the allu- 
vial level, a few granite blocks were seen cropping out in a clover-field. 
Fragments large and small were all that could be found. They lay, near 



CORRESPONDENCE. 71 

the surface, scattered within a small area and resting on a natural stratum 
of sand. A ponderous architrave bore the cartouche of the Great Rameses, 
but the most of the inscriptions were due to Osorkon I. A valuable sta- 
tistical tablet records great donations of gold, silver, and other metals, 
made to different temples of Egypt. As the owner of the field would have 
made this tablet cost something like 15, it was left to the Egyptian gov- 
ernment to arrange with him for its preservation. Here may indeed have 
been a treasure temple that Herodotos attributed to Hermes, but unfortu- 
nately the name of Thoth seems nowhere to have survived. The stones 
are now again buried more deeply than we found them, but paper-casts of 
all have of course been made. 

Boubastis was one of the most populous towns in the Delta, but all at- 
tempts to find where its dead were buried have thus far failed. A few 
bone-pits have been found here and there beneath the houses, and a few 
interments were made in brick, and in wooden or terracotta coffins, near 
the enclosure- wall of the town but at a comparatively late period. The 
desert is many miles away : but, unless the tombs have disappeared in the 
cultivated lands about the town, it is somewhere in the desert that the 
search must be continued. The famous Necropolis of Cats in the N. E. 
part of the town now tenanted by rats and ranged by dogs extends 
over many acres and has been largely worked out, and practically ex- 
hausted, by the natives in their search for antiquities. A considerable 
amount of time has now been given to exploration here, and a number of 
unrifled bone-pits in different parts of the cemetery have been carefully 
emptied. Often marked on the surface by enclosure or district walls, they 
lie from three to six meters below, and are sharply defined by the hard 
Nile-mud in which they were sunk. They are always more than a meter 
wide, from one to two meters deep, and of various lengths, sometimes ex- 
ceeding nine meters. They are filled with the partially burned some- 
times previously mummified bones of cats, or of other small animals not 
yet determined. The most of the skulls appear to belong to the wild-cat 
of Africa, not to the domestic cat. The bones are often interspersed with 
some embalming or other material that was buried with them, and they 
almost always contain a few objects in porcelain or bronze, not well pre- 
served, in the pits that remain untouched. Bronze heads or images of 
cats, of the goddess Bast, of Nefer Turn, or of Osiris, occur most frequently ; 
but in porcelain Isis and Horus and other divinities are represented along 
with the usual variety of beads and other small ornaments. The pits ap- 
pear to have had some temporary covering, and, when very long, to have 
been partially filled through successive openings, now marked by the pres- 
ence of bones in the form of extremely sharp cones running up toward the 
surface from the general level of the deposit. There are several enclosures 



72 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHEOLOGY. 

of burned bricks near the surface, in which the bones may have first been 
burned, for a shorter or longer time, and have assumed the colors of brown, 
black, red, and white, which they present in different pits. Of the bronzes 
found here this year none have greater interest than a rare and beautiful 
standing figure, about ten inches high, of the Cat-headed goddess holding 
the sistrum and the lustral basket, and with four kittens sitting rather de- 
murely and quadrangularly before her. 

Although the sculptures remaining upon the temple site will almost cer- 
tainly be destroyed if left there long, little has yet been taken away this 
year except the hinge above mentioned ; a small fragment of a stele of 
Ptolemy Euergetes ; and a large fragment of a black granite stele, found 
deep in the mud of the eastern hall, and containing a colloquy of recip- 
rocal praises, as upon the tablet at Abu Simbel, between Rameses II and 
Bast the selection of Bast in this case being certainly due to the local cult. 
The task of removing the heavy monuments selected after the excavations 
of the previous season proved to be a most laborious and expensive one ; 
and it has only lately been completed. It required several months to box 
up and transfer to canal boats one or two hundred tons of granite, and the 
personal supervision of Count d'Hulst lasted through the worst part of the 
Egyptian summer in a treeless malarial region. 

The Division of Antiquities. The Buldq Museum receives the broken 
statue of the new king Khian ; the head and leg of one of the other large 
Hyksos statues ; a statue of Rameses III, and part of a Rameses VI in red 
sandstone ; a large cartouche of Pepi and one of Khuenaten ; one of the 
scribes of Amenhotep III ; a part of the shrine of Nectanebo I ; an historical 
inscription ; and a Greek dedication of a statue from Cleopatra and Apol- 
lonios to Ptolemy Euergetes. I am told that the British Museum is to 
receive the other Hyksos statue ; a palm column and capital ; a large head 
with crisped hair, usurped (?) by Rameses II ; a standing figure and also a 
head of Bast ; several sculptured blocks, including one from the Festival 
Hall and three from the shrine ; a Greek torso in white marble ; and, in 
black granite, a Roman torso wearing a peculiar dress. The Boston Museum 
of Fine Arts receives a highly polished lotus-bud column and capital two- 
thirds complete ; a large Hathor-head capital without the column, which 
seems to have been entirely quarried away ; a large head with crisped hair, 
the counterpart of that sent to London ; a crouching statue of a son of 
Rameses II ; one of the sculptured blocks of the Festival Hall portraying, 
in low-relief, Osorkon II and his wife Karoama. The limestone blocks 
which Mr. Griffith brought from the Hathor temple at Terraneh have been 
divided between these three museums. 

HAWARA. Mr. Petrie's work here has already been reviewed (Aeademy, 
Jan. 26, March 16 : see News, pp. 81-3). He tells me that there were 



CORRESPONDENCE. 73 

recovered, from under the water in one deep tomb, twelve bodies wearing 
sets of amulets, the position of which was noted so as to be able to repro- 
duce the arrangement of them. He also discovered in this tomb many 
fine ushabti of a noble Horuta, which were built up in recesses within the 
masonry-filling around his sarcophagus. And he reports having found 
carefully wrapped up and buried in a jar three large papyri of the fifth 
century A. D., being Greek deeds concerning monastic property, quite com- 
plete and in good condition ; two large iron rings of the modern barrel 
pattern ; a very fresh and perfect glass lens a bull's eye for condensing 
light likewise of Roman age ; and, from the great pit and caverns exca- 
vated for tombs under the xir dynasty, many pieces of sculpture from the 
tomb-chapels of that age. Though he believes the cemetery to be prac- 
tically exhausted, the work is still unfinished at a single point, and may 
yield some of the best results. , 

ILLAHUN. Mr. Petrie is now partially occupied at the temple and tombs- 
of the pyramid of Illahun, into which he has already tunnelled about thirty 
meters. Of his work there he says : " The temple of the pyramid was found 
opposite its eastern face at some little distance on the edge of the desert. 
It was completely pulled to pieces for the stone, apparently by Ramessu II 
for building his temple at Ahnes ; but among the chips several pieces of 
the names of Usertesen II were found. The work is very beautiful, and 
the chips of colored sculpture are as fresh and bright as when first painted. 
A smaller shrine, joining the eastern face of the pyramid, was similarly 
desecrated. The pyramid itself has not yet been opened. 

" The site of the larger temple was used as a cemetery in the vi and 
vn centuries A. D., and a great quantity of coloured woollen garments em- 
broidered with patterns have been found on the bodies there. The tombs 
at Illahun are mostly between the xx and xxvi dynasties ; nothing of 
importance has been found in them so far ; many of the burials of this age 
are however in tombs of the xn dynasty which have been rifled. A large 
number of carved and painted coffin-lids and of beads from networks on the 
mummies are the main results at this place." 

TELL GUROB. Mr. Petrie is also working at the tombs and straggling 
ruins of Tell Gurob about three miles to the south of Illahun at the opposite 
end of the great dyke which crosses the entrance to the Faytim. Here I 
found him making a thorough investigation of the topography of the ancient 
town, the importance of which seems to him to consist largely in the short- 
ness of its history and the consequent accuracy attainable in dating what is 
found there. He says : " The earliest building seems to have been a temple 
of Tahutmes III, of which the bases of some columns, and two pieces bear- 
ing his name remained. This was in a walled area or temenos. Appar- 
ently it was ruined and cleared away by Khuenaten, as the houses built 



74 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY. 

over it contain articles with the names of Amenhotep III, Khuenaten, Ra- 
saakukhepru, Tutankhamen, Ai, Horemheb, Seti I, and Ramessu II. Here 
this series of two or three dozen dated objects, 'rings, scarabs, etc., entirely 
ends. Not a single name later than Ramessu II, and not a single object 
that can be certainly proved to be later than his time has been found here. 
The greatest depth of house-remains is only a few feet, and often only a single 
foot ; and there is no sign of rebuilding. Hence the duration of the town 
was not longer than the age of a mud-brick house, which agrees fairly well 
with the period of a century and a half covered by the objects found here. 

" Of Egyptian remains, there are two funeral stelae, two large inscribed 
bronze pans with handles, several tools chisels, hatchets, and knives 
glass beads and variegated glass-work, many bone bobbins, balls of thread, 
nets, etc., besides a variety of pottery the main value of all these objects 
arising from their being so nearly dated. Some unrifled tombs of this same 
age were also found, containing some fine wooden statuettes, and other fu- 
neral furniture. 

" But the main interest of the place is in the foreign element. On the 
tombs foreigners are found indicated by their light hair, by western pottery 
being buried with them, and by their names. One man is called Antursha, 
the double ethnic determinative after the name shewing it to be formed 
from that of the Tursha or Etruscans, who largely occupied the west of 
Egypt (with Libyans and other races) at the close of the reign of Ramessu 
II. Another man is Sadiamia, also a foreigner. These foreigners have left 
many examples of western pottery here, and it is of the greatest value to be 
able to date the archaic Greek and Italian geometrical pottery to a fixed 
period. Besides this foreign pottery, the native pottery is of even greater 
historic value, as it bears various alphabetic letters, both incised as owners' 
marks after baking, and marked in the clay while soft. As the whole town 
is apparently limited to about the xix dynasty, and the pottery so marked 
is characteristic of that same age, these letters are probably the earliest 
alphabet that we have, several centuries before Phoenician or Greek in- 
scriptions yet known. The discovery of these gives a fresh value to the let- 
ters marked on the backs of the tiles of Ramessu III at Tell Yehudiyeh, 
and shows that there is no need to invent a theory of restoration of that 
palace solely to account for such marks. We must now on the evidence of 
these remains date our history of alphabetic writing from the Ramesside age. 

" In far later times a cemetery was formed near the town of Tell Gurob ; 
it seems to be entirely of the earlier Ptolemies. The regular burial there 
was in cartonnage head-piece painted blue, with pectoral and leg cover, all 
painted with figures, seldom with a name. The bodies are in very rude 
coffins, strangely contrasting with the neat work of the inner decoration. 
These cartonnage coverings are made up of papyri ; and dozens of them are 



CORRESPONDENCE. 75 

being now cut to pieces, in order to recover the manuscripts, demotic and 
Greek, which have been so long hidden. A household account, a royal de- 
cree, or a piece of a tragedy are the proceeds of this re-destruction." 

LAKE MOERIS AND THE RAIAN BASIN. It is believed that the Egyptian 
Government will soon take measures to utilize as a storage basin that great 
depression in the desert to the south of and connected with the Fayum, 
known as the Raian Basin. Mr. Cope Whitehouse has collected all neces- 
sary information for the purpose; great numbers of surveys, reports, 
maps, and plans have been prepared ; and the feasibility and advantages 
of the project have been acknowledged. To the question of identity be- 
tween this Raiau Basin and the ancient Lake Moeris he has given much 
attention, and has taken many careful surveys and levellings. His view 
may be stated briefly as follows: "The theory of Linant de Bellefonds, 
which was published by Lepsius in the Denkmaeler aus Aegypten and ap- 
proved upon the basis of his own examination of the Fayum, and which 
has been generally accepted to the present time, rejected the statements of 
the ancient historians in all respects but one ; namely, that there had been 
a small reservoir in the upper part of the Fayum. The theory was in error 
(1) in putting the depth of the depression at 90 ft. instead of 250 ft.; (2) 
in diminishing its area by one-half; (3) in ignoring the existence of the 
adjoining Raian Basin ; and (4) in making the inexplicable assertion, that 
there are ancient ruins older than the time of Herodotos near the long lake 
at the west, the Birket el Qerun or Kurun, and Jpelow the level of low-Nile 
at Illahun." 

Mr. Cope Whitehouse has recently visited the desert to the north of this 
lake in company with Commander Ackley of the U. S. Ship Quinnebaug, 
who is well known for his hydrographic surveys ; and he has photographed 
an ancient temple, which his levellings show to be seven miles from the water's 
edge and 220 feet above it. From these photographs, which represent a 
well-preserved structure, M. Naville has formed the opinion that it belongs 
to two different epochs, the fa9ade being as old as the temple of the sphinx, 
whereas the rear wall may have been rebuilt in a Greek-Roman period. 

" This," Mr. Cope Whitehouse continues, " accords precisely with the 
historical account of artificial changes within the depression. At first, there 
was a vast natural lake having a surface of 1400 square miles, with a depth, 
over a considerable area, exceeding 200 feet, and a temple was erected on its 
northwestern shore 33 miles from the inlet. Here the fisheries were con- 
trolled as well as the direct route from Alexandria to Upper Egypt. After- 
wards, dykes were placed at Illahun and Hawara. Water was supplied and 
the supply was regulated at low-Nile by the long canal the River of Joseph 
from Assiut. The greater part of the northern depression was put under 
cultivation, and this temple was left a shrine far away from habitation. 



76 AMERICAN JO UBNAL OF ARCHEOLOGY. 

Troublous times intervened. The dykes were broken. The northern and 
the southern basins, once more united at high-Nile, spread over a surface 
whose circuit is so singularly diversified that it might fairly be measured 
(as the historian gives it) at 450 miles. The water rose to the temple's 
edge and to the quay at Dimeh. The temple was repaired while Dimeh on 
its island became an important town. So Herodotos saw it. In Strabo's 
time the upper plateau of the Fayum was protected against the high-Nile. 
Pliny was shown where the lake had been. The southern or Raian Basin 
only is the Lacus Moeridis of those maps of the 2nd century whose genu- 
ineness and authenticity are no longer disputable." Mr. Cope Whitehouse 
has also prepared a comprehensive scheme for thorough exploration of the 
ruined towns which encircle the inhabited part of this district, where much, 
without doubt, remains to be discovered. 

BERENICE. At this place on the Red Sea, M. Golenischeff of the St. 
Petersburg Museum reports that the remains of a Roman temple found 
there by an Egyptian officer a few years ago have now been washed away. 
He has also been* working with a view to determining the probable route 
of the Exodus : but I do not know with what result. 

LUQSOR and EDFU. M. Grebaut has been clearing away from the in- 
terior of the temples ; and elsewhere in Upper Egypt he has been taking 
measures this winter to prevent the destruction of monuments, as by shor- 
ing up the temples at Medinet Habu and at Abydos. Professor Sayce is 
said to have found some inscriptions in a Hittite dialect ; but he has scarely 
been able to work, being chiefly occupied in recovering from the heroic 
treatment applied when he was bitten by a sand-snake. Another MS. frag- 
ment of the Iliad has been obtained here [Luqsor] by M. Greville Chester. 
Professor Euting of the Strasburg University, who has now gone in dis- 
guise as a Beduin to the peninsula of Sinai to look for Aramaic inscrip- 
tions, made a short excursion to Edfu and found on the temple walls about 
fifty hitherto unknown graffiti in Karian and Phoenician characters. 

HORBEIT. The few remaining slabs of a fast-disappearing limestone tomb 
of an otherwise unknown sou of Rameses II have been bought by M. Naville 
in order to save them from the lime-kiln. They are fully inscribed and will 
probably be kept at Bulaq : but the existence of the monument has been well 
known for a year, and it is unfortunate that the government should not of 
itself have been able to preserve it. 

Count d'Hulst is expected to read papers in June before the Society of 
British Architects and before the Union of Architects of Gt. Britain and 
Ireland, upon " Modern Architecture in Egypt," and " The Arab House 
in Egypt." At the request of the Administration of the Royal Museums 
there are soon to be exhibitions in Berlin, Munich, and Dresden, of 1500 



CORRESPONDENCE. 77 

of his photographs of Arab subjects in Egypt ; and he purposes within two 
years to complete his collection for Mohammedan Art and its branches, 
by tours in Sicily, Malta, Tunis, Algeria, Morocco, and Spain, and in Asia 
Minor, Syria, Mesopotamia, Persia, Russia, Turkestan, and India. 

FARLEY B. GODDARD. 
Cairo, April 5, 1889. 



THE AMERICAN SCHOOL OF CLASSICAL STUDIES AT ATHENS. 

Dr. Charles Waldstein, who was chosen Director in November 1886, 
assumed the direction of the School at the opening of the present academic 
year. He has been unable to reside in Athens during this first year so long 
as had been hoped and expected ; but he has, on two visits of several weeks 
each, made his talents, training, and energy strongly felt for good. In the 
present number of this Journal, he gives an account of the head of Iris, 
which he was happy in identifying as part of the Parthenon frieze. He 
was invited by the Greek Government to be one of a small committee to 
advise as to the treatment of the Akropolis. During Dr. Waldstein's 
absence, the interests of the School have been in the hands of the Annual 
Director, Professor F. B. Tarbell, whose administration has been thoroughly 
able, judicious, and stimulating. 

It is expected that, for the next three years, Dr. Waldstein, without 
altogether giving up his present work in Cambridge, England, will reside 
in Athens during the winter or somewhat longer. 

As has been before stated, the practice will be maintained of sending 
from one of the co-operating colleges an Annual Director, who, while 
reaping the benefits of the year in Greece for himself and his college, will 
assist the Director in the conduct of the School, and will have charge of 
its interests in his absence. Professor S. Stanhope Orris, Litt. D., of Prince- 
ton College, has accepted the invitation to act as Annual Director for the 
year 1889-90, and expects to go to Greece in August. 

During the past year, eight students have been in attendance six of 
them for the major part of the year. Regular exercises have been held 
by the Directors for the study of Topography, Inscriptions, and the His- 
tory of Greek Art, as well as for the reading of ancient Greek authors. 
There have been also occasional meetings for the presentation of papers 
embodying the fruits of original research, to which meetings have been 
invited others than students, whether residents at Athens or visitors, who 
are interested in archaeological work. Similar meetings are held by the 
German and British Schools and prove of great service in promoting sci- 
entific activity. 



78 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHEOLOGY. 

The American School has been enabled, also, thanks to the Archaeologi- 
cal Institute of America and other friends, to conduct excavations on a 
more considerable scale than heretofore. The remarkably successful work 
begun at Dionyso (Ikaria), (in the year of Professor Merriam's adminis- 
tration) by Mr. C. D. Buck in the spring of 1888 was completed by him 
in the autumn. Another member of the School, Mr. H. S. Washington 
(a classmate of Mr. Buck at Yale, 1886), was entrusted with investigations 
carried on at his own expense at two points in the neighborhood of Sta- 
ipata, a village to the north of Pentelikon, about half way between Ke- 
phissia and Marathon. These resulted in the identification, by means of 
inscriptions, of the site of the deme Plotheia. 

This spring, Dr. J. C. Rolfe took charge of excavations in Boiotia ; first, 
for three weeks at Anthedon, afterwards for a few days each at Thisbe and 
Plataia. The campaign at ANTHEDON resulted in laying bare the founda- 
tions of a large and irregular building, of which a portion had been previ- 
ously in sight and which Leake mistakenly supposed to be a temple ; in 
unearthing the foundations of a small building, perhaps the temple of 
Dionysos (Paus. ix. 22. 6) ; in the discovery of various small objects of 
terracotta and of a large and important collection of bronze tools ; and in a 
considerable harvest of new inscriptions. The work at THJSBE was com- 
paratively unproductive. That at PLATAIA, which in Dr. Waldstein's opinion 
is destined to yield rich treasures, was suspended before noteworthy discov- 
eries in the line of architecture or sculpture had been made, but not with- 
out securing a long Latin inscription in a tolerable state of preservation. 

Even moderately successful excavations have great value to those en- 
gaged in them there being nothing so stimulating as the discovery of fresh 
materials for study. 

Full accounts of the enterprises above named will appear in the Journal 
of Archaeology. 



ARCHAEOLOGICAL NEWS. 
SUMMARY or RECENT DISCOVERIES AND INVESTIGATIONS. 



Page. 

ARABIA 88 

ASIA MINOR 90 

AUSTRIA-HUNGARY, . 129 

BELGIUM, 126 

CAUCASUS, 87 

EGYPT, . : 79 

ENGLAND 129 

FRANCE, 124 



GERMANY, . 


Page. 
. 127 


PALESTINE 


Pagt. 
88 


GREECE, . 


92 


PERSIA 


86 


HINDUSTAN 


85 


SICILY 


120 


ITALY 


107 






KRETE 


IO7 


SWITZERLAND, 


126 


KYPROS, . . . 


. 91 


SYRIA, . 


. 89 


MESOPOTAMIA, 


. . . 87 


TUNISIA 


. 84 


MEXICO. 


. 134 


UNITED STATES. 


. 133 



AFRICA. 

EGYPT. 

VANDALISM. Professor Sayce writes from Assuan, Feb. 13: "Little 
progress seems to have been made with the excavation of the temple of 
Luqsor since I last saw it three years ago. The most important part of the 
work had already been accomplished at that time. But it is a pity that 
the ruin cannot be properly protected. Before the work of excavation 
commenced, a portion of the building was kept under lock and key ; now 
the whole of the temple has been allowed to become the common refuse- 
heap of the village. The tourist who has been induced to pay a hundred 
piastres in Cairo for permission to visit the monuments of ancient Egypt, 
upon the understanding that something was being done in return to pro- 
tect them, will be grievously disappointed. The tourists have done their 
duty manfully, but the government have neglected to do theirs. Karnak 
is still open to the ravages of goats and herdboys, and Medinet Abu, like 
Der el-Medineh, to the intrusion of beggars and antika-sellers, who scrape 
the blue paint off the walls to mix with their forged scarabs ; while a tomb 
at Thebes, reopened a few weeks ago by M. Bouriant, has already been wan- 
tonly defaced by the natives ; and in the tombs discovered by Sir Francis 
Grenfell at Assuan the paintings have been disfigured by Arabic graffiti. 
It is true that, outside some of the tombs, placards are lying on the sand 
with a request in English that visitors should refrain from injuring the 
monuments ; but it is to be presumed that the inscribers of the graffiti can- 
not read English. The interesting inscriptions over the tombs of the Third 

79 



80 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY. [EGYPT.] 

Dynasty at Medum have been literally smashed to fragments ; and, since 
my last visit to Beni Hassan, the paintings in the tombs have suffered 
severely, easily protected though they might be. In fact, the only place 
so far where our ' permits ' have been of use was the temple of Edfu ; and 
even here the 'guardian' did not conceal his disappointment at being 
shown a piece of printed card instead of the old bakshish. The temple of 
Edfu is well cared for ; but so it has been ever since I have known Egypt. 
If the Egyptian government expects to receive another golden crop of 
guineas from the visitors to the monuments next winter, the ancient monu- 
ments of the country must be looked after in a very different way from 
that in which they are being looked after now." Academy, March 9. 

BULAQ. Tablets from Tel-el- Amarna. Professor A. H. SAYCE wrote 
from Egypt (Jan. 3) : "I have copied all the tablets and fragments of 
tablets from Tel-el- Amarna, now preserved at Bulaq. The tablet contain- 
ing the dispatch from the king of. Arzapi to Amenophis III now seems to 
me even more interesting than I thought it at first. I am beginning to 
believe that the language of the greater part of it belongs to some Hittite 
dialect. If so, the forms of the personal pronouns mi ' my ' and ti and 
tu ' thy ' lend support to Mr. Ball's hypothesis that the Hittite language 
or languages belonged to the Indo-European family. On the other hand, 
bibbid ' chariots,' and kilatta, which appears to mean ' brother,' have 
nothing Indo-European about them ; and the verbal forms are Accadian. 

"Among the tablets I have copied since I last wrote are two which relate 
to affairs in Palestine. Unfortunately they are both fragments, about one- 
half the tablet having been lost in each case. It is possible that, in the 
second fragment, Kirjath is Kirjath-sepher, which seems to have been one 
of the most important of the Canaanitish cities in the south of Palestine, 
just as it is also possible that the word Khabiri, which I have translated 
'confederates,' may really denote the people of Hebron, since it is folio wed 
by the determinative of locality. The word occurs in one of the tablets 
belonging to M. Bouriant, which I copied last year. Another tablet at 
Bulaq is a long letter to Nimutriya, or Amenophis III, from a certain 
Lan-makhsi, who calls himself ' king of the country of Karandu,' about 
the marriage of his youngest daughter. There is a second royal despatch 
from Subbi-kuzki, the king of a country the name of which is lost with 
the exception of the last syllable ti. It is addressed to the Egyptian king 
Khum[ya], a name in which we may see the original of the Horos of 
Manetho. A third tablet, which is much worn and injured, tells us that 
' at that time the king of the Hittites was captured in the vicinity of the 
country of Kutiti ' ; and the statement is followed by the mention of ' the 
king of the country of Mittani ' on the eastern bank of the Euphrates, and 
of 'the king of the country of Nabuma.' There is another curious text 



[EGYPT.] ARCHAEOLOGICAL NEWS. 81 

in the collection which is of a mythological character. Fragments only 
of it are preserved, but these relate to Namtaru, or destiny, who ' con- 
sulted with the gods ' and marched behind the narrator of the legend. 
Unless the missing portions of the tablet are at Berlin, it is not likely that 
we shall make much out of the story, which may be of either Babylonian, 
Egyptian, or Canaanitish origin." Academy, Jan. 19. 

GIZEH. Incrustation of the Great Pyramid. The excavations of Howard 
Wyse at the foot of the Great Pyramid have been resumed by M. Grebaut. 
The most fantastic speculations have long been indulged in with regard to 
its revetment. Howard Wyse was the first to state that some blocks of a 
stone revetment were still in place along a part of the first course. M. 
Grebaut has uncovered a number of admirable blocks on the north face. 
These enormous masses, trapezoidal in shape, are cut in a compact cal- 
careous stone with such precision and with such exactitude of edging as 
could be obtained probably only by a continuous rubbing to and fro against 
the row below and the side block. It would appear, from coloring found 
at the base of the pyramid of Khafra that this polished revetment was 
covered with a coat of red coloring. Paris Temps, Jan. 13. 

HAWARA. The opening of the Pyramid. Mr. W. M. Flinders Petrie has 
at last succeeded in forcing an entrance into the sepulchral chamber of the 
Pyramid of Amenemhat III, at Hawara, in the Fayum. He had tunnelled 
a passage from the north face of the pyramid as far as the stone casing of 
the central chamber, which proved to be enormously massive and resisted 
all his efforts. The summer was then so far advanced that he found him- 
self compelled to postpone the completion of his operations till the present 
winter. Returning to Hawara in November last, Mr. Petrie made trial 
excavations at various points round the base of the pyramid, in the hope 
of discovering the original entrance. Failing in these attempts, he decided 
to quarry down through the roof of the central chamber, which he had 
reached last season. The roof is fifteen feet thick and it took three weeks 
to cut a very small vertical shaft through it. 

Mr. Petrie says, in a letter dated Hawara, Jan. 12 : " We know, for the 
first time, the arrangement of a royal tomb of the xn dynasty. The en- 
trance is not on the north side, nor in the middle of the side ; but it is on 
the south side, a quarter of the way from the southwest corner. It is, 
moreover, outside of the pyramid, on the ground, and probably opened from 
the labyrinth, as Herodotos states. The passage does not run straight into 
the chamber, but slopes down some way northwards; then a branch turns 
east, while the main line continues as a blind. The east passage ends blank, 
and is left by a great trap-door in the roof. Thence the passage goes north 
again, and turns west ; here it ends blank again, and another roof trap-door 
leads up into a passage running further west. From this a forced entrance 
6 



82 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY. [HAWARA.] 

has been made into the chamber, by which we at present enter. The pas- 
sage, however, ends in a well, leading to a short passage southward ; then 
another well, which is now full of water. This, I conjecture, leads to a 
short passage eastward, from which a well ascended into the chamber. 

" The chamber itself is nearly all cut in one block of sandstone, which 
is 22 ft. long and 8 ft. wide inside, and all one up to 6 ft. high. It must 
weigh between 100 and 200 tons. A course of stone supports the roof- 
slabs, of which there are but three. In the chamber is a great sarcophagus 
also of polished sandstone, quite plain and without inscription ; but around 
the base is a projecting foot decorated with panelled ornament. By the side 
of this another sarcophagus has been made by adding two slabs between it 
and the wall, and a narrower lid has been put over this. There were also 
two boxes in the chamber, one now broken up ; both decorated around the 
foot like the sarcophagi. In the chamber we have found some pieces of the 
funereal furniture in alabaster, but without any inscriptions. The cham- 
ber is at present over three feet deep in water, which makes it difficult to 
explore. The present entrance is by the forced hole in the roof." 

Entry from a distance, by means of a subterranean passage, is a novelty 
in construction, and has no precedent in any of the Ghizeh pyramids (iv 
dynasty), nor yet in those of the VI dynasty, of which so many were recently 
opened at Saqqarah. This is the first time that the plan of a royal tomb 
of the xn dynasty has been laid open, and it differs very considerably from 
the plan observed by the architects of the ancient Empire. The Great 
Pyramid and all the other pyramids of the Ghizeh group, the pyramid of 
Meydum, and the Saqqarah pyramids have the entrance-passage in the 
centre of the north face of the structure, and at some height from the level 
of the desert ; but the pyramid of Amenemhat III is entered from the south 
side, by an opening at about one-fourth of the distance from the southwest 
corner. It is here that the subterranean passage, from whatever point con- 
ducted, strikes the south face of the structure. The ups and downs of the 
passages in the earlier pyramids are not many, and the obstacles placed in 
the way of possible intruders consist chiefly of a series of massive granite 
portcullises, let down from above, after the mummy had been deposited in 
its last resting-place; but the defences of the pyramid of Amenemhat III 
are of a different kind, and more nearly resemble the baffling turns and 
windings and wells of the rock-cut sepulchre of Seti I, at Thebes. It marks, 
in fact, the transition from the Meinphite to the Theban style of sepulture. 
The pyramid, as Mr. Petrie feared and expected, had been broken into and 
plundered long ago ; probably in the time of the Persian rule in Egypt. 
A forced entrance had been made from the second roof-trap into the sepul- 
chral chamber, and anything of portable value which that chamber con- 
tained has, of course, disappeared. 



[EGYPT.] ARCHAEOLOGICAL NEWS. 83 

In a second letter, dated Illahun, Feb. 14, Mr. Petrie adds the following 
details : " The examination of the inside of this pyramid is now tolerably 
complete ; the passages in general have been cleared, except where they 
sink below the water-level, and all the chips and blocks in the chambers 
have been turned over. The results are that we have fragments of a half- 
dozen or more alabaster vases from under the water in the sepulchral 
chamber, many inscribed, and one with the cartouche of Amenemhat III, 
proving this pyramid to be his. Beside these, the question of the second 
added sarcophagus is settled by one piece bearing the name of the "king's 
daughter Ptahnefru," showing that there was a sister of Sebeknefru, bear- 
ing a name of the same type, who must have died between the dates of the 
building up of the chamber and the death of Amenemhat III. But the 
main honoring of this princess was in the outer passage-chamber, which led 
to the sepulchre. Here we found an alabaster table of offerings, 27 X 17 in., 
of beautiful work and very unusual type. It bears figures of over a hun- 
dred offerings, vases, plates, loaves, birds, etc., each inscribed with its name: 
seventy different names in all. Scattered around this \yere fragments of 
at least nine alabaster bowls in the form of half a trussed duck, most of 
which also bear the name of Ptahnefru. These were mostly about 18 or 
20 in. long; one small one is 8 in. 

" I, myself, carefully cleared out the sarcophagi under the water. Much 
charcoal showed plainly what had become of the inner wooden coffins ; but 
I was puzzled by scales of mica and grains of quartz in the Ptahnefru sar- 
cophagus. These were explained by finding in the chamber a piece of an 
unmistakable beard for inlaying, cut in the finest lapis lazuli. This showed 
that the features of the wooden coffins had been inlaid with carved stone. 

" Both of the wells in the passage-chamber proved to be blinds, and after 
carefully examining the sepulchre it appears that there never was any door 
to it ; the entrance was by one of the sandstone roof-slabs, which was ele- 
vated in the upper chamber, and then let fall into place after the interment. 
As it weighed forty or fifty tons, it was tolerably safe not to be lifted again. 
The trap-doors in the passages I now see to have been for sliding and not for 
falling ; but the two inner ones never were drawn, only the outer one having 
been closed, and the others merely built up solid with masonry filling. 

The Cemetery. " The cemetery here proves to be pretty well exhausted; 
but I have explored the great pits and caves of the tombs of the xn dynasty 
and obtained a few pieces of inscription from them. Many minor objects 
have been found of a late period, beside a few more wax portraits. 

ILLAHUN. " I have begun (Jan. 12) work at Illahun ; and great num- 
bers of wooden coffins with carved and painted heads have been found, 
probably of the xxni dynasty ; also a fine stela of the xn dynasty. 

" I am now (Feb. 14) living at Illahun, and working at the pyramid and 



84 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY. 

cemetery there, and the town of Tell Gurob. The latter had a peculiarly 
brief history ; a dozen or twenty cartouches have been found, all between 
Khuenaten and Ramessu II, and not a fragment of anything there suggests 
a wider range of date. Some pieces of rudely decorated vases found here 
are, therefore, peculiarly interesting, as they are un-Egyptian in style, and 
are identical with archaic Greek pottery. The patterns are radial lines 
rising around the vessel ; and on a bottle with a solid false neck are con- 
centric quadrant lines. To have such pieces dated to the xv century B. c., 
and connected with an inland town in Egypt, is of much importance his- 
torically." Academy, Jan. 26, March 16 ; London Times. 

THEBES. The late work directed by M. Grelmut has been directed mainly 
on three points of the site of Thebes Luqsor, Medinet-Abu and Deir-el- 
Bahari. At Luqs6r the work of removing the sand has been continued, 
and the hypostyle hall already comes out in places in all its height. Two 
new chambers have been recovered, as well as the staircase leading up 
to the terraces. A similar work is being done for Medinet-Abu. Paris 
Temps, Jan. 13. 

TUNISIA. 

CARTHAGE. An early Phoenician Nelcropolis. At a meeting of the 
Academie des Inscriptions (Feb. 15) M. de Vogue" described in detail the 
recent explorations of Father Delattre at Carthage and their important 
results. He has discovered on the hill of Byrsa a primitive nekropolis. 
One tomb was of especial interest : it was built of large blocks of stone 
and contained two tiers of bodies, together with vases, bronze arms, etc. 
It furnishes the first authentic specimens of the Carthaginian art of the vn 
or vin century B. c. Some tombs which appear to date from the fourth and 
fifth centuries contained terracotta figurines of pseudo-Egyptian style, glass 
necklaces, Phoenician vases, analogous to the antiquities of the nekropoleis 
of Kypros and Sardinia. 

Drawings and photographs sent by Father Delattre show that the nekro- 
polis discovered at the site called Gamart was that of a Jewish colony con- 
temporary with the Roman period. Paris Temps, Feb. 16. 

Discovery of Christian Antiquities. In the January number of the Revue 
de I' Art Chretien (p. 138), Father Delattre speaks as follows of an important 
discovery (c/. JOURNAL, vol. n, p. 351) : " We found, on Monday, in our 
basilica of Damous-el-Karita, a high relief in white marble of very fine 
workmanship, representing a scene very rare in Christian monuments of 
the first centuries ... the appearance of the angels to the shepherds." It 
is of the same style of the fourth century as the fine high relief repre- 
senting the Virgin discovered here seven years ago and illustrated by MM. 
de Rossi and He"ron de Villefosse. Several more fragments of the latter 
relief have now been found. 



ARCHAEOLOGICAL NEWS. 85 

Antiquities stolen. In the same Review (pp. 135-8), Father Delattre pub- 
lishes a list of the large lot of antiquities recently stolen from the museum 
of St. Louis. The thieves have been arrested, but had already disposed of 
their booty. The list published will assist in identifying the objects which 
have found or will find shelter in various European museums and collec- 
tions. They comprise (1) lots of Phoenician, Punic, Numidian, Greek, 
Roman, Vandal, and Byzantine coins, several being unique ; (2) many lead 
seals of bulls, etc., consular, archiepiscopal, episcopal and imperial seals ; 
(3) mediaeval French, Spanish, Papal, and Arabic coins; (4) 105 engraved 
stones ; (5) rings, disks, plaques, animals, and other objects in gold, silver, 
bronze, tin, lead, glass, ivory and marble. 

SOUSSA = HADRUMETUM. A Punic Nekropolis. Certain general results 
of importance have been brought about by the excavations carried on for 
fully three years in the nekropolis on this site. The sepulchral chambers, 
instead of containing skeletons placed in niches, are filled with large earthen 
cinerary urns, many of which are covered with Punic inscriptions contain- 
ing the name of the defunct with the words translated vase a ossements or 
some similar formula. It had been supposed, in consequence of the exca- 
vations carried on in Phoenicia, at Kypros, Malta, and Carthage, that the 
Phoenicians never burned their dead. This is the first time that cremation 
is found to have been practised by Punic populations. The writing of the 
inscriptions is midway between the ancient Punic writing and the neo-Punic 
writing of the Roman period ; and it seems hardly probable that the prac- 
tise of incineration could have been, at such an early date, borrowed from 
the Romans. Chronique des Arts, 1889, p. 54. 



ASIA. 

HINDUSTAN. 

A new Indian Inscription. Mr. M. F. O'Dwyer has recently discovered 
an inscription at the village of Kura, in the Salt Range, where there are 
some large unexplored ancient mines. A considerable part of the inscrip- 
tion is in very fair preservation ; but the ends of the first two or three lines 
are much obliterated, and from the lower part of the slab four or five lines 
appear to have been erased. The characters are what are usually called 
Gupta, of about 500 A. D. It is dated in the reign of " Maharaja Tora- 
mana Shah," and the record is of certain donations to a Buddhist monas- 
tery. The slab was sent to the Lahore Museum. It will be published in 
the Epigraphia Indica. The coins of Toramana are known, but the only 
epigraphic record of his reign hitherto found is the inscription on the boar 
at Eran, in the Central Provinces. This, found in the middle of the Pan- 



86 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY. 

jab, would indicate that his rule extended far to the northwest of Malvva, 
and may possibly identify him with the Toramana of Kasmir, whom 
Gen. Sir A. Cunningham considers quite a separate prince. J. BURGESS, 
in Academy, Jan. 12. 

Discovery of Buddhist relic-coffer. Mr. J. M. CAMPBELL, of the Bombay 
Civil Service, who ten years ago discovered the Buddhist relics at Sopara, 
has recently, in another mound in the forest of Girnar, some six miles south- 
east of the city of Junagadh, in Katty war, unearthed another series of cas- 
kets containing what appear to be veritable relics of Buddha. The new 
mound is nearly three times as large as the Sopara mound, being between 
80 and 90 ft. high, instead of 27 ft., and about 230 yards round, instead of 
65 yards. In position, character, and detail the two mounds are much the 
same, however, and in all probability date from the same time namely, 
about 150 B. c., or some five hundred years after the death of Gautama 
Buddha. After three weeks' excavation, Mr. Campbell found a stone 
relic-box or coffer, measuring 1 ft. 2 in. square and 9 in. deep. It contained 
a reddish clay -stone casket, which in turn contained a small copper casket 
or bottle, green with verdigris, almost round in shape. This copper casket 
held a silver casket, within which was a small, round, spike-topped gold 
casket, in shape and size like a small chestnut. In this tiny bowl were four 
precious stones, two small pieces of wood, and a fragment about the size of 
one's little-finger nail of what seems to be a bone. Mr. Campbell believes 
this last to be a relic of Buddha. Athenceum, April 6. 

PERSIA. 

ERA OP THE ARSACIDAE. Justin (lib. XLI, ch. iv) fixes the date of the 
beginning of the dynasty of the Arsacidae in the year of the consulship 
of A. Manlius Vulso Longus and M. Attilius Regulus (256 B. c.). The 
cuneiform texts of the Arsacidae usually bear two dates belonging to differ- 
ent eras, 64 years apart. It had been erroneously thought that the first 
of these was the era of the Seleucidae (312 B. c.), and the second that of 
the Arsacidae, which was said to begin in 248 B. c. Professor Oppert has 
recently shown, by a study of a recently published inscription, that the 
first of these eras is that of the Arsacidae, and the second a local Baby- 
lonian era connected with some event of which we are still ignorant. This 
inscription contains details relating to a lunar eclipse of the year 232 of 
Arsaces or 168 of the second era, in the month of Nizan. This can only 
be the partial lunar eclipse of Monday, March 23, 24 B. c. This unique 
document proves Justin to be correct in making the Arsacid dynasty begin 
in 256 B. c., in the month of Tisri. The inscription begins as follows : " In 
the year 168, which is the year 232 of Arsaces, king of kings, this is what 
was predicted by Uruda (Orodes) the astronomer. In the month of Nizan, 



ARCHAEOLOGICAL NEWS. 87 

on the 13th night, at 5.51, the hour predicted, 5 degrees in front of the 
point" of conjunction, the moon was eclipsed on the side of the south and 
east. Journal Asiatique, Jan. 1889, pp. 11618. 

CAUCASUS. 

KOUBAN (valley). The opening of the Great Kourgan. The Russian 
Archaeological Commission has opened in the valley of the Kouban, near 
Krimskaya, a tumulus called by the inhabitants the Great Kourgan : the 
artificial hillock seems to have served as a necropolis to one of the Meotian 
dynasties which had come into contact with Hellenic civilization, about 
the first century of the Christian era. The monument is composed of three 
chambers joined by a corridor, the height varying from 7 to 11 ft. The 
walls are constructed of solid masonry, covered on the inside with stucco 
on which appear fragments of frescos. The central hall was empty. Hall 
No. 1 contained the skeleton of a woman ; the remains of a chariot for two 
horses, whose bones were found ; and a quantity of pieces of fine jewelry ; 
a royal fillet in gold filigree ; gold ear-rings ; a gold plaque with the head 
of a bull in repousse work ; another triangular gold plaque representing a 
youth offering a drinking horn to a woman wearing a pointed cap adorned 
with a triangular plaque exactly like the one found. There are also men- 
tioned beads of glass (sometimes engraved) and of beaten gold ; a serpent- 
shaped bracelet, ending in horse-heads ; a ring on whose bezel is Erato 
playing the lyre. In hall No. 3 was the skeleton of a king : the objects 
found here were vases, cups, and horns, of silver ; a gold necklace on whose 
ends w r ere represented lions fighting with boars ; a silver, gold-plated quiver 
containing 50 copper arrows ; a cimeter ; twelve javelin-points ; etc. The 
mere metal value of the objects excavated is estimated at 200,000 francs. 
The entire find has been sent to St. Petersburg to be placed in the collection 
of Antiquities of the Bosphorus. Revue des Etudes Grecques, 1888, .p. 467. 

MESOPOTAMIA. 

Babylonian and Egyptian Chronology. At a recent meeting of the Aca- 
demie des Inscriptions, M. Jules Oppert read a paper upon " The Date of 
Amenophis IV, King of Egypt, and of the two Chaldaean Kings, Purna- 
puriyas and Hammurabi." A tablet of the reign of Nabonidos (555-538 
B. c.) records two monarchs who worked at the decoration of the temple of 
the sun at Sippara Hammurabi, and Purnapuriyas the latter of whom 
lived seven centuries after the former. Now, the tablets recently discov- 
ered at Tel-el- Amarna in Egypt mention a Purnapuriyas, King of Chal- 
daea, as a contemporary of Amenophis IV. It has been hitherto agreed 
that Amenophis IV lived about 1450 B. c. ; and it has therefore been in- 



88 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY. 

ferred that the reign of Hammurabi must be assigned to about 2150 B. c. 
But M. Oppert brought forward arguments which seemed to him decisive 
for fixing the reign of Hammurabi between 2394 and 2339 B. c. It would 
thus become necessary, either to push back the date of Amenophis IV by 
two centuries, or to assume the existence of two kings named Purnapuriyas 
at that interval of time from one another. Academy, April 6. 

BAGHDAD. Site of the ancient city. Dr. ROBERT F. HARPER writes from 
Baghdad, Jan. 13 : "On January 11, in the company of M. Henri Pognon, 
the French consul, I visited the site of old Baghdad. It is on the Meso- 
potamian side of the Tigris. The remains of the old mound are still plainly 
visible. The ruins of a very large and compact wall face the river, forming 
one of its banks. We entered a boat and were rowed along the wall, which 
is 16 to 20 feet higher than the water. Bricks (32 cm. X 32 X 7) were taken 
from different places ; and every one bore the stamp of ' Nebuchadnezzar, 
King of Babylon, the restorer of Esaqqila and Ezida, son of Nabopolassar, 
king of Babylon.' We noticed three different kinds of stamps. Baghdad 
was then an old Babylonian site. Does this not argue for Delitzsch's 
reading Bagdadu ? " Academy, Feb. 23. 

ARABIA. 

Inscriptions of Arabia Petraea. At a recent meeting of the Academic 
des Inscriptions, it was announced that M. Be"ne*dite, charged with a mis- 
sion in Arabia Petraea, in search of Sinaitic inscriptions for the Corpus 
Inscriptionum Semiticarum, had begun his work and already copied more 
than three hundred inedited inscriptions. Revue Critique, 1889, p. 100. 

PALESTINE. 

PALESTINE EXPLORATION FUND. Publications. The Committee have 
concluded to publish at once, uniform with the Survey of Western Palestine, 
the following works, which they have in MS. : (1) CONDER, Survey of East- 
ern Palestine, with numerous drawings : (2) CLERMONT-GANNEAU, Ar- 
chaeological Mission, with many hundred drawings. Herr SCHUMACHER'S 
Report on Abil (the Abila of the Decapolis), with numerous illustrations, 
will be published during 1889. P. E. F., Oct. 1888. 

JERICHO (near). The Russian mission, in digging for a foundation near 
the site of the ancient Jericho, found capitals, columns, lintels, iron weapons 
and instruments, pottery lamps and jars, bronze trays, candlesticks, rings, 
etc. ; in fact, all the indications of important buildings. 

JERUSALEM. Herr Schick reports that, during certain excavations con- 
ducted by the Russians, southeast of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, 
a cave was found, at a depth of 47? ft. below the surface. When the cave 
is cleared, he will report further upon it. Pal. Explor. Fund, Oct. 1888. 



ARCHAEOLOGICAL NEWS. 89 

SYRIA. 

BANIAS and SOUBEIBE. The Castle and its Inscriptions. In the Journal 
Asiatique (Nov.-Dec. 1888), M. Max van Berchem gives a long description 
of the little-known but important mediaeval ruins of Banias and Soubeibe. 
These, together with their inscriptions, had already been cursorily noticed 
by Seetzen, Newbold, Socin, Kobinson, Gildemeister and Clermont-Gan- 
neau, but the texts and a complete description of the castle are here pub- 
lished for the first time. The ruins of the Castle of Soubeibe occupy the 
summit of a steep mountain which overlooks, on the east, the village of 
Banias, and leans on the first spurs of the Hermon. The view takes in the 
plain of the Jordan and the mountains of Galilee. It is a strategical point 
of the highest importance. As a whole, the ruins are mediaeval, and the 
entire arrangement of the constructions shows the hand of the Crusaders. 
Much was added, however, by the Mussulmans, as shown by the inscrip- 
tions, and some parts are to be referred to an earlier period, perhaps the 
Byzantine. The plan is an immense oblong enciente following the confor- 
mation of the rock, and fortified with especial care on the east and south, 
the weakest sides. There are many points of similarity with several castles 
described by M. Hey in his fitude sur C architecture militaire des Croises en 
Syrie, especially with that of Margat. The constructions have great artistic 
and archaeological interest, with their domed and vaulted circular or octa- 
gonal halls, long tunnel-vaulted passages, and halls with ribbed cross-vaults. 
The masonry is usually in large blocks of carefully-squared stones accu- 
rately joined together. The southern and northern sides, with two towers 
at the w. corner and the dungeon, belong substantially to the Crusaders. 
The west side is of mixed construction, but predominantly Saracen as it 
now stands, bearing certain characterstics of Arab fortresses which were 
imitated by the Templars at the time of the Crusades. The dates of the 
castle may be determined as follows: Banias was taken in 1130 by the 
Franks, who awarded it to Foulques. In 1132 it was retaken by Tadj-el- 
Moluk Bouri, sultan of Damascus. In 1139 the Franks retook it. In 1164 
the town of Banias and the castle were taken by Nour-ed-din, and never 
returned to the Franks. The constructions of the Crusaders must then be 
placed between 1139 and 1164. Later, Banias and Soubeibe belonged to 
Saladin, who gave it to his son. In 1218 the castle was dismantled by 
El-Malik el-Mo'azzam. Then El-Malik el 'Aziz 'Othman received it from 
his father and restored it, as shown by an inscription. But this and later 
restorations by Mohammedan princes never gave back its former aspect. 
The inscription referred to says : " Has ordered the construction of this 
strong fortress . . . 'Othman, son of . . the sultan El-Malik-el-' Adil . . This 
fortress ... was built in the month of Rebi'i of the year 627 (1230 A. D.)." 



90 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY. 

The architect was Abu Bekr ibn Nasr el-'Azizi, of Hamadhan. Further 
restorations were undertaken by 'Othman's son, Hasan, during the year 
637 (1240 A. D.), as is shown by a second inscription, on the south side. 
A second inscription of Othman, dating from 625 A. H., is found on the 
advanced work on bastion F. Later reconstructions were undertaken by 
the famous sultan Bibars, and proofs of this fact are found in three frag- 
ments of a gigantic inscription carved on large blocks of stone. 

SINDJIRLI. Dr. R. F. HARPER, visiting Sindjirli last October, after the 
Germans.had left the site of their excavations, found in the trenches a per- 
fectly preserved large statue of a Hittite lion resting on a base : the height 
of the lion is 1.45 met. The sculpture, though exceedingly rude, reminded 
Dr. Harper of the lions in the British Museum. Old Testament Student, 
Jan. 1889, pp. 183-4. 

ASIA MINOR. 

PERGAMON. Sarcophagus. There has been found a large sarcophagus 
containing objects of gold with ornamentation, vases, and other valuable 
treasures. This discovery, made by a peasant digging his field near the slope 
of the akropolis, determines the position of the long-sought-for nekropolis 
of that city. MM. Fontrier and Kontoleon have given, in the Nea 2,/jivpvr) 
(No. 3764) of Smyrna, an account of this discovery, at the foot of the 
akropolis at Pergamon. The sarcophagus contained three bodies. Mitt- 
heilungen Athen., 1888, pp. 442-3 ; Athenaeum, March 2. 

TRALLEIS. Theatre. Professor Dorpfeld, in his recent excavations, has 
uncovered a part of the theatre, the only remaining building of the ancient 
city. It had been much altered by the Romans. The seats are formed of 
two stones, instead of the usual single stone. Peculiar stelai supported the 
proskenion. Chronique des Arts, 1889, p. 51. 

The steps of the theatre discovered by Dr. Dorpfeld, which were of great 
importance in both an artistic and a scientific point of view, have been de- 
stroyed in the search for building materials. The Turkish Government 
must be held responsible for this destruction of most interesting architec- 
tural Greek remains. 

The torso of Apollo has been found on the same spot where the head be- 
longing to the statue was discovered a short time ago. The work belongs 
to a good period, and is of the Tralleian school. It has been transferred 
to Constantinople. Athenceum, April 6. 

VIZE (caza of). Ancient baths. The following item is taken from the 
Levant Herald of Oct. 19 : " Precious antiquities have been unearthed at 
different points of the caza of Vize in the district of Kirk Kilisse. About 
two years ago, very interesting discoveries had been made in this locality. 
Excavations in a mound called Tchemlekdji Tepe brought to light a mag- 



ARCHAEOLOGICAL NEWS. 91 

nificent marble construction which must have been a bath. On the inner 
walls, carved in marble were figures of divinities in relief, with gold rods. 
In the neighborhood were found many pieces of gold and bronze, which 
have since disappeared. The sculptures are, however, in the hands of 
private persons. A correspondent writes from Vize: to a Turkish journal 
that the whole ground on this site contains antiquities near the surface." 
Revue des Etudes Grecques, 1888, p. 466. 

KYPROS. 

Dr. Ohnefalsch Eichter's activity continues unabated. Not only has he 
started a weekly paper entitled The Owl, which devotes a considerable space 
to archaeology, but he announces for March the appearance of a journal 
devoted entirely to Science, Literature and Art, under the title of The 
Journal of Cyprian Studies, a large portion of which will be filled with 
archaeological matter. In the Supplement to the Owl of January 29, Dr. 
Bichter publishes an illustrated report on excavations conducted by him 
for Sir Charles Newton, in 1882, on the site of the temenos of Artemis- 
Kybele at Achna. *He describes their commencement as follows. " In the 
spring of 1882, some villagers from Achna, Famagusta district, were en- 
gaged in digging pits for the destruction of locusts. To the south of the 
village, in a small valley in the direction of the village of Xylotimbou, 
before arriving at a rocky plateau, they came across a heap of statuary, 
stone, and pottery. Some of these they sold in Larnaca. On hearing of it, 
I went to the spot and succeeded in saving the place from further destruc- 
tion by excavating it systematically for Sir Charles Newton." 

IDALION. On Nov. 16, the important discovery was made on the site of 
the temple of Aphrodite of a group of Aphrodite" enthroned with two chil- 
dren : the base of the group bore a Phoenician inscription in badly-washed- 
out black letters : also were found four very remarkable, rich capitals, a 
fragment of a column, and a fragment of a colossal sphinx, all of sandstone 
and dating from the sixth century B. c. The group is perhaps slightly 
later. The capitals are richer than those given iii Perrot, in, figs. 51-53. 
Berlphil Woch., 1889, col. 43. 

POLIS-TIS-CHRYSOCHOU=ARSINOE. ERNEST A. GARDNER, writing under 
date of Feb. 15, announces that the work of the Cyprus Exploration Fund 
for the second season was begun on February 13. The first site attacked 
was the vineyard belonging to Mr. Williamson ; one-half of this was exca- 
vated two years ago, and in it were found most of the finest vases then 
discovered, two of which have attracted so much attention at the British 
Museum. The other half still remains to be tried. Athenceum, March 9. 



92 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY. 

EUROPE. 
GREECE. 

ATHENS. THE PROCEEDINGS OF THE GREEK ARCHAEOLOGICAL SOCI- 
ETY IN ATHENS (ILpaKTi/ca T^S ev A^vais 'ApxaioAoyi/cTys 'Eraipias) for the 
years 1886 and 1887 have been recently published within a short time of 
each other. They contain much interesting material, and particularly the 
detailed reports of the excavations and investigations carried on under the 
direction of the Society during these two years. The report on Mykenai 
in 1886 is accompanied by five interesting plates. A summary of this is 
given below (pp. 102-4). 

FINAL EXCAVATIONS ON THE AKROPOLIS. The excavations on the 
Akropolis have come to an end, the entire surface having been explored 
down to the rock. After the space comprised between the Parthenon and 
the wall of Kimon had been completed, the finishing touch was given to 
the exploration of the quadrilateral formed by the west front of the Par- 
thenon, the Sacred Way, the south terrace of the Propylaia, and the wall 
of Kimon, where the sanctuary of Artemis Brauronia is,by some authorities, 
supposed to have been. The Pelasgic wall, running nearly parallel with 
the long sides of the temple, was met at a considerable depth. Toward the 
west, near the supposed site of the temple of Artemis Brauronia, there 
appeared the foundations of a rectangular building measuring about 40 by 
15 met., not anterior to Kimon. Full accounts of the last stage in the work 
have just appeared in the recent issues of the Mittheilungen^ the Bulletin de 
Correpondance Hellenique, and the 'Ap^aioXoyt/cov AcArtov. Of special inter- 
est is the discussion of the interesting walls of many periods lately uncovered, 
given in the Mittheilungen by Dorpfeld. A large plan of the Akropolis 
executed by Herr Kawerau has been published in the December number 
of the AeAribv. The excavations were advanced along the south side of 
the Parthenon and beyond its southwestern corner. At a depth of one or 
two meters below the present level, was reached a mass of stones and debris 
thrown there after the Persian invasion. It was found to extend down to 
the native rock. The earth from the surface to a depth of one or two meters 
showed evidence of being deposited in much more recent times. In it were 
discovered remains of cisterns, of ramparts, and of a Byzantine church ; 
likewise a piece of sculpture from the frieze of the Erechtheion. This repre- 
sents a seated woman clad in a long chiton and himation ; and, except for 
the head, it is in excellent preservation. Here, too, was found, imbedded 
in a late wall, where it joins on to Kimon's wall, a marble head of a woman 
from the Parthenon frieze, whose identity was recognized by Dr. Charles 
Waldstein. It is reproduced in PLATE n accompanying his paper on the 
subject (pp. 1-9). During the excavations, the large poros-stone substruc- 



ARCHAEOLOGICAL NEWS. 93 

ture, 41 by 15 meters, already mentioned (iv, 492), was uncovered. Its 
south side coincided with the southern wall of the Akropolis, though it did 
not rest upon the rock, but upon the debris noticed above. An examination 
of this filled-in matter brought to light some archaic sculptures which are 
described under Marble Sculptures (pp. 94-5). 

The usual finds of bronzes, terracottas, and fragments of vases occurred, 
but nothing unusual is to be noted among them : two fifth-century inscrip- 
tions, one of which was traced with red, were also discovered. As soon as it 
became evident that no more pieces of poros-stone sculpture were likely to 
be found, the work of fitting together the pieces already collected was begun 
(see Groups of archaic poros Sculpture, pp. 956). Kabbadias notices the 
likeness of these groups to others in the frieze of Assos, and, taking into con- 
sideration the number of artists from the islands whose signatures have been 
found on the Akropolis, he concludes that these poros-sculpturesare products 
of an Asiatic-Ionic school, introduced by way of the islands into Attika. 

Excavations carried on in and about the Odysseus-bastion led to the 
discovery of several inscriptions built into the wall. A slab of marble 
bears reliefs of two olive crowns inclosing the names of thesmothetai of the 
Imperial period. Lolling connects them with an inscription published in 
Mittheil. in, 144, and thinks they belong to a large substructure or altar 
near the cave of Apollon Hypakraios. Another marble relief represents 
Pan holding a shepherd's staff in his left hand. It belongs to the third 
century, and lacks head, feet, and the right hand. A decree from the years 
307-301 B. c. relates to the honors of a certain Medeios, a friend of Alex- 
ander the Great and of Antigonos, who had taken part with Antigonos' son 
Demetrios in restoring freedom to Athens. There was also found a piece 
of a tribute-list dating probably from the earlier years of the Peloponnesian 
war. It gives us a hitherto unknown city of the Se/oioretxiTcu, situated near 
the Hellespont, and some new forms of abbreviation for proper nouns. A 
decree of the year 284/3 is interesting from information it contains about 
sacrifices and festivities to Aphrodite Pandemos. Higher up on the Akropo- 
lis, in the temenos of Athena Ergane, was found a base that seems to have 
rested against a wall : on the front of it is a votive inscription to Athena. Of 
more importance is a long decree, found in the same place, in honor of a 
certain Oiniades (see page 97). From this decree, it seems that there was 
an annual archon in the Island Skiathos, just as at Andros. The inhabitants 
of the island seem also to have been divided into Skiathioi and Palaiskia- 
thioi, and the latter, Lolling thinks, dwelt on the northern shore of the 
island at a place now called Castro. 

Agora. Excavations near the Gate of the Agora brought to light a round 
arch cut out of a single block of marble 1.74 meters wide. On the face is 
an inscription of 156-161 A. D. relating to the institution of an Agoranomion 



94 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY. [ATHENS.] 

(place of supervisors of the Agora) by Herodes Attikos, who constructed it 
and dedicated it to the Emperor Antoninus Pius. This discovery confirms 
the theory, that this square served as a market-place even in Roman times. 
There was also found a base that showed, by its inscription, that it had been 
used for a statue of the famous orator and financier Lykourgos, son of 
Lykophron. The letters of this base belong to the Macedonian period. 
'Apx- AeArtov, Oct.-Nov.; Chronique des Arts, 1889, p. 60. 

Marble Sculptures. (1) The earliest of the marble sculptures recently 
found appears to be a circular plinth around whose edge are placed stand- 
ing female figures all from one piece of marble. The lower parts of six 
figures remain : there must originally have been ten. Not a single head 
is preserved. The figures are squarely built, at right angles; the drapery 
is indicated only in front by some heavy parallel folds falling down to the 
feet, the nude extremity of which projects as in the Hera of Samos. Each 
figure seems to have measured about 0.40 met. It is a xopos of oWa with- 
out any artistic merit. (2) A winged Nike, analogous in type to that of 
Del os by Archermos, but much smaller, measuring only 40 cent, as it stands, 
with head, forearms and lower half of legs wanting. The statue is an in- 
teresting combination of traditional conventionalities and certain new ten- 
dencies. Though the attitude is archaic, there is considerable skill in the 
modelling of the nude, and the hair and drapery are represented as flying 
in the wind. (3) A statue of Athena armed : on her breast is the aigis 
with the gorgoneion in the centre, while the round shield she holds in her 
left has been swung around and covers her back. The two lower limbs 
have disappeared, also part of both arms and the head. The work is still 
archaic. (4) Several more archaic female statues to be added to this long 
series : (a) a statue, broken in four pieces, of which the feet and forearms 
alone are wanting : it measures c. 1.30 met., and is finely preserved. It is 
among the most advanced of the archaic statues with long limbs, slender 
waist, and small head. The two arms are thrown forward, the smile is 
almost imperceptible, and the projection of the cheek bones has almost dis- 
appeared. The predominant color is red. Though the artist evidently 
aimed at originality, the statue lacks expression. (6) This statue is lack- 
ing in part of both lower limbs and arms. The costume and its coloring 
are of the usual type and well preserved. It is entirely archaic in style, 
though the modelling of the face is exquisite and wonderfully soft : the eyes 
do not stare, but seem modestly lowered, and the smile is not semi-ironical, 
as usual, but sweet and attractive : the whole expression is calm and can- 
did. This statue is, according to M. Lechat, one of the most remarkable 
known works of Greek art. (c) Fragment of a female statue, badly muti- 
lated, and less than life-size, (d) Fragment of a similar statue. Both are 
without heads, arms, or lower limbs. There are some other pieces of mar- 



[AKROPOLIS.] ARCHAEOLOGICAL NEWS. 95 

ble sculpture antedating the Persian wars. (1) Male head, of an inter- 
esting type, similar to that in bronze reproduced on pi. xv of the Musees 
d 1 Athenes : its workmanship is free but careful. (2) Female head, of nat- 
ural size, remarkable artistically, as well as for the polos with which it is 
covered : only the front is preserved. (3) Fragments of an equestrian group 
like that discovered in 1886 : only a small portion remains. (4) Torso and 
head of the statuette of a nude and beardless youth, whose hair, arranged 
in front in regular ringlets, falls freely down the neck : the smiling face is 
turned gracefully to the right. It is a charming addition to the archaic 
series. (5) A large and horrible Gorgon-head of the earliest and most 
hideous type. Bull. Corr. Hellen., 1889, pp. 142-8 ; cf. Mittheil. Athen., 
1888, pp. 438-40 ; 'A PX . AeXnov, Oct.-Nov., 1888. 

Kalludis, the restorer, has put together two more archaic marble female 
figures with rich coloring, which are among the more highly developed of 
the series. Berl phil Woch., 1889, col. 139. 

Statue by Anterior. Since the article published by Studniczka (JoArJ., 
1887, p. 135), it was known that an authentic statue by Antenor existed 
in the Museum at Athens. It has now been for the first time put together, 
and it is found that the right forearm is the only important missing frag- 
ment. It is placed on the antique base bearing the artist's signature and 
put on a high pedestal in the usual archaic form of a column. It is the 
largest of the statues of the Akropolis, and is extremely impressive. Al- 
though it has the archaic style of the sixth century, it possesses considerable 
grace, beside dignity. It is narrow at the feet and fuller in the upper part 
of the body. Bull. Corr. Hellen., 1889, pp. 150-1. 

Groups of archaic poros Sculpture. M. Henri Lechat, in his review of 
the latest discoveries on the Akropolis (Bull. Corr. Hellen, 1889, pp. 131-42), 
devotes considerable space to a careful examination of the three, groups 
formed by the reunion of the greater part of the fragmentary archaic sculp- 
tures in poros-stone found during the past year or more. They have been 
referred to in more or less detail in previous numbers of the JOURNAL (iv, 
pp. 93, 203-4, 352-6, 493-4), as the separate pieces were found. As soon 
as it was clear that no more fragments were likely to come to light in the 
excavations, the reconstitution of the groups was finished. (1) Herakles and 
Triton, analogous to the same subject in the Assos sculptures : length 3 met., 
height 75 cent. Herakles has lost his left leg and both arms and head. 
Triton has lost head and greater part of torso. The principal role in the 
struggle is taken by the back and right leg of Herakles, which are pre- 
served. This group occupied one-half of the gable of a temple. (2) Ty- 
phon(t). This unique and interesting sculpture has been only cursorily 
described. It represents three monsters, or rather a triple monster com- 
posed of three human torsi, each with a man's head, with large wings on 



96 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY. [AKROPOLTS.] 

the back, ending in interlaced serpent-bodies. The first is in very low 
relief, hardly projecting from the background, and showing only the left 
hand. The second is still somewhat compressed, its right arm being cramped, 
though the forearm is free; but the left part of the chest and the entire 
left arm are free. The third is perfectly free : he is slightly back of the 
second, is joined only by the right shoulder and elbow, and is almost en- 
tirely carved in the round. The heads correspond exactly : the first is seen 
only in profile, the second three-quarters (with its right side not carefully 
finished), the third is seen almost frontwise, and is completely finished. The 
third torso has wings, now partly broken : the others may be supposed to 
have had them, though they were not represented, as they would have been 
concealed. The serpent-bodies are covered with alternate red and blue 
painted bands, and are nearly two met. long. The heads have already been 
mentioned (iv, pp. 93, 203, 355) : they have very long and pointed beards. 
The wings are painted red and blue, like the bodies. The two hands pre- 
served hold an attribute which resembles a thunderbolt. A black-figured 
vase representing the combat of Zeus and Typhon, and descriptions of the 
latter by Euripides and Antoninus Liberalis, lead to the identification of 
this triple monster as Typhon. The dimensions seem to be the same as 
those of the combat of Herakles and Triton. M. Lechat suggests the pos- 
sibility, that these two groups formed the two halves of the same gable. 
There is a doubt expressed in regard to the third head: both Lechat 
and Kabbadias think it may rather belong to the figure of Herakles. 
(3) Bull attacked by Lions. This group, the latest discovered, has an 
even more striking resemblance to the Assos sculptures. A bull is 
represented as succumbing under the attack of two lions : he still lives, 
but has been struck down and lies under their claws. One has attacked 
him from the rear, the other from the front, and they are beginning to de- 
vour him, while the blood pours from the wounds they have made in his 
sides. The group is in high relief on several blocks of poros : the length 
is about 4 met., the height about one met., and the figures are about life- 
size. A great many pieces are still wanting, though all have not yet been 
put in place. The colors employed are mainly red and blue. The bodies 
of the lions are a pale red ; their mane a dark red ; the hair and pores of 
the paws are black. The entire bull was painted blue, except the running 
blood and the tail, which are red, and the head, which is elaborately painted 
in various colors. (Tf.'Apx- AeA/rtov, November, 1888',MittheilungenAthen., 
1888, p. 437 ; Berl. phil. Woch., 1889, col. 139, 170, 171. 

Small Bronzes. Among the many small bronzes the following may be 
mentioned: (1) figure of a nude man, dancing, 20 cent, high ; (2) handle 
of a box or vase, formed by two lions devouring a deer ; (3) head of 
Medusa, extremely archaic. (4) On the Ergan-terrace, in the lowest part 



[ATHENS.] ARCHAEOLOGICAL NEWS. 97 

of the rubbish, was found a bronze circle 90 cent, in diameter, within which 
is a large Medusa, of the most archaic technique, made of a bronze plate. 
The head is square, extremely hideous, the body thin and covered with a 
wide robe which reaches to the ankles. Marks of the rudimentary tech- 
nique are the eyelids, which are chiselled in, while the pupils are punched 
out. *Ap X . AeArtov, Oct.-Nov. 1888 ; Bull Corr. Hellen., Jan.-Feb., 1889 ; 
Berl.phil. Woch., 1889, col. 138. 

Inscriptions. A part of a decree of 98/7 B. c. gives some interesting 
details regarding the young girls in the service of Athena, taken from the 
ten tribes, who numbered over a hundred. They worked the wool for the 
peplos of Athena, and took part in the Panathenaic processions. 

In January, was found a plaque -which partly supplements another 
already in the Museum : both give details of the expenses for the purchase 
of the ivory and gold used in the execution of the chryselephantine statue 
of Athena by Pheidias. The epistates charged with watching over its exe- 
cution acknowledge having received from the treasurer the sum of one 
hundred talents : over 87? talents had been spent for the gold, and over 3 
for the silver. 

Several of the inscriptions recently found are interesting for the his- 
tory of art : (./) on a large marble base, with the signature of the artist 
Euphron ; (#) on another base in the shape of a channelled column, 
the signature of Endows, EMAOI03 EPOli, to which is added that of 
Philermos, PIl'EPf/Aos] EPOIE3EM; (3) the signature of Hegias, EAIA*; 
(^) the signature of Kresilas, . . ll'A^ ; (5} a long plinth which supported 
an equestrian group, seen by Pausanias and thought by him to represent 
the sons of Xenophon : the inscription shows that the artist was Lykias of 
Eleutherai, son of Myron. Bull. Corr. Hellen., 1889, Jan.-Feb., p. 150, 
etc.] Mittheil. Athen., 1888, pp. 441-2 ; 'Ap X . AeArtov, Oct.-Nov., 1888. 

Honorary inscription to Oiniades of Skiathos. This inscription (referred 
to on page 93), written orot^Sov, was found on a block of Pentelic mar- 
ble, somewhat chipped at the bottom : 0eot | c8oev TTJL (3o\.-r)i /cat TWI S^IOH, 
AvTto X ts eTrpvravcve, Ev/c| Actors eypafi/Mareve, IepoK\\r)<s CTree-rare, EvKrrjfjuDv 
i)PX f > I AtetTpec/)^? etTre. CTmS^ avr]\p earn aya6o<s Otvta8?7s o IIaAIaicr/cia$io5 
Trept Tf]v 7ToA.iv r\rjv A^vatcov /cat 7rpo$iyxos 7ro|tev on Swarai ayaOov /cat e|u 
TTOiet TOV ac^t/co/xevoi/ A077|vaia>v e^KiaOov, eTratvecrat r[e atmoi /cat ava-ypauf/ai 
avrov\ 7rpoevov /cat evepyer^v A^|vat(oi/ /cat TOS e/cyovos avro' /c!at orreos av pr) 
a^LKfjraL 7riju,e| [Xjccr^at rrjv re /3o\7jv rrjv aft f3\ovXfvovcrav /cat TOVS crr/oar^yjos 
/cat TOV ap^ovra TOV ev ^KL\aO(^L os av r\i e/cao~Tore, TO 8e \f/\r) '(frier pa roSc. avaypac/>at 
Toy y\pa/j.fjiarea rr)<s /3oXrj<s ev o~T7yA.^|t XiOivrji /cat KaraOevai eyu. ojoXet* /caXecrat 
Be avrov KO.L CTT t evia e<s TO TTpvraveiov es a|vptov. AvTi^ap^s cnre' ra fte|[v] 
aXXa KaOarrep rr)i /3oX^t, e? 8j[e T^Jv yvwfJifjv /xeTaypdi^at avTJ([t TO 5J/aa$to 
OTTO)? av T]i yeypa|jMyxevov OtvtaSTyv TOV naA.ao~|/cta^tov. 'Ap X . AeA-Ttov, Oct. 
Nov. ; Berl phil. Woch., 1889, col. 202. 
7 



98 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY. [AKROPOLIS.] 

Inscription relating to the building of the Parthenon. There has been 
found another considerable fragment of an inscription recording construc- 
tions which were overseen by the epistates between 447 and 432. It now 
seems certain that all the fragments relate to the building of the Parthenon 
(c/. Koehler and Kirchhoff). According to them, the Parthenon was com- 
menced in 447 ; a fragment of the accounts of the epistates for 444 is pre- 
served ; in 438 it was far enough advanced to receive Pheidias' Athena ; in 
434 the treasurers began to draw up an inventory of the objects deposited 
in different parts of the temple, showing that the interior was finished, 
though on the exterior the sculptures were not completed, nor the columns 
channelled, nor the paintings executed. Work was still going on in 433/2. 
Bull Corr. Hellen., 1889, pp. 174-8. 

Architectural fragments. Among these, the most interesting are the frag- 
ments of columns which have flutings not parallel to the axis but arranged 
in spirals around the drum. Classical Review, March, 1889. 

Temple of Aphrodite Pandemos. Pausanias enumerates the monuments 
on the Akropolis in the following order : the theatre and temple of Dionysos, 
the temple of Themis, the tomb of Hippolytos, the temples of Aphrodite 
Pandemos, Demeter Chloe and Ge~ Kourotrophos. The sites of the thea- 
tre and the Asklepieion are now fixed. At the w. end of the Ergane- 
terrace have been found the substructures of several small sanctuaries. It 
is here that the temple of Themis, the tomb of Hippolytos, and the tem- 
ple of Aphrodite are placed. The main doubt has been, whether this tem- 
ple of Aphrodite, called, as early as the fifth cent. B. c., e<' 'iTnroXvTv, is 
the same as the temple of Aphrodite* Pandemos. It has now been proved, 
that there were two temples, and that the second must be looked for on the 
s. declivity of the Akropolis. Three inscriptions relating to Aphrodite 
have just been found in the earth near the s. tower by the Beule-gate; they 
evidently come from the Pandemos temple, which was probably near by. 
The first inscription dates from the beginning of the fifth century, and is 
dedicatory. The second is on an architrave, and of the fourth century. The 
third is on a stele exposed in the temple, and bears a decree of 284/3 
B. c. regulating the service in the temple under the care of the astynomoi. 
A short dedicatory inscription evidently comes from the small temple of 
Demeter Chloe, and is of the Imperial period. Bull. Corr. Hellen., 1889, 
pp. 156-68. 

Site of the Chalkotheke. ERNEST A. GARDNER writes to the Athenceum, 
(Jan. 12): "As a topographical gain, we may mention that the Chalko- 
theke has for the third and let us hope the last time been identified in 
a large building that backs on to the Kimonian wall in the so-called te- 
menos of Athena Ergane\ The foundations only remain, but Dr. Dorp- 
feld thinks we have enough grounds for believing this identification of his 



[ATHENS.] ARCHAEOLOGICAL NEWS. 99 

to be the final one. The building is large enough to contain the numerous 
and bulky articles which we know from inscriptions to have been stored 
in the Chalkotheke* ; but we must await Dr. Dorpfeld's publication of his 
views, and not anticipate beyond a mere mention of the fact." 

Review of the Excavations on the Akropolis. Dr. CHARLES WALDSTEIN 
has sent the following report, dated Athens, December 31 : " To-day the 
excavations on the Akropolis have been brought to an end. They have 
now been carried on continuously for three years, and have been most suc- 
cessful and fruitful in results, both artistic and purely archaeological. The 
Greek authorities have spared no trouble and expense in making them the 
success they have proved to be. ... In every instance the diggings have 
been carried down to the primitive rock, thus exhausting the possibilities 
of future finds on this site and obviating a future disturbance of the surface 
of the Akropolis. Some of the most interesting Cyclopean or Pelasgic re- 
mains of the earliest settlers of Athens have been laid bare, to do which it 
was necessary sometimes to dig to a depth of 14 meters. The surface of 
the Akropolis will be restored to its former state, excepting where interest- 
ing early remains have been laid bare ; these will remain visible, the neces- 
sary precautions being taken not to endanger the visitor. 

" In all, from 30 to 40 marble statues have been exhumed, of which 20 
were discovered this year ; over 50 articles in bronze have been found, the 
most important of which are a perfectly-preserved large bronze head, to- 
gether with statuettes of Athene 1 , athletes, and warriors, discovered this 
year ; over 100 terracottas ; over 1,000 fragments of vases, some with im- 
portant inscriptions ; and over 300 inscriptions, some of great historical 
value, while others recording the names of early, especially Ionian, artists, 
are of supreme importance in throwing light upon the early history of Greek 
art. Besides all this, the results as regards Greek and post-Hellenic archi- 
tecture can hardly be estimated, and it will take years of study to utilize 
the important material offered. 

"As to future work, it may be interesting to know that the Greek Gov- 
ernment has invited the cooperation of the foreign archaeologists here resi- 
dent, and that a committee was appointed to consider the plan of proceed- 
ing with the work on and round the Akropolis. This committee, consist- 
ing of the General Ephoros of Excavations, M. Kabbadias, and the Di- 
rectors of the French, German, English, and American Archaeological 
Schools here, met yesterday, and it was decided to resume excavations 
immediately, beginning below the Propylaia at the west end of the theatre 
of Herodes Attikos, and to continue round the north and east slopes of the 
Akropolis below the wall. It was also decided to collect all the extant 
stones and architectural remains of the tower abutting on the west end 
of the so-called Beule-gate, and to place them in their original position ; 



100 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHEOLOGY. [AKROPOLIS.] 

and to support the tower upon which the temple of Nike Apteros stands 
by means of a buttress, as there is considerable danger of its falling in. 
On the Akropolis, it was decided, with due consideration to the safety of 
the building, to clear away the portions of the Turkish minaret so far as 
it distorts the actual plan of the Parthenon, and to lay bare the original 
door of the west end. Finally, it is proposed to take down some portions 
of the late barbarian wall above the wall of Kimon, where it is likely that 
important fragments of sculpture and inscriptions are immured. A frag- 
ment of the frieze of the Parthenon has just been found in a portion of 
this wall. It may be interesting to know that a clause was introduced in 
the report of the committee, stating that every consideration is to be given 
both to the picturesque appearance of the Akropolis as a whole, and to the 
historical interest of the Akropolis as regards the periods not purely Hel- 
lenic. The small portion of wall just referred to, for instance, will be put 
up again, after it has been examined, out of the material of which it is now 
composed. 

" Last, but not least, I must mention the admirable advance made in the 
exhibition of these articles in the museums and elsewhere. The Central 
Museum is being re-organized, and will form a kind of British Museum. 
The monuments are exhibited very soon after their discovery, and cata- 
logues are at once prepared. The arrangements and facilities for study, 
as compared with my last visit several years ago, are so much improved 
that all students and tourists have reason to be grateful to a government 
which finds time and means to advance the cause of humanism so effi- 
ciently, and for the energy and skill displayed by M. Kabbadias, the General 
Ephoros of Museums and Excavations, M. Stais, and all the other officials." 

International Commission on Excavations. M. LAMBROS writes from 
Athens, in regard to the committee mentioned in Dr. Waldstein's report : 
" The Ministry of Public Instruction has named a commission, on the pat- 
tern of the General Ephorate of Antiquities, to investigate the question of 
the embellishment and the further excavations of the Akropolis at Athens. 
This consists of the directors of the foreign archaeological institutes exist- 
ing in Athens M. Foucart, Mr. Gardner, Dr. Dorpfeld, and Dr. Wald- 
stein. The commission has made the following recommendations: (1) 
That all the walls of the peribolos of the Akropolis of late date should be 
destroyed down to the ancient level. Only those walls should be left which 
stand where no ancient walls or no ancient foundation exist. (2) That the 
side walls on either side of the door of Beule and the Propylaia ought also 
to be levelled and be replaced by iron railings. (3) That the great Turk- 
ish vaulting and all later additions should also be destroyed, and that a part 
should be laid bare down to the rock. (4) That every trace of the Turkish 
minaret on the Parthenon, as well as the later antes of the western door of 



[ATHENS.] ARCHAEOLOGICAL NEWS. 101 

the Parthenon, is to be destroyed, but after an examination as to whether 
this can be done without any injury to the building. (5) That the western 
wing of the Propylaia should be restored, so far as ancient stones of it are 
available." Athenaeum, Feb. 2. 

THEATRE OF DIONYSOS. In the excavations of the German Institute in 
the upper portion of the cavea of the theatre of Dionysos, besides traces of 
an ancient road, and of some buildings on the rock before the erection and 
extension of the theatre under Lykourgos, has been discovered an oinochoe 
almost entire, bearing black figures representing a bacchanalian scene, with 
the inscription " Xenokles has made," and " Kleisophos has painted," in 
letters of an older period than Eukleides. Athenceum, March 23. 

CENTRAL MUSEUM. Additions. (1) Small marble image used for the 
support of a large statue (instead of the usual tree), recently found in 
LAMIA. This xoanon-shaped figure wears an aigis-gorgoneion and long 
breastplate, and has a serpent twisted around it. The inscription, IIpaiTe- 
Aiys | 'A^vatos eTTotei, shows that it belongs to this artist of the Roman period, 
who is known also by other inscriptions. (2) Bronze Corinthian helmet 
found in Lamia. (3) Late marble figure of Dionysos, found near the 
OLYMPIEION. (4) Bearded head of a man, well preserved, also from the 
Olympieion. (5) Two late statues of women clad in himatia, brought from 
THERA. (6) Various pieces of sculpture from ELEUSIS and from AKRAIPHIA, 
including some bronzes. (7) Terracotta figurines, mostly from BOIOTIA. 
(8) Coins from many quarters. 'Ap^- AeAriov, Oct.-Nov., 1888. 

DELPHOI. No progress has been made toward excavating at Delphoi. 
When the French rejected the treaty of commerce with Greece to which 
was attached the permission to excavate Delphoi, the project was aban- 
doned by the French School, and the Greek Government offered the work 
to the American School. Before anything definite had been accomplished 
toward raising the necessary funds in America, the Greek Archaeological 
Society made an unsuccessful attempt to secure money for the undertaking. 
At present, the work is open to the American School, without competition, 
provided the sum necessary for the purchase of the village of Kastri, on 
the site of ancient Delphoi, can be raised. This sum is variously estimated 
at between $25,000 and $50,000. If this sum can be procured, the Ameri- 
can Archaeological Institute is ready to pledge the greater part of its income 
for five years to carry on the excavations. An appeal to the public will 
shortly be made, in order that America may have the honor of excavating 
this the most important site of ancient Greece. 

MOUNT LYKONE. Temple of Artemis Orthia. The Ministry of Public 
Instruction gave M. J. Kophiniotis leave to make excavations on the site, 
which proved the existence of the sanctuary (JOURNAL, iv, p. 360). 
He reports that the peribolos of the temple has been almost entirely laid 



102 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHEOLOGY. [GREECE.] 

bare. The length of the north wall was 12.30 meters, and that of the 
eastern and western 9.80 met. each. The eastern and western were con- 
nected at the sixth met. by an inner wall, a portion of which remains. 
There is an empty space 7.30 met. long between the fragment of this in- 
terior wall and the western wall. The northwest was, however, surrounded 
by a wall of its own. This enclosed portion of the sanctuary has a mosaic 
floor, half formed of large pieces, the other half of small ones. Of the 
stones of the peribolos some were not worked at all, the rest finished. The 
worked stones are almost all of the same dimensions, 1.10 met. long, 0.35 
broad, 0.35 thick. The unworked stones are of varying dimensions, from 
0.70 to 1.60 met. long, and from 0.40 to 0.60 broad. Within and without 
the peribolos, it is reported, have been found various roof-tiles, lion-heads, 
and other fragments of the building ; also, fragments of marble drapery, 
and of an arm and a leg belonging to a great statue, 'which the report con- 
siders to have been one of the statues that, according to Pausanias, adorned 
the temple, to wit, those of Apollo, Artemis, and Leto : they were the works 
of Polykleitos. On the east side of the peribolos has been found a well- 
preserved torso of the marble statue of a female : it is 0.20 met. high ; the 
head, hands, and feet are missing. The workmanship is admirable. The 
discovery of three muses of the R6man period shows that the sanctuary 
was visited and prosperous as late as the time of Geta and even of Con- 
stantius II, that is, till the middle of the fourth century after Christ. S. P. 
LAMBROS, in Aihenceum, Jan. 19. 

MYKENAI. Two tombs have been explored by M.Tsountas. One of them 
contained ivory objects, while the other was empty. Two ivory cylinders 
were found, but were so covered with accretions that they were sent to 
Athens to be cleaned : they were covered with circles of scales in relief. 
Besides these, there were : (1) 3 ivory reliefs : one representing the upper 
part of a women holding in her left hand a branch or a flower ; another, 
the lower part of a seated woman; the third (a well-preserved plaque), 
representing a sphinx : (2) pieces of a stone vessel : (3) a peculiar clay vessel 
bearing an incised ornamentation, the incisions being filled with a white 
substance. Excavations will next be made in the prehistoric palace discov- 
ered last year. 'Apx- AeXriov, Oct.-Nov. ; Chronique des Arts, 1889, p. 60. 

The Akropolis. CHR. TSOUNTAS in the Ephemeris and in the Praktika, 
and CHR. BELGER, from these sources, in the BerL phil. Wochenschrift 
(1889, No. 4), give the conclusions to be drawn from the latest excavations 
at Mykenai. In the first place, it is proved that the city was not aban- 
doned after its destruction by the Argives. There was a Kw/xr/ Mv/caveW in the 
time of the Spartan tyrant Nabis, as is proved by an inscription of consid- 
erable length : another inscription proves the same fact for the second cen- 
tury B. c. Of great importance are the results for the history of architec- 



[GREECE.] 



ARCHAEOLOGICAL NEWS. 



103 




FIGURE 20. Ground-plan of the akropolis of Mykenai. 



104 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHEOLOGY. [GREECE.] 

ture. A PLAN is given, (Figure W} from Dorpfeld's drawings, in the 
Praktika for 1886, lately issued. The plans of Tiryns and Troja will afford 
interesting points of comparison. If we seek to distinguish the various 
strata from each other, the uppermost discloses the foundations of a long 
Doric temple, part of which was built directly above the ancient palace. 
The temple probably dates from the time of the Persian wars, when the 
inhabitants of Mykenai were strong enough to send a special body of sol- 
diers to Plataia. Of the architectural members only a block from the cor- 
nice has been found (so Tsountas in the Praktika : Dorpfeld in the Mittheil. 
Athen., 1886, p. 330 announces the discovery of a capital, architrave, and 
triglyphs). Possibly, two fragments of archaic relief-sculpture belonged 
to this temple. Beneath the temple was found a layer of careless construc- 
tion, and, still lower, the remains of a palace like that at Tiryns. The chief 
room is the ptyapov or men's dwelling, in the midst of which was the hearth 
surrounded by four columns that supported the roof. The hearth was here 
made of clay and ornamented with brightly painted stripes. The apart- 
ment is divided, as at Tiryns, into vestibule, antechamber and court. To 
the southeast of the ^yapov was probably a propylaion, analogous to that 
at Tiryns ; though the descent from the fieyapov was not by means of a 
ramp but by a stately stairway 2.40 meters broad. To the north, sepa- 
rated by a long corridor, lies the women's palace. Here golden ornaments 
were found, and rich wall-decoration. The walls were built of large stones 
below, and smaller ones above, were strengthened by horizontal beams, 
plastered and ornamented with paintings of at least a geometrical charac- 
ter. Leaving the summit of the citadel, we pass southwards over the re- 
mains of a winding ramp to a group of buildings of various periods, some 
of which seem to have been annexed to the citadel at an early date. Here 
were discovered, painted on the walls, a line of ass-headed monsters, hith- 
erto known only from the so-called Island-gems. These carry the long 
staff, but lack the suspended booty represented on the gems. The ass-head 
surmounts a brightly-dressed human body, like a minotaur. The rect- 
angular buildings to the left of these, and the circular enclosure of graves, 
belong to the earlier excavations of Schliemann. 

PEIRAIEUS. Not far from the east end of the great harbor, have been 
found three statuettes of the goddess Kybele, about 30 centim. high. The 
figure is seated in a niche, above which is an aetoma ; she bears upon her 
knees a lion, and has a phial in her right hand. In one of these statuettes, 
upon the side columns of the niche, is seen the relief of a boy on the right 
hand, and of a girl on the left. As other statuettes of Kybele have been 
found at the Peiraieus, they may point to the existence of an ancient temple 
to the goddess. In the same district has been found a sepulchral stele, with 
aetoma, and the inscription Euthenika Tebana; also two loutrophoroi, wholly 



[GREECE.] ARCHAEOLOGICAL NEWS. 105 

decorated, the one in relief, the other in painting. These large water-vases 
have lost neck and base, but they bear inscriptions of names. The vase in 
relief represents a man seated ; before him stands a woman with right hand 
stretched toward him, and behind her a female slave holding in her hand a 
small basket : the man's name is Lysippides, that of the woman Lysimache. 
The painted vase still shows traces of color and has inscribed the name 
Pytheos. Athenceum, March 16. 

In the place where the statues of Asklepios were found, other antiquities 
have since come to light. A headless statue of a boy, resting chiefly on the 
right foot and having the left.foot advanced. In his left hand he holds some 
spherical object, and from the left forearm the himation hangs down to the 
ground. The right hand and part of that arm are missing. Besides this, 
there were found a head of a youth, complete excepting the nose ; and, in 
another part of the town, a long and as yet incompletely deciphered inscrip- 
tion. 'Apx- AeXribv, October, 1888. 

STAMATA (Attika). Discovery of its identity. Stamata is a small vil- 
lage lying just beyond the ridge which shuts in on the north the valley 
leading into Ikaria. Some have placed at Stamata the deme of Sema- 
chidai. Others, including Lolling, believe it to be the site of Hekal. 
Mr. Washington, of Yale, a member of the American School at Athens, 
decided to excavate both at Old Stamata, a little to the s. of the present 
village, and at the ruins of three churches partly built of ancient materials, 
half an hour distant to the north. In his excavations at Old Stamata, Mr. 
Washington found, besides various fragments of sculpture, an unusually 
well-preserved female torso larger than life, and several inscriptions which 
establish this as the chief centre of the deme Plotheia, which may have 
extended into the valley beyond. N. Y. Nation, No. 1231. 

TANAGRA. The latest excavations have yielded several noteworthy statu- 
ettes, besides sepulchral stelai and inscriptions. At the suspension of work 
for the winter, the more portable antiquities were transferred to the Cen- 
tral Museum, Athens. 'A/>X- AeXribv, Oct.-Nov., 1888. 

THESPIAI (near). Temple and Theatre of the Muses on Mount Helikon. 
Pausanias describes the temple that stood in the Grove of the Muses, and 
the works of art contained in it (ix. 29-31). The statues of the Muses 
themselves were works of Kephisodotos, Strongylion, and Olympiosthenes, 
and belonged to the fifth century B. c. It is the first occasion on which we 
find the Muses attaining the orthodox number of nine. But the grove was 
adorned with statues of other divinities, and also of poets and musicians. 
A festival of the Muses, styled the Museia, was celebrated in the grove 
under the superintendence of the Thespians, in whose territory the grove 
lay. Inscriptions previously found had informed us of the cult of the 
Muses, which continued into Roman times ; those lately discovered are in 



106 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY. [GREECE.] 

the Boiotian dialect, and have been met with in the churches of the vil- 
lage of Karanda, upon the road from Thisbe to Leuktra. One of them 
mentions the offerings to the Helikonian Muses by Philetairos, the son of 
Attalos I, King of Pergamon. 

The interest which the French Archaeological School showed as early as 
1884, when M. Foucart published these inscriptions in the Bulletin de Cor- 
respondanceHellenique, determined him to proceed to the systematic inves- 
tigation of the site of the temple. After the French had obtained the 
necessary permit from the Minister of Worship, they set to work in Octo- 
ber and November. M. Jamot superintended the work. The results 
attained have proved most interesting. 

The centre of the excavations has been the modern church of the Holy 
Trinity, which exactly occupies the site of the Temple of the Muses. It is 
situated at about an hour's walk from the village of Palaiopanagia, on the 
lower eastern slopes of Helikon. The church, of which only the founda- 
tions remained, has had to be entirely removed. The temple below proves 
to have been 12.50 meters long by 6.50 broad. The entrance was on the 
west side. It was an amphiprostyle of four Ionic columns, similar, there- 
fore, to the Temple of Nike" on the Akropolis. It had, it would seem, 
neither forecourt nor opisthodomos, so that it had the look of a cella flanked 
on two sides by pillars. It is noteworthy that the temple had been rebuilt 
in Roman times, when it was lengthened 6 meters so as to form a square. 
The discoveries of objects of art are limited ... on the other hand, the store 
of inscriptions is large; they are dedicatory inscriptions, among them an 
epigram in verse. 

The excavations will be resumed in the spring. It is intended to pro- 
ceed to the complete opening of a hemicycle lying at about fifteen minutes' 
walk from the temple, and probably the ancient theatre. LAMBROS in 
Athenceum, Jan. 5. 

The 'A/3 X . AeXrtW for Oct.-Nov. and the Berl phil Woch. (1889, col. 74) 
inform us that the stage arrangements were found to be similar to those of 
the theatre of Epidauros. The stage, which was covered with a mass of 
debris over four meters deep, has a width of 18.10 met. (20 met. ace. to 
Woch.), and is adorned with half-columns of the Doric style, 14 of which 
are still in position, according to the AeXrtov ; while the Woch. reports that 
there were originally only 13 columns, of which but seven have been found. 

VOLO. Government of Magnesia. Among the inscriptions recently found 
at Volo, there is one of the second century B. c. of singular importance, as 
it makes known to us some particulars of the government of the Thessalian 
city of Magnesia, which proves to be very similar in constitution to the 
JEtolian League. In this decree of the city in honor of a certain Hermo- 
genes, son of Adymos, who was secretary of the synedroi, appear the names 



ARCHAEOLOGICAL NEWS. 107 

of the chief magistrates of the district of the Magnetes, viz., the strategos, 
the hipparchos, the navarchos, the tamias, and the priest of the Askraian 
Zeus. Athenaeum, March 23. 

KRETE. 

KNOSSOS. Proposed excavations by Dr. Schliemann. Dr. SCHLIEMANN, 
supported by the Syllogos of Candia, is at present in treaty for the pur- 
chase of a hillock named Kephalaton Tshelebi, on the site of the ancient 
city of Knossos, in order to clear out a large archaic building, amongst 
the ruins of which have been lately found pithoi and vases of the so-called 
Mykenai period. Mr. Stillman has pronounced this building to be the 
Labyrinth of Daidalos, but it is more likely to prove to be an andreion, 
or a hall for the syssitia of the inhabitants of Knossos, or at any rate a 
public building of a remote epoch. At present all that is to be seen are 
some very thick walls of local gypsum stone, which were partially disin- 
terred by the Spanish vice-consul, M. Calocherin6s, in 1877. Some of these 
stones bear figures of ancient character, probably masons' marks. The 
form of the building appears to be rectangular, about 44 met. by 55, and 
both the walls and mode of construction have striking points of resemblance 
with the prehistoric palace of Tiryns. Dr. Schliemann has been induced 
to enter on this work by the information given him in 1884, and first pub- 
lished in 1886 by Dr. Fabricius ; but, when he and Dr. Dorpfeld visited 
Krete at that time, the negotiation did not meet with the success it now 
seems likely to obtain. Athenceum, Jan. 26. 

ITALY. 
PREHISTORIC AND CLASSIC ANTIQUITIES. 

NATIONAL SCHOOL OP ARCHAEOLOGY. The king of Italy has author- 
ized the institution of an Italian School of Archaeology, to be directed by 
Senator Fiorelli. The members of the School will receive a subvention 
from the State for three years. They will spend the first year at Rome, 
the second at Naples, where they are to take part in the excavations at 
Pompeii, the third in Greece. The preparatory courses for membership, 
entitling to this stipend, will include : Italian Epigraphy ; Roman Antiq- 
uity and Epigraphy ; Greek Antiquity and Epigraphy ; Archaeology and 
History of Art ; Roman Topography ; Palethnology. The competition is 
open to doctors of philosophy and letters, but not to doctors of law. 
Chronique des Arts, 1889, p. 60 ; Cour. de I' Art, 1889, p. 54. 

NATIONAL MUSEUM OF ANTIQUITIES. A new museum has been insti- 
tuted at Rome, bearing the above title. It is divided into two sections : 
one is to contain the antiquities found in the City proper ; the other, those 
found in its vicinity. Collections of casts, for the use of students, will be 



108 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY. [ITALY.] 

comprised in the new museum ; and it will contain archives, open to stu- 
dents, in which will be preserved all documents relating to the excavations 
made in Rome and its vicinity. They are preparing, at the Baths of Diocle- 
tian, the permanent locality to receive the objects of this museum. In the 
mean time, it is provisionally installed at the Villa di Papa Giulio (Villa 
Glori), near the Porta del Popolo : they have finished the classification and 
exposition of the most important objects coming from the excavations made 
for two years past at Civita Castellana, the ancient Falerii (c/. JOURNAL, in, 
pp. 460-7). The antiquities of the necropolis have been arranged according 
to an excellent method. Each tomb is numbered, and its funerary furni- 
ture has been collected in a glass case or in a part of one ; and the cases 
arranged chronologically. The furniture taken from the most ancient 
tombs consists of objects in amber, silex, arms of bronze, vases not worked 
on the wheel. The less archaic tombs show Phoenician importations ; then, 
one distinguishes Greek influence ; afterward, appear the works of a school 
of local art ; finally, it is the Grseco-Roman art which they exhibit. The 
series is uninterrupted from the vni century B. c. to the last part of the 
Empire. Cour. de I' Art, 1889, pp. 51, 66-7. 

AMENTINUM. A new Latin City. CHR. HULSEN, in the Berl. phil. Woch. 
(1889, col. 35), starting from the readings of two manuscripts of Vitruvius 
restores to light a forgotten Latin city, Amentinum, which in this case 
had been read Amiternum. He is helped by the inscription of the time 
of Tiberius ( G. I. L. vi, 251) dated 27 A. D. The site cannot by these means 
be accurately determined, but it may lie on the right bank of the Tiber, 
near the Sabine hills, or on the Monti Corniculani. 

BAIAE. A Portions Triumphi. Comm. de Rossi (Not. d. Scavi, 1888, pp. 
709-14) calls attention to an unexplained but exceedingly interesting 
inscription recently found at Baiae : PORTICUS Tm[umphi \ LONG . EFFIC 
PE[C? - dim | ITUM et . RED . p[ec? . oo cxii \ PASS ccxxiif - semis \ QUIN- 
QUIES iT[um et - red EFFICIT PA^S-MS | oo cxii. This triumphal portico 
of Baiae was evidently a reproduction of that in Rome, an example of the 
imitation of monuments of the great city so common throughout the Em- 
pire. The characters of the inscriptions are fine monumental letters of the 
first century of the Empire. A similar inscription, dating from the third 
cent. A. D., was found near Rome in 1852, and is an example of the appli- 
cation of the public triumphal porticos, on a small scale, to private villas 
and gardens. In all of them we find the peculiar form of calculating the 
measurement of the monument according to the number of paces covered 
by passing backward and forward through it a certain number of times, 
i. e., 1112 paces for five times or a single length of 222 paces equivalent 
to 1112 ft.; and the half of this, or the itus alone (without the reditus), 
and the length of the portico, 556 ft. The original porta triumphalis in 



[ITALY.] ARCHJSOLOGICAL NEWS. 109 

Rome cannot be exactly located, but it was near the campus Flaminius, 
probably in the villa publica or Saepta. Its original name was probably lost 
at the time of the magnificent constructions of Agrippa, finished in 728 u. c. 
BREMBATE (so^o). Prehistoric Antiquities. In last July, there came to 
light, along the road from Osio to Trezze, near Brembate, a cemetery of 
the first iron-age, nearly corresponding to the third period of Este, and in 
topographico-chronological respects with the groups of Lodi and Como 
illustrated by Castelfranco and Barelli. At the depth of one meter, the 
excavators found numerous cinerary urns of terracotta and of bronze, con- 
taining small earthen vases and an abundant collection of objects in bronze 
and iron, as well as arms of iron, and skewers (?) placed above or outside 
the large vases. Through neglect or ignorance, the authorities were not 
informed, and many of the objects were thrown away. The greater part 
were, however, recovered. A complete list in 137 numbers is given, from 
which is the following selection. Silver: a ring. Bronze: a cista a cor- 
doni ; several situlae ; a large number of fibulae of a great variety of forms ; 
rings, armlets, earrings, etc. ; a sword-handle with a fragment of the deco- 
rated blade, with a bit of the scabbard ; also the sword-point, covered with 
a piece of the wooden scabbard over which is a thin strip of brass. This 
rare object must have been nearly intact when found. Other important 
pieces are : (1) a rod, perhaps for religious use, in the shape of a rectangu- 
lar shaft surmounted by a globular end ; (2) a large ornament, composed 
of a central plaque highly decorated, similar in part to the Gallic baldric 
found at S. Florentin near Sens ; (3) a superb iron two-edged sword, still 
retaining a large part of the scabbard, with a highly decorated handle. 
Not. d. Scavi, 1888, pp. 673-81. 

CASTEL SAN PIETRO. ARomanBridge. In enlarging the present bridge 
over the torrent Silaro, near Castel S. Pietro, the discovery was first made 
of a solid Roman wall built of immense blocks and intended to protect 
the banks above the bridge. Then came the discovery of parts of the 
Roman bridge, and, finally, of two identical inscriptions on marble cippi: 
IMP- CAESAR- DIVI I NERVAE FILIVS- NERVA I TRAIANVS- AVG 
GERM-PONTIMAX-TRIB-POT-IIII'COS-III-P-P-F- The sub- 
structure of the bridge was a large palisade, then came a very thick layer 
of cement from which rose the stepped piers. As the Via Aemilia was 
built in 187 B. c., it would seem natural to suppose that the bridge dated 
from that time and not from A. D. 100 in the time of Trajan. This is sup- 
ported by the evident erasure of earlier inscriptions from the two blocks, 
the surfaces, fresher than any others, being smoothed down to receive the 
inscriptions of Trajan, to whom was due, evidently, a restoration of the 
bridge. Not. d. Scavi, 1888, pp. 617-22. 

CHIETI=TEATE. New Inscriptions. Some interesting inscriptions have 




110 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY. [ITALY.] 

come to light on the slope of the hill on which rises the city of Chieti, the 
ancient Teate Marrucinorum. First is a large sepulchral inscription, then 
many masses of stone with architectural decoration which formed a monu- 
ment. Seven of these have gladiatorial scenes in relief. Four formed the 
summit of the front and represented the spectators of the circus with the 
tibicini at the angles ; and three other pieces, which must have formed an 
ornamental band, showed the gladiators fighting. The art is of the best 
imperial period, and the figures are often very well preserved. The monu- 
ment may be that to which a large inscription belongs, found last year, 
erected by C. Lusius storax sibi et coniugibus suis. To it belongs an in- 
scription with a long list of members of a funerary college ; another long 
inscription contains nine distichs. Not. d. Sscavi, 1888, pp. 745-50. 

CORNETO=TARQUINII. The last report, on the excavations undertaken 
last spring from March 5 to May 12, contains little of interest. The work 
was begun to the s. of the Arcatelle, and gave the following results. March 
5th, a trench-tomb : 8th, a chamber-tomb with flat ceiling, already sacked : 
9th, a second similar chamber-tomb, fallen in ; and a ribbed-vaulted tomb 
containing two bronzes similar to those in well-tombs and trench-tombs : 
10th, a similar chamber-tomb, also fallen in, which also contained some 
bronzes : 12th, another ribbed- vaulted tomb with interesting terracotta 
vases imitating bronze vessels : 15th, a ruined chamber-tomb : 26th, a 
ribbed-vaulted chamber-tomb, etc. The earthenware found in these tombs 
was not of much importance, though including quite a number of pieces 
of Greek manufacture. 

Through dissatisfaction with the above results, excavation was suspended 
on that site and begun on April 9 in front of the new cemetery. This was 
somewhat more successful ; in a tomb discovered Apr. 16 were found nine 
rude sarcophagi ; the bust of a woman on a stone aedicula ; the head of a 
man inside one of the sarcophagi, which also contained an amphora with 
yellow figures. Not. d. Scavi, 1888, pp. 691-6. 

MASSA MARTANA (Umbria). Via Flaminia. Comm. Gamurrini calls 
attention to the following inscription, as important for the course of the 
Via Flaminia: IMP CAESAR I DIVI TRAIA|NIPARTHICI F| DIVI- 
NERVAE- N ITRAJANVS- HADRI|ANVS- AVG PONT| MAX-TRIB. 
POT-WI COS III PROCOSVIIAM PROLAPSAM | NOVA SVB- 
STRVCT| REST. This is a record that the Emperor Hadrian had, nova 
substrwtione, restored the ancient road in 877 u. c. (224 A. D.), while Ha- 
drian was in the East, for which reason, he assumed the title of proconsul. 
The road is the Flaminia, which from Narni passed through Carsulae. The 
inscription was found near the middle station on this part of the road, 
called ad Martis (i. <?., adfanum Martis) ; the itinerary is Mevaniam (= Be- 
vagna) ad Martis xviNarniam xvm. Not. d. Scavi, 1888, pp. 681-2. 



[ITALY.] ARCHAEOLOGICAL NEWS. Ill 

MONTEGIORGIO. Site of Falerium Picenum. The discovery of a sepul- 
chraljinscription near the present commune of Montegiorgio places here the 
site of the ancient Falerium Picenum (c/. C.I.L. ix, p. 517). It reads : 

T SILLIVS KARVS VIVOS POSVIT SIBI ET | VENITIAE PRISCAE CON | 
TVBERNALI CARISS | ET IANVARIA FIL | INFR P XX INAGR P XX | 
QVI ' HOC ' VIOLARIT | DABIT AERARIO FA|LERIENS HS OO OO. Not. d. 

Scam, 1888, p. 725. 

ORVIETO. Excavations in the Southern Necropolis. In September, re- 
mains of a two-chambered tomb were found near the Cannicella on the 
land of Cav. Luigi Fumi. There were fragments of black-figured and red- 
figured vases, many remains of bucchero vases with reliefs, the feet of a 
bronze chair, a small bronze lion, etc. 

In the same region, two tombs, each with two chambers, were found on 
the property of Sig. G. Onori. They contained remains of burnt and un- 
burnt bodies, and many fragments of tractyte belonging to two or three 
cinerary urns, the largest of which was carved in very fine style. As the 
tombs had been already visited, only fragments were found of Attic red- 
figured vases (amphora and two kylikes), of local black-figured ware, and 
of common unpainted ware. Not. d. Scavi, 1888, pp. 622, 726. 

OSTIA. Awaiting final excavations in the zone between the Theatre and 
the so-called Temple of Matidia, which will settle the problem of the nature 
and use of large buildings now partly uncovered, Professor Lanciani de- 
scribes briefly some of the chambers in one of them, a bathing establishment. 
This building is practically intact, preserving not only its architectural but 
its figured decoration. Its public character is shown by the heaviness of 
walls and vaults, and by the size of the halls. Perhaps these are the well- 
known baths of Antoninus Pius. A plan is given of the chambers dis- 
covered : these are, (1) a frigidarium, where the piscina is divided off by 
an archway supported by two marble-incrusted pilasters and by two granite 
columns with Attic vases and beautiful capitals of Greek marble. The 
walls are decorated with niches which contained sculptures, of which the 
following fragments were found : (a) a life-size marble bust of splendid work- 
manship and in perfect preservation, somewhat resembling Lucius Verus; 
(6) a male bust with short hair and beard and lively expression, in perfect 
preservation; (c) bust of a bearded man, with chlamys thrown over his 
shoulder, of the time of the Antonines ; (d) portrait-bust of a woman, with 
headdress like that of Plotina ; (e) idem, with curly hair and a stephane ; 
(/) headless statuette of Fortuna ; (gr) headless female statue, 1.65 met. 
high, draped in a tunic and mantle which entirely cover her, even to her 
hands ; (fi) a fine large headless athletic statue ; (i) remarkable terracotta 
semi-statuette of a fountain-nymph carrying fruit and flowers. (2) The 
large central hall, covering 188 sq. met., had painted walls and a vaulted 



1 1 2 AMERICAN JO URNAL OF ARCHJEOLOG Y. [ITALY.] 

ceiling, as is proved by the blocks lying on the pavement. The floor is 
in chiaroscuro mosaic with figures of animals, monsters, a triton, genii, etc. 
On the marble base of a statue was an inscription of T. Petronius Priscus, 
Imperial Procurator in Noricum. 

The second building referred to is like an immense rectangular isolated 
domus, with streets on all four sides, occupying the space between the Baths 
described above and the Theatre. Its w. side measures over 50 met., the 
others have not yet been uncovered. It was built at the close of the first 
or the beginning of the second century of the Empire. The whole of its 
lower floor was occupied by tabernae, the doors to which were afterwards 
closed up with fine brickwork of the time of Severus, showing that the 
building, originally private, was expropriated for government use, i. e., as 
the casern of the vigili. This fact is shown by two inscriptions ; the first, 
of 217 A. D., Valerio Titanlano Praef. Vig. E. M. V. cur ante, etc. ; the second 
mentioning a cohort, two centurions, and a tribune of the vigili. Not. d. 
Scavi, 1888, pp. 737-45. 

POMPEII. At a meeting of the Academic des Sciences (Feb. 14) M. Fou- 
quie reported an analysis which he had made of fragments of blue coming 
from a fresco at Pompeii. He found a double silicate of chalk and copper, 
which he has succeeded in reproducing. This blue is unalterable and the 
strongest known. M. Berthelot showed it to be the famous Alexandrian 
blue whose manufacture dates from the time of the Ptolemies and was 
imported to Italy in the beginning of our era. Pozzqoli was the centre of 
this industry in Italy. M. Fouquie believes that this blue was originally 
prepared with sand and carbonate of chalk submitted to a high tempera- 
ture, to which grated copper was added. The whole was then pulverised 
and used as ochres are. Paris Temps, Feb. 15. 

REGGIO=RHEGION (Calabria). In the neighborhood of the city has been 
found one of the peculiar tombs of this region, whose top is covered with 
about forty large tiles that lean against the side walls. This tomb, 1.80 
met. X 1.10 X 0.53, contained 15 tear-bottles and a number of vases. With- 
in the city, excavations at the casern of S. Agostino resulted in the dis- 
covery of a monumental tomb of late period ; and a large ancient building 
paved with [marble, which originally had a peristyle with columns that 
remained standing, apparently, during the Middle Ages. A number of 
fragments of terracottas, principally female heads and reliefs, have come to 
light in various parts of the city. Not. d. Scavi, 1888, pp. 753-4. 

REGGIO=REGIUM LEPIDUM (Aemilia) Roman Aqueduct. In a field at a 
distance of 1500 met. from Reggio, there have been found remains belong- 
ing to a Roman aqueduct which, starting probably at the Acque chiare, 
ended at Regium Lepidum, whose site is occupied by the modern city. The 
parts discovered are, a well to aerate the water and a basin for the deposit 



[ITALY.] ARCHAEOLOGICAL NEWS. 113 

of the objects brought along by the water. The well is conical in shape and 
is about three meters deep. The conduits of the aqueduct leading from 
the well in both directions were explored to a considerable distance. Not. 
d. Scavi, 1888, p. 616. 

ROMA. New archceological series of the Lincei. The class of Moral Sci- 
ences of the R. Academy of the Lincei has appointed a committee by means 
of whom the Academy will begin, in the current year 1889, a special series of 
archaeological publications of large size accompanied by numerous plates ; 
without, however, putting a stop to the useful Notizie degli Scavi. The 
committee is composed of Domenico Comparetti, Giuseppe Fiorelli, Wolf- 
gang Helbig, Rodolfo Lanciani, Ersilia Lovatelli and Luigi Pigorini. 
Bull.Palet.Ital, 1888, pp. 205-6. 

SCULPTURE. Discoveries during 1888. The December number of the 
Bull. Comm. arch, gives (pp. 481-91) a catalogue of the sculptures dis- 
covered by the archaeological commission during the year 1888. Most of 
these have already been mentioned, but we select the following. Two statues 
of Jupiter, four of Mercury, one of Venus, two of Amor, three of Bacchus, 
one of Aesculapius, and a number unidentified : thirteen heads, busts, herms 
and masks : fourteen torsi and fragments of statues : eight reliefs and frag- 
ments of reliefs, several of remarkable beauty and interest, two being in 
Greek style : six sarcophagi or fragments. 

Recent Discoveries. Among the recently-discovered pieces of sculpture, 
the following may be noted. 1. Marble statue of Mercury, less than life- 
size, broken. 2. Trunk of marble statue of a Satyr, less than life-size, of 
good style. 3. Statuette of semi-nude Venus, of marble, headless and foot- 
less. 4. Headless female statuette of marble, draped. 5. Life-size statue 
of a River, headless and partly armless, reclining : it is of good style. 6. 
Headless statue of a girl, half-crouching, half-kneeling : its legs and great 
part of the arms are broken away. It is archaistic work of good style. 7. 
Torso of a statuette of good workmanship. 8. A colossal head of good art, 
probably of Neptune. 9. Life-size bust, in free style : head similar to An- 
toninus Pius. 10. Bicipital herm Pan and bacchante. 11. Fragment of 
a good relief of two figures banquetting, one male, the other female ; both 
being semi-nude and reclining. 12. Colossal trophy, consisting of a Roman 
cuirass in the shape of a thorax placed on the trunk of a tree : it is in good 
style and preservation, and a rare monument. 13. Large fragment of a 
frieze, above an architrave, on which remain three figures in high relief, 
headless, and draped in togas an apparitor , and two speakers : the style is 
fine. It may have belonged to the buildings erected by Pompey near S. 
Andrea della Valle. Bull. Comm. arch., 1888, pp. 415-20. 

Early Latin Coins. In dredging the Tiber near the Salara under the 
Aventine, thirteen coins of the primitive Latin mintage were brought up. 
8 



114 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHEOLOGY. [ROMA.] 

All weigh four ounces, that is, are trientes, and belong to Latium, Lower 
Etruria, and Kome. They are derived from the type of the primitive eleven- 
ounce as, and belong to the end of the fourth or the beginning of the third 
century B. c. : they evidently formed part of a votive deposit. Two only 
belong to Rome, and the latest of these is of lighter weight than all the 
others, showing a depreciated coinage in Rome which gradually shut out 
that of the neighboring cities. Three of the coins belong to Sutri. The 
triens seems to have had a sacred significance, cf. the custom of placing one 
in the mouth of the deceased. Not. d. Scavi. 1888, pp. 628-9. 

MOSAIC. Part of a tile found near S. Lucia in Selce represents the lower 
part of a warrior, executed in the fine mosaic-work of colored enamels of 
the kind that is often inserted in the centre of pavements. The warrior is 
not fighting but rather speaking, and holds with his left hand a round 
shield and a lance. His overgarment is bluish and his legs are covered 
with knemides. Under the figure is the inscription (1 OAYA A[/xas]. Per- 
haps the entire subject was Homeric, and represented Polydamas seeking 
to dissuade Hektor from continuing the combat with the Greeks. Bull. 
Comm. arch., 1888, p. 424. 

INSCRIPTIONS. Forum of Augustus. Professor Lanciani publishes, in 
the January number of the Bullettino delta Commissions archeologica co- 
munale, a paper on the ForUin of Augustus. In 1881, the Commune pur- 
chased an area of about 950 sq. met. within the area of the Forum, opposite 
the temple of Mars, with the intention of pulling down the miserable con- 
structions which covered the ground, in the hope of discovering the marble 
pedestals erected by Augustus in honor of the most notable Roman generals 
(Sueton., Aug., 31) upon which their statues were placed : the Forum was 
inaugurated in 752 u. c. : Augustus himself dictated the elogia or biographi- 
cal notices to be inscribed on the pedestals. Their importance for history 
cannot be overestimated. Only fourteen inscriptions with the elogia cla- 
rorum ducum have been recovered since the Renaissance : of these, nine are 
copies found elsewhere, five belong to Rome, namely, those^ of Lucius Al- 
binus (364 u. c.), M. Furius Camillus (364-368 u. c.), L. Furius Camillus 
(405 u. c.), L. Papirius Cursor (445 u. c.) and C. Marius. With one pos- 
sible exception, however, none of these are the originals from the Forum of 
Augustus. The attempt to recover them by excavations has just begun, 
during the month of January, and some interesting discoveries have already 
been made in the few square meters that have been explored. 

i. Pedestal of a statue, 1.05 met. high, 0.39 met. wide, found in a small 
sarcophagus; inscription reads: DIVO| NIGRINIANO| NEPOTICARI| 
GEMINIVS FESTVS V.. RATIONALIS. It had not been known who 
Nigrinianus was: he had been variously supposed to be a son of Alexander, 
tyrant of Africa, or a son or relative of the Emperor Carinus. This in- 






[ITALY.] ARCHAEOLOGICAL NEWS. 115 

scription shows him to be a nephew of Carinus, and to have died young 
before the end of 283 A. D. The dedicator, Geminius Festus, was already 
known. 

ii. A marble base, 0.47 met. high, 0.39 met. wide, which originally 
supported a gold vase weighing one hundred pounds! It reads: IMP 
CAESARI|AVGVSTO-PP|HISPANIA-VLTERIOR|BAETICA-QVOD 
IBENEFICIO EIVS ETIPERPETVA CVRA | PROVINCIA PACATA 
| EST c(?) AYR 1 1 PC. Some letters of the sixth and eighth lines are 
indistinct. The division of Hispania Ulterior into Lusitania and Baetica 
has beeen attributed to Augustus mainly by conjecture and without abso- 
lute proof that this was not done by Tiberius. It is now certain that it 
took place after Augustus sent colonies to Spain. As Augustus was not 
acclaimed Pater Patriae until Feb. 5, 752 u. c., the inscription could not 
have been set up until afterward. The discovery of many similar histor- 
ical inscriptions of importance is expected. 

Fasti Triumphales. A new fragment of the ancient Fasti Triumphales 
has been found in the bed of the Tiber : all previous fragments are pre- 
served at the Capitol, in the Palazzo dei Conservatori. Professor Barna- 
bei has read, before the Accademia dei Lincei, a memoir regarding it, with 
a reconstruction of the text. It belongs to the years 576-79 of the era of 
Varro, and comes between a fragment found in 1872, containing the tri- 
umphs of 559-63, and another found as early as 1546, bearing those of 
579-99. It reads as follows : 

ti. sempronius. p. f. ti. N GRAcc/ms A DLXxv 
jm>w.cfcc6^EREIS-HISPANEISQ-lll-NON-Fe&r 

l.postumius.a.f. A N ALBINVS- PRO AN DLXXV 
cos. ex. fawteNIA- HISPANIA- Q- PR- NON- FEbr 

c.claudius.ap.f.p.N PVLCHER COS- ANN - DLXXvi 
de. histreis. et LIGVRIBVS- K-INTERK 

ti. sempronius. p. /. t\ N GRACCHVS II ADIX ami 
prgcos. ex. saRDINIA TERM I nalib 

m. titinius . . ./. M N CVRV VS PRoeos. an. dlxxviii 

ex. hispania. citeriore 

The first of the five triumphs recorded is that of Tiberius Gracchus over 
the Celtiberians and their allies in Spain : the second that of L. Postumius 
Albinus over the Lusitanians. Livy had already reported them as taking 
place on two consecutive days. Professor Mommsen's remarks on the in- 
scription show that the exact date, in modern parlance, was Februry 4 and 
5, 577 u. c., just before the elections for the year 577-78. Each had the 
military command in his province as praetor pro consule. The third tri- 
umph is that of C. Claudius Pulcher over the peoples of Istria and Liguria, 
and took place at the end of his consulate, on the day after Feb. 24, 578 



116 AMERICAN JO URNAL OF ARCHJEOLOG Y. [KOMA.] 

u. c. in the intercalary month of that year. The fourth triumph was the 
second awarded to Tiberius Gracchus, and took place Feb. 23, 579 u. c. : 
it was over the Sardinian rebels. To the same year belongs the triumph 
of L. Titinius Curvus, praetor in 576 and proconsul in Spain 577-78. 
Bull. Comm. arch., 1889, pp. 35-37, 48-49. 

Sacellwn on the Via Labicana. At the beginning of the modern Via 
Labicana, near the baths of Titus, has come to light an inscription which 
doubtless refers to a sacellum in the area of the temple of Isis and Sarapis, 
from which the third regio of the city received its name and which un- 
doubtedly stood in this vicinity ; as was also lately shown by the discovery 
of two statues and three heads of Isis and a head of Zeus Sarapis. The in- 
scription reads: ISIDI LYDIAE| EDVCATRICI | VALVAS CVM | ANVBI 
ET ARA| MVCIANVS AVG| LIB PROC. The two epithets Lydia (from 
the province of Asia Minor) and Educatrix are new. Statuettes of Anubis 
are often associated with the worship of Isis. Not. d. Scavi, 1888, p. 626 ; 
Bull. Comm. arch., Jan. 1889. 

Tombs on the Via Labicana. Among the tombs of tufa of the Repub- 
lican period found on the Via Labicana, is one whose architrave, formed 
of two large masses of travertine, has an inscription beginning : M LICI- 
NiVS L- MENA- CVRATOR- ITERVM - DE| SVA- PEQVNIA F - 
EFICIVNDVM-CVRAVIT|decVRIONVM-SENTENTIA-SYNHODI M- 
PSA LTV M. Then follows a list of the members of the funereal college, 
whose magistri and decuriones are first mentioned. The monument to 
which this inscription belongs was erected by M. Licinius Mena, at his 
own expense, while he was for the second time curator of the college. All 
these associations were organized, curiously enough, on the model of the 
municipalities. The title of this college was Synodus Magna Psaltum. 
The psaltes, or psaltce, were singers or performers on any musical instru- 
ments. Bull. Comm. arch., 1888, p. 408 ; Not. d. Scavi, 1888, p. 624. 

Recent Inscriptions. Among recently discovered inscriptions are : (1) 
of L. Mummius Maximus Faustianus, of senatorial rank, prajstor urbanus, 
quaestor, etc., end n beg. in cent. ; (2) of Flavius Lollianus, c. 250 A. D. 
Bull. Comm. arch., Jan. 1889. 

TALAMONE= TELAMON (near Orbetello). Discovery of a small Etruscan 
City. The castello of Talamone is placed on the rock forming the prom- 
ontory within which is the port of Telamon, well known in ancient times. 
Opposite it, and enclosing the port on the other side, is the tongue of land 
now called Talarnonaccio, and occupied by fortifications. Anciently, three 
things were distinguished: the promontory, TeXa^wv axpov; the port, Xifjan/j; 
and the city itself, mentioned as Telamon in Pomponius Mela. Comm. 
Gamurrini, in a recent examination, has located the site of the ancient 
Etruscan oppidum on the hill of Talamonaccio. This discovery was made 



[ITALY.] ARCH&OLOGICAL NEWS. 117 

possible by the recent work on fortifications at that point. Certain gen- 
eral facts were ascertained. There were two wall-circuits: the first or 
inner circuit, that of the acropolis, was the more ancient, and belonged to 
the primitive foundation : the second was added either on account of an 
increase of population or for securer defense. Many of the houses and 
lines of streets have been made out, and it is evident that the town did 
not fall gradually into decay but perished by conflagration and assault. 
This must have taken place, judging from the character of the antiquities 
found, some time toward the close of the second century B. c. Traces of 
the disaster still remain in the general layer, about one meter thick, com- 
posed of carbonized objects and a quantity of broken fragments. At this 
time, the Etrusco-Campanian ware was still in use (in-ii cent. B. c.), be- 
fore the introduction of Roman elements. The coins begin with the silver 
coinage of Maritime Etruria and Campania of the beginning of the third 
cent. B. c., and end with the reduced uncial as and denaria coined toward 
the end of the second cent. B. c. From the necropolis, which extends be- 
yond the city limit especially to the N. E., have come many fine bronzes 
of the third century. The objects found are divided into (1) architectural 
decoration ; (2) sculpture ; (3) arms, etc. ; (4) objects in terracotta ; (5) 
coins. Evidently the place was one erected for the defense of the coast. 
Several roads branch from it or pass by it, connecting it with other Etrus- 
can cities, especially Saturnia and Caletra. The time of the destruction 
is approximately dated by the latest coin, the quinarius of Caius Egnatu- 
leius, coined in 651 u. c. It was probably manned under Carbo by fol- 
lowers of Marius, who had previously landed here from Africa (Plutarch) 
after they were defeated near Saturnia by Sylla, and met, at his hands, 
the cruel fate that usually befell the upholders of Marius. Not. d. Scavi, 
1888, 682-91. 

CHRISTIAN ANTIQUITIES OF ITALY. 

BOLOGNA. Early Christian Tombs. In digging on the left side of the 
church of S.Nicolo degli Albari, there were found, at a depth of two meters, 
a large number of small tombs built of large bricks of the Roman type and 
covered with the same, arranged in the well-known method a campana in 
the form of a gable. They were contiguous, and each contained a skeleton. 
On account of the narrowness of the space and the great number of bodies, 
they were placed even in the triangular spaces at the intersection of the 
gables. The tombs are Christian, and belong to the neighboring church of 
S. Nicolo. In one of these tombs, better built and covered with slabs of 
marble, was found a slab, used as material, with an inscription in fine letters 
of the first century of the Empire. Not. d. Scavi, 1888, p. 720. 

REGGIO (Calabria). A Byzantine Crucifix. A small Byzantine cross or 



1 1 8 AMERICAN JO URNAL OF ARCHJEOLOG Y. [ITALY.] 

staurotheka has been found seven centim. in length, with the Crucifixion on 
one side and the Virgin on the other. The former has the inscription ICXC 
and N H KA : the figure of Christ is covered with a sleeveless tunic, the feet 
are nailed separately, the head has the cruciform nimbus, and on the scroll 
over the head is a cross. The Virgin, on the other side, is represented as 
praying, in the attitude of the cemeterial orante, and has the inscription 
eeOTO(/cos). Not. d. Scam, 1888, p. 754. 

ROMA. Cemetery ofPriscilla. Comm. de Rossi has discovered, in this cem- 
etery, three inscriptions in which the letter M . appears for the first time. He 
translates it martyr: . . . . Rl ET MM. SILVIN. FRT VERIC M 
VNDVS M ZOYCTINOC. Cron. mensile di Arch, 1888, pp. 88-90.. 

Basilica of San Valentino. In 1878, Professor Orazio Marucchi wrote a 
monograph on the recently discovered early Christian cemetery of S. Va- 
lentinus on the Via Flaminia. Now, he announces in the Bull, della Com- 
missione archeologica (December, 1888, pp. 429-78 ; pis. xix, xx), in an ex- 
haustive monograph, the recovery of the ground-plan and many parts of 
the basilica erected there by Pope Julius I (337-52). It was built to the 
right of the cemetery, at a distance of about 20 meters. It was of consider- 
able size, and, with the quadriporticus in front of it, must have nearly 
touched the Via Flaminia. The first information of any restoration is 
given by the Liber Pontificalis under Honorius I (625-38), who probably 
also placed in the confession of the basilica the relics of the saint which 
had previously been left in the cemetery. To his time and that of his 
successor Theodorus (642-9), who finished the restoration, belong proba- 
bly a number of frescos. A second restoration took place four centuries 
after under Nicholas II (1058-61) through Teubaldus, abbot of the mon- 
astery annexed to the church, and there are traces of later work by the 
Cosmati. The basilica was already abandoned, however, in the xiv cen- 
tury. The church was a three-aisled construction, without chalcidicum ; 
and with a simple semicircular apse. The central aisle has a width of 
12.60 met. The columns separating it from the side-aisles rested on bases 
that rose from a low wall of separation, as was often the custom in the 
earliest basilicas. In the main apse was the bishop's throne. To it sev- 
eral steps led up from the level of the church. The choir extended 
to a considerable distance down the central nave, and the present one in 
San Clemente may be taken as showing its appearance when complete. 
Part of the ambone and of the paschal candlestick have come to light. 
In the apse, some distance in front of the episcopal chair, was the altar. 
Below it was the shrine or confessio, placed even below the level of the body 
of the church, and to which the faithful had access by a corridor commu- 
nicating by steps with the side-aisles on either side. This confessio and 
passage are apparently the work of Honorius I, in the seventh century. 



[KOMA.] ARCHAEOLOGICAL NEWS. 119 

To this period also seem to belong the two small apses of the side-aisles, 
semicircular on the left, square on the right, both of which bear traces 
of paintings with inscriptions, some of which were added even as late 
as the eleventh century under Nicholas II. The columns of the nave 
were Ionic resting on Attic bases, three of which are still in place. Only 
a single capital remains, and only one shaft. It is known that 'St. Zeno 
was venerated in this basilica together with St. Valentinus, and had an 
oratory in it. The inscription of Abbot Teubaldus, who restored the church 
in the eleventh century, contains the following details : HVIVS ECCLESIAE 

TRES TRAVES MVTAVIT PORTICVSQVE CIRCA SVNT OMNES RENOVAVIT . . . 
YCONAS VERO QVINQVE FECIT . . . CAMPANILE I CAMPANAS II CLAVSTRVM 

MONASTERII A FVNDAMENTO GONSTRvxiT. This shows that he restored 
the portico, adorned the church with paintings, built a campanile and the 
cloister. All this_was dedicated in 1060 : F E B D 1 1 1 - INUlC -XIII- 
TEMPORIB- DNI- NICOLAI SCDI PP. 

In his previous monograph, Professor Marucchi had already published 
20 inscriptions from the cemetery. He here continues to publish new ones, 
from No. 21 to No. 144. This aboveground cemetery was used up to the 
sixth century The first series is of inscriptions with consular dates, of 
which there are thirty with the following dates : 318, 365, 366, 376, 377, 
395, 397, 401, 402, 406, 431 [408], 453, 454, 472 [439]. The first of these, 
of the year 318, is perhaps the earliest Christian inscription yet found in 
an aboveground cemetery, and shows that this particular open-air cemetery 
was begun even before the erection of the basilica. There are several long 
inscriptions in Greek. Of unusual interest is a Latin metrical inscription, 
the only one that mentions the name of the patron saint, Valentinus, and 
at the same time records work executed in the basilica by some one men- 
tioned in it. It probably dates from the fifth century, and reads : me 

PASTOR MEDICVS MONVMEN . . . | FELIX DVM SVPEREST CONDIDIT . . . | 
PERFECIT CVMCTA EXCOLVIT QVI . . . | CERNET QVO JACEAT POENA M . . . | 
ADDETVR ET TIBI VALENTINI GLORIA SANCTI | VIVERE POST OVITVM DAT 

\Deus omnipotens (.*)]. On one inscription the scene of the Eesurrection 
of Lazarus is cut in the marble, in the style of the catacomb frescos and 
the sarcophagi. Several sculptured sarcophagi were found. Several pagan 
tombs came to light during the excavations, and in connection with them 
over forty inscriptions. 

Statue of the Good Shepherd. In a part of the city-wall that was being 
thrown down, near the Porta San Paolo, was found a statue of the Good 
Shepherd, 64 cent, high, of Greek marble, lacking the right arm (except- 
ing the hand), the left hand, and the feet. He is robed in mantle and 
short tunic, and bears on his shoulders the lamb, which he holds with his 
right hand while with his left he may have held an attribute (staff?). The 



120 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHEOLOGY. [ITALY.] 

youthful face, with sweet expression and framed in long thick locks, is 
turned to the left. It is a very interesting monument of Christian art, 
and may date from the third century. Only four other similar statues 
are known, the finest being in the Lateran. Bull. Comm. arch., 1888, p. 
415 ; Not. d. Scam, 1888, p. 628. 

Portrait of St. Louis. Near the church of 8. Lucia in Selce, there came 
to light a bronze plate, 42 cent, in diameter, covered with figures, inscrip- 
tions, and ornaments, all executed in graffito with clearness and precision. 
In the centre, surrounded by a circular maeander, is seated a King robed 
in a tunic with broad girdle, and a toga fastened over the chest. The face 
is beardless, the head is covered with a cap whose lower border is encir- 
cled by a crown. In his left hand he holds the fleur-de-lis, in his right an 
oval object on which are inscribed some words, among which H VM ILITAS 
and SPGS are legible. The figure must be that of a King of France, 
and, as the fleur-de-lis was not introduced on coins until the time of St. 
Louis IX (1226-70), it would seem to be a portrait of that monarch. The 
art is good. Bull. Comm. arch., 1888, pp. 422-4. 

Exhibition of Industrial Arts. A new special exhibition of Industrial 
Arts the fourth held within the space of a few years will soon be inau- 
gurated in the Palazzo delle Belle Arti. It will be contemporary and retro- 
spective, and will include keramics, glass, and enamels. The contempo- 
rary section is reserved exclusively for national industries ; the ancient 
section is open also to foreigners. It will remain open up to June 3. 
Chronique des Arts, 1889, p. 33. 

SIENA. Church of the Servi. In restoring a chapel of the chiesa dei 
Servi, was uncovered an interesting fresco, much injured. It represents the 
Massacre of the Innocents, in the style of the Lorenzetti. Other frescos of 
less importance were uncovered in a neighboring chapel. Chronique des 
Arts, 1889, p. 19. 

SICILY. 

CEFALU = KEPHALOIDION. Pelasgic remains. W. J.STILLMAN writes from 
Palermo, Jan. 25: "It has been a moot question among Italian archaeolo- 
gists, whether the traces of the Pelasgic occupation, which forms so impor- 
tant a part of the prehistoric record of Italy, had ever extended to Sicily. 
With regard to one point, the site of Cephaloedium (Greek Kephaloidion), 
now Cefalii, there has been a dispute, and I have just returned from an ex- 
amination of the remains there. The site, to a student of prehistoric archae- 
ology, is an extremely interesting one, and though the evidences of a Pelas- 
gic colonization are not conspicuous, they are sufficient and unique. The 
ancient city was built on a point of the hard limestone of which the hills 
about here are formed ; this point terminated in a spit, behind which lay 



[SICILY.] ARCH&OLOGICAL NEWS. 121 

a long sand-beach. From this nearly level site the ground rises slightly for 
a few hundred feet to the foot of a massive bastion of rock, an outlying spur 
of the main chain of hills in the interior, but separated from the nearest 
hills by nearly a mile, and presenting on every side except one an inac- 
cessible cliff, constituting a natural fortification, to which acccess was only 
possible by one break in the cliff. This wall is from three to five hundred 
feet in height, and about a mile in circumference. Across the space where 
the break occurs, forming a curtain from bastion to bastion, is a high wall 
of mediaeval construction, but in which are stones of ancient workmanship, 
evidently the restoration of an ancient defence. 

" Inside of this enclosure is a CISTERN of an extremely interesting char- 
acter ; and, though the manner of its construction is not by any technical 
test certainly referrible to the Pelasgic epoch, I have found similar reser- 
voirs in several ancient and abandoned sites, and am disposed to assign 
them generally to prehistoric builders, There is one in the central enclo- 
sure of the Larissa of Argos, of importance, but not of the magnitude of 
this. They are utilizations of the natural fissures or caverns in the lime- 
stone rock, enlarged rudely and cemented so as to hold water; and in this 
case the cement seems to have served until comparatively modern times, as 
mediaeval structures over the opening at the top show it to have been used 
during the later occupation. It may be twenty feet wide and deep, even 
partially filled up as it is by rubbish, and nearly a hundred long, with (at 
the upper end, where the crevice narrows) a stairway made out of the solid 
rock apparently ; but, as there is no means of access to the passage, the rock 
above having fallen in and obstructed the descent, the examination was of 
the most unsatisfactory character, and must go for what it is worth. But 
further on, and in such a position in relation to the enceinte of the present, 
and necessarily of the ancient fortifications, if such existed, is a fragment 
of what I must consider a PALACE of excellent and marked polygonal con- 
struction ; a wall with a rather elaborate doorway admitting to a passage 
or hall, inside which are, at right and left, two similar doors, both utilized 
in the construction of a mediseval house, and one of which still opens into 
a vaulted chamber of brick the wall itself being also surmounted by a 
portion of the mediseval structure. It is to this utilization of the old work 
that its preservation is due. It is of the later Pelasgic work, with some 
architectural decoration of a simple kind and such as could be executed in 
the neolithic age a doorway slightly narrowing upwards, and a straight 
lintel like the gates of Mycenae and Alatri, but not higher than a modern 
house door. The attribution of the structure to the period to which I have 
assigned it is beyond question, from the character of the work, at once unlike 
the Phoenician remains in the island, and the early Hellenic of the Greek 
colonies, and even earlier work in Greece proper. 



122 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY. [SICILY.] 

" The lower city gives even more conclusive testimony, for the entire cir- 
cuit of the ancient wall can be followed by the Pelasgic foundations, which 
are in the greater part of it still standing, overbuilt by Hellenic and me- 
diaeval work, but still showing at intervals grand fragments of the most 
solid and ponderous ' cyclopean * (as the un worked stone is conveniently 
designated). Out from the rock on which the town is built gush, one on 
each side of the town, two rivulets of crystal water, furnishing the supply 
to the inhabitants. One, that in the largest use, issues in a huge pool of 
considerable apparent depth, but filled to a certain height by the fragments 
of the vases which ill fortune has sacrificed on the spot. The other fountain 
was in another sense still more interesting, for the original passage by which 
the founders of the city had provided for the water-drawers, with its walls 
of cyclopean structure, still serves for the maidens to go down to the stream." 
N. Y. Nation, March 7. 

PALERMO. Early Greek Coins. A very important lot of coins has been 
discovered in the western part of Sicily, and has been added to the 
Museum at Palermo. It consists of 101 pieces, thus divided: Athens 1; 
Leukas 2 ; Rhegion 2 ; Akragas 2 ; Kamarina 1 ; Katane* 3 ; Gela 9 ; 
Eryx 4 ; Himera 1 ; Leontinos 3 ; Messana 15 ; Motye" 6 ; Egesta 1 ; 
Selmous 1 ; Syrakousai 26 ; of the Carthaginians in Sicily 24. The 
artistic interest of the find is very great, as it includes five decadrachmas 
or large medallions of Syrakousai signed by Kimon and Evenetes, as well 
as superbly preserved examples of the rare and fine tetradrachmas of Rhe- 
gion, Akragas, Kamarina, Eryx, Messana, Selinous, Moty, with the inscrip- 
tion NiBon. The latest piece in the collection is the tetradrachma of Rhe- 
gion with the head of Apollon and the lion-head, which represents, ac- 
cording to Professor Salinas, the reduced coinage struck by Dionysios of 
Syrakousai at Region after he took the city in 387 B. c. The main artistic 
interest of the collection is in a tetradrachma of Syrakousai signed by a 
hitherto unknown artist, a worthy rival of Kimon and Evenetes : his name 
is EYAPXIAA-, Evarchidas. Another important tetradrachma is one 
struck by the Carthaginians at Panormos signed with a K, the initial of 
Kimon, and bearing on the reverse the same quadriga which this artist 
engraved on his Syrakousaian tetradrachmas. This proves the important 
fact, that this famous engraver of Greek coins worked in the service of the 
Carthaginians. Revue Numismatique, 1889, pp. 142-3; Not. d. Seavi 
May, 1888. 

SPAIN. 

Recently discovered Necropoli. Vol. xi of the Memorias of the Real 
Academia de la Historia contains two important archaeological memoirs : 
one by JUAN DE DIGS DE LA RADA Y DELGADO, is entitled Necropoli de 



ARCHAEOLOGICAL NEWS. 123 

Carmona (JOURNAL, vol. in, p. 483) ; the second, by JUAN RUBIO DE LA 
SERNA, is on the other ancient necropolis discovered at Cabrera de Mataro 
in which were found Latino-Greek antiquities. The latter is illustrated 
with a large number of plates. 

EBRO (near the). Roman Inscriptions in the provinces ofAlava and Bur- 
gos. In August, Federico Baraibar was charged by the Commission of 
historical and artistic monuments of the province of Alava to report on 
the Roman inscriptions of this province. His principal researches were 
among the ruins of ASA, near the city of Laguardia in Alava, near the 
Ebro. Boletin R. Acad. de la Historia, Jan.-Feb., 1889. 

Rio TINTO. Roman Remains. A Roman treadmill for raising water 
was discovered in the workings of the Rio Tinto mine, where its woodwork 
was preserved in a very perfect state by the action of the copper in the 
water. The Roman remains discovered in and about the mine, which were 
at first unfortunately dispersed, are now preserved by the Rio Tinto Com- 
pany in a small museum at Huelva, belonging to M. Sundheim, of that 
place. There may be seen the fetters, collars, and anklets (of the modern 
shape) of the slaves employed in the mine, who worked the series of tread- 
mills, one above another, by which it was drained. Instead of leaning on 
bars, as in the modern treadmill, they appear to have held on to ropes (like 
bell-ropes), of which portions still remain. The extant wheel (4? meters 
in diameter) is so constructed as to utilize their weight in the most skilful 
manner. The pickaxes in the same collection are so completely modern 
in shape that it is difficult to realize their antiquity, while the curious hoe- 
like spade of the Spaniards finds here its prototype. The same survival 
may be detected in the " herring-bone work " of the Romans (of which 
specimens have been found at Rio Tinto), which reappears in the Giralda 
at Seville, and is still in full use. Among the other metal objects are two 
bronze urns and some stamped pigs of Roman lead, with a lead tube. In 
pottery there are some interesting specimens, including one large jar, 2 ft. 
10 in. high, and two amphorae, one of slender and elegant form, standing 
in their original stone sockets. There are several fragments of Roman 
glass and a few perfect pieces. Some coins have been saved for the museum, 
but many more are in private hands, among them a fine one of Wamba 
(680-687 A. D.), implying that the mine may have been worked after Ro- 
man times. Many specimens of Roman slag are in the museum, as are 
also some lead weights with iron handles. Of the Roman town there are 
some striking remains in four capitals of columns, two of sculptured marble 
and two of ironstone, one of the latter measuring no less than 3 ft. 4 in. 
square by 1 ft. 9 in. in height. 

Earlier than these Roman relics are the stone hammer-heads found about 
the mine, all formed as double bulbs, with depressions in the centre for 



124 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHEOLOGY. 

handles. Coeval probably with these are the rude stone pestles and mor- 
tars, which seem to have been used for pigments. In the same museum 
are a few objects from Merida, " the Home of Spain " ; among them a lamp 
with a most spirited basrelief of a fighting gladiator, the details of his 
armor being clearly shown. In M. Sundheim's possession also is an ex- 
quisite little lachrymatory of opaque glass, lately found at Merida, each 
side of which represents a Medusa-head in low relief. Athenceum, Jan. 5. 
SANGUESA. Church of Santa Maria la Real. This church has been de- 
clared a historical monument. A document in the city archives shows 
it to have existed as early as 1131, when it formed part of the palace or 
fortress of the kings of Pamplona. 

FRANCE. 

CHOREY (near Beaune). Roman Antiquities. Numerous traces of Gallo- 
Roman occupation had been already seen on this site. Lately, there have 
come to light some fine fragments of friezes, a monumental marble, frag- 
ments of vases, and two bronze coins of Faustina and Valentinian II. 
Courrier de I' Art, 1889, p. 31. 

PARIS. Prehistoric Congress. In 1867, the international congresses of 
anthropology and prehistoric archaeology were founded at Spezia. Their 
tenth session is to take place in Paris, next August, under the presidency 
of Quatrefages, and promises to be remarkably brilliant. The last meeting 
was at Lisbon in 1880, and since then prehistoric archaeology has taken 
great strides. Revue d'Anthrop., 1888, p. 752 ; Bull. Palet. Ital., 1888, p. 205. 

The Hermes of Praxiteles. M. Heron de Villefosse recently presented to 
the Academic des Inscriptions casts and photographs of two Roman monu- 
ments which confirm the testimony of the Pompeian fresco that, in the group 
of Hermes holding the infant Dionysos, Hermes is holding a bunch of grapes 
in his right hand. The first is a bronze statuette, found in Burgundy : the 
second is a Gallo-Roman stele from Hartrize (Meurthe-et-Moselle). In 
both, Hermes is represented standing, holding the child on one arm and 
showing him a bunch of grapes. Chronique des Arts, 1889, pp. 52, 53. 

LOUVRE. Oration of Hyperides. The Louvre has recently acquired a 
manuscript in which M. Revillouthas found the oration of Hyperides against 
Anthogenes and for Phryne, which had been judged lost. Hyperides, like 
his friend Demosthenes, was one of the leaders of the popular party against 
Macedonian influence. Paris Temps, Jan. 19. 

Rearrangement of Greek Vases. The work of re-arranging the vast col- 
lection of Greek vases in the Louvre is rapidly progressing under the di- 
rection of M. Edmond Pettier. He has adopted the unusual plan of a 
geographical arrangement. He maintains that, while it is comparatively 
easy for the observer to classify the vases according to shapes and even 



ARCHAEOLOGICAL NEWS. 125 

styles, their geographical origin cannot be ascertained except by reference 
to catalogues which are not yet published. The work of arrangement by 
this plan is made extremely laborious. At the same time, M. Pettier is 
giving a course of lectures on the subject at the Louvre to a body of work- 
ing students. Builder, Jan. 5. 

Statuettes from Carthage. They are exhibiting, in vitrines placed in 
the approach to the Salle Louis Lecaze of the Louvre from the Salles des 
Dessins, about one hundred and fifty statuettes in marble and stone found 
during excavations at Carthage. In a short time these and other similar 
objects will be shown in a hall appropriated to them at the Louvre. 
Athenceum, Jan. 19. 

New Mediaeval Halls. At last, the mediaeval art of France has secured 
recognition at the Louvre, and three halls have been given to M. Courajod 
in which to arrange the nucleus of a future mediaeval museum. These 
halls are (1) a large hall, which was used as a store-house, behind the$a^e 
de la Cheminee de Bruges; (2) a narrow hall following the Salle desAnguier; 
(3) a long gallery below the great stairway of the colonnade. The rooms 
are to be ready for the Exposition. The material collected from Saint- 
Denis, Versailles, and the Louvre itself are stored up. The principal mon- 
ument in the new collection will be the superb mausoleum of Philippe Pot, 
already mentioned, vol. iv, p. 516. Chronique des Arts, 1889, pp. 50-1. 

PLESSIS-MACE (chateau). Sale of Tapestries. On Oct. 13, there took 
place here the sale of an important series of tapestries, of the beginning 
of the xvi cent., which used to decorate the choir of the church of Ron- 
ceray. Ysabelle de la Jaille, whose arms and initials appear on them, 
was abbess between 1505 and 1518. The donatrix, Louise le Roux, died 
in 1523. The tapestry was executed in Arras or Paris. It is late-Gothic 
in style, and of remarkable workmanship, containing 21 compositions with 
a total length of 24.35 met. and a height of about 1.90 met. The tapestry 
was sold in eleven pieces to different purchasers. Revue de VArt Chretien, 
1889, pp. 143-6. 

ROUEN. An early drawing of the Stalls. In a preceding number (vol. 
iv, pp. 117-18), mention was made of an interesting drawing said to repre- 
sent the spire of the cathedral burnt in 1514 or a project for a spire made 
just after the fire. In a paper published in the Revue de VArt Chretien, 
Jan. 1889, the Abbe Sauvage seeks to prove that this drawing is a mas- 
terly sketch for the archiepiscopal chair among the famous stalls of the 
cathedral. The artist was Laurens Adam, assisted by others, between 1465 
and 1469. at a cost of over 712 livres. 

SAINT-HILAIRE-LA-COTE. At the sitting of Feb. 21, 1889, of the Soeiete 
nationale des Antiquaires de France, M. Roman announced the discovery, 
here, of a Mercury, two necklaces, two earrings, two pendants and two 



126 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY. [FRANCE.] 

coins of Titus and Vespasian ; the objects seemed to date from the time 
of Commodus. Qour. de I' Art, 1889, p. 80. 

TOULON. Early Christian Tomb. In the ground of the garden of the 
hospital of Saint-Maudrier, a sarcophagus of soft stone has come to light, 
in which were some bones and a silver plaque. On the latter was engraved 
a heart pierced with two arrows, and, above, a kneeling bishop in robes, 
praying before a figure of Christ in the clouds. Around it is the in- 
scription : Sagittaveras, tu Domine, cor meum caritate tua. It is thought 
that the sarcophagus is that in which were placed the remains of Saint- 
Flavian, after his death in 512 at his hermitage, which was precisely on 
this site. [The description of the plaque, however, shows it to belong to 
a much later date. ED.] Revue Art Chretien, 1889, p. 142. 

TOULOUSE. A new review. Under the title of Annales du Midi, the 
publication has been begun at Toulouse of a quarterly review of archae- 
ology, history, and philosophy. It will represent the scholarship of South- 
ern France in these departments, and will be especially supported by the 
Universities of Toulouse and Lyon. 

VAISON (Vaucluse). Age of its churches. M. de Lasteyrie demonstrated, 
at a meeting of the Academic des Inscriptions (Oct. 19), that, contrary to 
the general opinion, the apse of the church of Saint-Quinin is neither 
Merovingian, nor Carlovingian, but dates from the last years of the xi or 
the first years of the xn century. This mistake is all the stranger that 
the Cathedral itself of Vaison is proved by formal texts to belong to the 
Carlovingian period, and, although much changed, the original plan and 
general aspect can easily be restored. Paris Temps, Oct. 20. 

SWITZERLAND. 

AVENCHES= AVENTICUM. The Easier Nachrichten states that M. Barloud's 
excavations at Avenches, in Canton Vaud, have just brought to light in the 
ancient Roman theatre a number of marble tablets bearing inscriptions. 
Athenceum, Jan. 5. 

CARASSO (Canton Ticino). A marble altar has been disinterred 68 cen- 
tim. high by 60 wide, being 40 centim. thick at the base. From the in- 
scription it appears to be a votive altar to Jupiter and Mercury, erected 
by one Fronto, son of Quintus. It has the cantharus and patera on the 
sides. Athenceum, Jan. 26. 

BELGIUM. 

BRUGES. Hans Memlinc. Twenty-eight years ago the first trustworthy 
documents relating to Hans Memlinc were discovered in the archives of 
Bruges by Mr. Weale, and now fresh contemporary evidence has come to 
light, which settles the place of his birth and the exact date of his death, 



ARCHAEOLOGICAL NEWS. 127 

heretofore unknown. At the end of the xv century, there lived in Bruges 
a priest of the name of Rombold de Doppere, who was also a notary, and, 
as it appears, a lover of art. He kept a diary which fell into the hands of 
the Flemish annalist Philip Meyer, who drew largely from it. The fol- 
lowing entry relating to Memlinc occurs among the events recorded in the 
year 1494 : Die xi Augusti Brugis obiit magister Joannes Memmelinc, quern 
prcedicabant peritissimum fuisse et excellentissimum pietorem totius tune orbis 
Christiani. Oriundus erat Mogunciaco, sepultus Brugis ad JEgidii. This 
precious document confirms Mr. Weale's contention, that the final letter 
of the master's name was c, not g, that his early years were spent on the 
borders of the Rhine, and that he was probably buried in the church of St. 
Giles. His birthplace, then, was Mainz (Mayence), and the date of his 
death, August 11, l494.Athenceum, Feb. 2. 

HASSELT. xv- Century Frescos in Saint- Quentin. Wall-paintings have 
been discovered in the church of Saint-Quentin. They represent for the 
most part figures of saints, and are badly damaged. It will be possible to 
preserve only those on the columns of the nave, which represent Sta Lucia, 
S. Cornelius and S. Anthony. Their date is the xv century, and they are 
painted in flat tones, outlined by simple dark lines. The church is being 
carefully restored. Eevue Art Chretien, 1889, pp. 142-3. 

TOURNAI. Frescos at Celles. In the church of Celles near Tournai, 
have been uncovered some wall-paintings, occupying part of a pier dating 
from c. 1600, and representing, in six compartments, the legend of Saint- 
Martin. Revue Art Chretien, 1889, p. 143. 

GERMANY. 

BERLIN. Meeting of the Archaeological Society. At the December (9) 
meeting, Herr TRENDELENBURG described a mosaic lately found at Trier, 
called " the Mosaic of the Muses." In a central octagon is Homer with 
Kalliope and " Ingenium," while the other muses are placed in eight other 
smaller surrounding octagonal compartments. The intervals and corners 
are filled with squares containing different figures of divinities, signs of the 
months, etc. Herr HARTWIG presented a rich collection of accurate draw- 
ings of original size of Greek drinking-cups of the strong red-figured style, 
mostly signed with names of favorites. All of these are still unpublished 
and in part still unknown. The collection is especially rich in the works 
of Euphronios and his school, but there are important examples of Hieron, 
Duris, Phintias, Peithinos. The collection was commenced in Rome and 
enriched from the Bourguignou collection in Naples and the Van Bran- 
teghem collection in London. The centre of study, for an explanation of 
the chronological relation of these masters and a classification of their 



128 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHEOLOGY. [GERMANY.] 

works, is found to be the names of favorites inscribed on them. Berl.phil. 
Woch., 1889, col. 38-9. 

Recent addition to the Museum. The treasury of the chapter of Saint- 
Denis d'Enger had been, since 1414, in the church of St. John at Her- 
ford. It has finally been assigned to the museum of Berlin. The various 
objects forming it date from the time of Charlemagne and relate to the con- 
version of Witikind, who was buried in the church of Enger. The reli- 
quary is a production of Frankish art of the vin century, and the earliest 
work of this school possessed by Germany. The other, pieces, mostly 
adorned with ancient gems, date between the vn and the xn centuries. 
Chronique des Arts, 1889, pp. 33-4. 

GERINQ (near Trier). In renovating the altar in the very ancient par- 
ish-church of Gering, the stone covering the sepulehrum of the altar was 
raised and found to be inscribed with an inscription of the Romano- 
Christian period accompanied by the dove. The right-hand part of the 
slab was gone, so that the inscription is imperfect. It is restored as follows : 
hie in pace quiescit X | CARETATE DEI rvs(ca uxorl*) \ cum FILIOLVS (sic) 
svos (sic) QVEM EX co (?) . . | LABACRO F . . | etc. The stone, therefore, 
was part of an early sepulchral slab, and the form of the letters indicates 
the latter half of the sixth century. Under this slab there was, in the 
sepulehrum, a small wooden reliquary, circular in form and with a cover, 
of much later date. It is interesting, because it imitates in form and poly- 
chromy the funeral urns of the Frankish period, instead of being, as was 
usual in the early Middle Ages, a leaden box. It is an interesting fact, that 
most of the decoration is composed of Kufic letters. The third object found 
is the wax seal of the consecrating bishop, which bears his image and the 
inscription EG[I/]BERTVS, who was bishop of Trier from 1079 to 1101. It 
was only in the xi cent, that the custom was introduced among the bishops 
of using an official seal instead of their ring : consequently, this seal of 
Egilbertus is among the earliest preserved. Zeitschrift f. Christl. Kunst, 
1888, No. 12. 

STRASSBURG. The Museum. The museum of art and archaeology which, 
since 1872, has been growing up at the University is described by F. Baum- 
garten in the Berl.phil. Woch., 1889, col. 1-4. The catalogue now contains 
as many as 1470 numbers. Its director is Professor Michaelis. The histori- 
cal collection of casts of Greek sculpture is remarkably good, though lack- 
ing some important works. The decoration of the halls is made to harmo- 
nize with the sculptures, which are thus placed in suitable architectural 
surroundings. Gable-sculptures are arranged in gables, and metope-sculp- 
tures have triglyphs between them. The Harpy monument is reproduced 
entire. It is strictly a working museum, and photographs, drawings from 
vase-paintings, or anything else by which any monument can be illustrated, 
are placed in its vicinity. 



ARCHAEOLOGICAL NEWS. 129 

AUSTRIA-HUNGARY. 

BODZA (on the). Bars from a Roman mint. A peasant found in Hun- 
gary, in the county of Haromszeker, on the Bodza, some Roman gold bars 
of the second half of the fourth century, which are interesting for the his- 
tory of the mints of the close of the imperial period. The site is not far 
from where two important discoveries were made in 1837 and 1840 the 
treasuries of Czofalva and Petrossa. Near by was the city of Sirmium, 
which in Roman times contained an important mint. There are fifteen of 
these bars, broken into twenty-three fragments ; four only being entire. 
They are in the shape of sticks of sealing-wax and vary in length from 140 
to 175 millim., the lightest weighing 248 gr., the heaviest, c. 500 gr. The 
greater part have stamped upon them, with a puncheon, either figures or 
inscriptions, as follows. 1. Three imperial busts, side by side, with the 
letters DDD NNN (dominorum nostrorum) : they represent Gratian, Val- 
entinian and Valens, and reproduce exactly the type of the exagium solidi 
bearing the heads of these princes. 2. A Female holding a horn of plenty 
and a palm with a pax in the field and the letters SIRM a frequent type. 
3. LUCIANUS OBR(ysum) I (primae\[notae] S\G(navif): "Lucianus 
stamped this as of the first quality." 4.QUIRILLUS ET DIONISUS 
SIRM (Senses) S\G(naverunt). 5. Same as prec. 6. FL-(awW) FLAVI- 
ANUS- PRO(fomO SIG(nwm) AD DIGMA: "Flavius Flavianus, hav- 
ing seen the model, approved the signature." On coins of these emperors 
are found all the signs on these bars palm, star, monogram of Christ, 
and the mint-mark SIRM. The signatures are of different officers of the 
mint. Quirillus and Dionisus, whose respective marks are a star and a 
palm, are simple workmen. Above them is Lucianus, the head of the 
atelier, perhaps the exactor auri argenti et aeris. Above him is Flavianus, 
perhaps the procurator monetae or dispensator rationis monetae, who acts as 
general overseer. Arch.-epig. Mitth. oesterreich-ungarn, 1888, 1 ; Revue 
Numismatique, 1889, pp. 143-5. 

ENGLAND. 

Important Sale of Manuscripts. The magnificent collection of Manu- 
scripts belonging to the library of Sir Thomas Phillips is being sold. The 
heirs have obtained from the courts the authorization to sell to govern- 
ments or to national institutions lots of MSS. Important purchases have 
been made, on these conditions, by the German, Dutch and Belgian Gov- 
ernments. Italy and France are negotiating to obtain possession of the 
documents that concern their history, while those that relate especially to 
England are reserved for the British Museum. The Revue de VArt Chre- 
tien (1889, p. 140) gives an account of purchases made by Belgium. The 
9 



1 30 AMERICAN JO URNAL OF ARCHJEOLOG Y. [ENGLAND.] 

Royal Library has acquired a precious lot of about 400 MSS. dating between 
the ix and the xv cent., which belonged to ancient monasteries. From 
the Abbey of Villiers, 19 vols. dating between the xn and the xiv cen- 
turies, among which is a chorale with a large number of pieces of plain- 
chant in neumes of the xiv, important in the history of music. From the 
Abbey of Cambron, 35 vols. of the xn and xin centuries, with their 
primitive binding in untanned skins preserving the hair. From the Ab- 
bey of Saint-Ghislain, 23 MSS. dating between the ix and xv centuries, 
which are among the finest examples of primitive local paleography, sev- 
eral being adorned with illuminated letters. The library of this monas- 
tery, which was famous, was dispersed in 1796. From the famous Abbey 
of St. Martin at Tournai, noted for the accuracy and beauty of its tran- 
scriptions, come 30 superb volumes. From the Abbey of Aulne, 110 vol- 
umes of the xn, xin and xiv centuries. From the Abbey of Stavelot, 
three gems a life of S. Remacle of the xi cent., a Josephus, Antiquitates 
Judceorum, a superb volume, with two miniatures, of the xn cent. The 
General Archives of Belgium also purchased from the same collection a 
series of very interesting documents picked up in Belgium at the same 
time and under the same circumstances as the above manuscripts. 

CANTERBURY. Discovery of a xn-century Fresco. A finely-executed 
fresco has just been discovered in that portion of Canterbury Cathedral 
which is known at St. Anselm's Chapel, originally dedicated to SS. Peter 
and Paul. The removal of a wall, which was probably erected shortly 
after the great fire in 1174, with a view to strengthening the wall of the 
choir, disclosed the painting, which represents St. Paul in the act of de- 
taching from his hand and shaking into the flames the viper by which he 
was bitten on the island of Melita (Malta). The painting is about four 
feet square. The coloring of the fresco is in a wonderful state of preserva- 
tion , and the string course of bordering remarkably good. It was probably 
executed towards the close of the twelfth century. Academy, Feb. 23. 

Early wall of the crypt. At the March 6 meeting of the Brit. Archseol. 
Assoc., Canon Routledge reported the results of some antiquarian re- 
searches recently made in Canterbury Cathedral. The west wall of the 
crypt is found to be of earlier date than the Norman portions, which are 
partially built upon it. The hardness of its mortar and other indications 
lead to the supposition that the wall is of Roman date, and part of the an- 
cient church which Augustine found on the spot on his arrival at Canter- 
bury. Athenaeum, March 16. 

HOLDERNESS. Beneath the chancel floor of a church in the Holderriess 
district, has been discovered a bronze crucifix : the figure of Christ is hol- 
low at the back ; it is six inches long, and the stretch of the arms is five 
and a half inches ; the feet are separated. The full drapery round the 



[ENGLAND.] ARCHAEOLOGICAL NEWS. 131 

waist is fastened with a girdle, and reaches nearly to the feet. The cruci- 
fix cannot be later than the -xu century, and is possibly earlier : it seems 
probable that it is of English make, with certain Irish characteristics. It 
has evidently been attached to wood, possibly to a processional cross. 
Athenceum, March 2. 

LINCOLN. Tomb of Bishop Button (1280-99). On March 9, an interest- 
ing discovery was made in Lincoln Minster. While the pavement of the 
retro-choir, which had sunk and was in a dilapidated state, was being re- 
laid, the workmen had occasion to raise the slab which covered the grave 
of Bishop Oliver Button, who occupied the see from 1280 to 1299. On 
the right side of the skeleton were found a silver-gilt chalice and paten ; 
and between the bones of the legs was a large gold ring set with rock 
crystal. The sacred vessels were still standing upright, the paten laid 
upon the chalice, and the whole covered with a piece of fine linen, about 
7 in. or 8 in. square, which when first seen was hanging in graceful folds 
all around : on the admission of the air the whole soon fell to pieces. The 
chalice closely resembles that from Berwick St. James, Wilts, now in the 
British Museum, figured, in Mr. St. John Hope's paper in the Archaeological 
Journal (vol. xliii, p. 142) : it is 4J in. high ; the bowl (4 in. in diameter, 
If in. deep) has a slight quasi-lip round the circumference; the foot is 
circular, of the same diameter as the bowl ; there is a bold knop, pro- 
jecting half an inch from the stem. The chalice was made in three pieces, 
the bowl being soldered on, and the knop, with a ring below supporting 
it, riveted to the stem : the gilding is brilliant on the inside of the bowl, 
but is much corroded on the exterior of the chalice: the whole is entirely 
destitute of ornamentation. The paten also is plain, with the exception of 
the customary Manus Dei raised in benediction in the central depression, 
which, as well as the outer depression, is circular, uncusped : the paten is 
4| in. in diameter. The ring is of pure gold, 22 carats fine, and as bright 
as the day it was first put on : it still bears the marks of the burnishing. 
On the left side of the skeleton was a much decayed crozier, the head of 
which has been beautifully carved with maple leaves. The staff had com- 
pletely rotted away. The skeleton of the bishop was fairly perfect ; the 
vestments were completely decayed, only the outline being visible. The re- 
ceptacle of the body was not, as is commonly the case, a stone coffin hewn 
out to receive the corpse, but a rectangular chest, built up of dressed stones, 
entirely lined with lead, and covered with a large sheet of the same metal, 
strengthened by transverse iron bars 1 ft. 6 in. apart. On this were laid 
slabs of Lincoln stone, with a layer of rough stones and sand above them, 
and over all the bishop's memorial slab of Purbeck marble, which through 
the lapse of time had been much decayed and fractured. The chalice, 
paten, and ring will be added to the museum of such relics in the library. 
Athenaeum, March 16. 



132 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHEOLOGY. [ENGLAND.] 

LONDON. Arrival of ancient Egyptian Sculptures from the great Temple 
of Boubastis These sculptures, granted to the Egypt Exploration Fund 
by the Egyptian Government, were safely landed at Liverpool on March 
13 (cf. JOURNAL, vol. iv, pp. 192-4, 335). The consignment consisted of 
some 34 huge cases, containing the upper halves of two archaic colossal 
statues, possibly ol the date of the Ancient Empire ; a black granite seated 
statue of Rameses II, of heroic size, in two pieces ; two colossal red granite 
portrait-heads of the seme Pharaoh ; two fine red granite slabs from the 
Festival Hall of Osorkon II (xxn dynasty), carved in low relief, one 
representing Osorkon II and his wife, Queen Karoama ; a huge capital, 
and part of the shaft of a red-granite column of the clustered lotos order, 
from the Hypostyle Hall of the Temple ; an inscribed column with palm- 
capital, in five pieces, of polished red granite ; two red-granite Hathor- 
head capitals (one of enormous size, and quite perfect) ; three large frag- 
ments of an exquisitely-carved shrine of Nekhthorheb (Nectanebo I) of 
the xxx dynasty ; a black-granite sitting statue (headless), nearly life-size, 
of a scribe who lived during the reign of Amenhotep III (xviu dynasty) ; 
some more or less imperfect black-granite statues of Ptah, Sekhet, and 
other personages, divine and human, including a beautiful white-marble 
fragment of a youthful male figure, probably a Narkissos, of Greek or 
Graeco-Roman work ; and seven cases of very pleasing specimens of bas- 
relief sculptures of the Ptolemaic period, discovered last year by Mr. F. 
LI. Griffith in the ruins of a temple dedicated to Hathor by Ptolemy Soter, 
at Teraneh, the Terenuthis of antiquity. Last, and chief among this array 
of treasures, comes a colossal black-granite statue (in four pieces, but nearly 
perfect) of the Hyksos King Apepi, one of two found at Boubastis by M. 
Naville last season. Of the head of this splendid specimen of one of the 
most obscure and interesting periods of Egyptian art it is not too much to 
say that for intensity of expression, as well as for power and freedom of 
treatment, it is not inferior to the best portrait-sculptures of the best periods 
of the Greek or Roman schools, as it is undoubtedly the finest known relic 
of the Hyksos period. AMELIA B. EDWARDS in Academy, March 23. 

Archaeology at University College. Mr. R. S. Poole, Keeper of the Coins 
in the British Museum, was on Saturday last elected Yates Professor of 
Archaeology at University College, in the place of Sir C. T. Newton, re- 
signed. Mr. Poole, we understand, proposes to invite acknowledged author- 
ities in various branches of the vast science of archaeology, such as Dr. 
Tylor and Mr. Boyd Dawkins, to deliver courses of lectures at the college, 
and will himself defray the attendant expenses. Athenceum, Jan. 19. 



s 



ARCHAEOLOGICAL NEWS. 133 

AMERICA. 
UNITED STATES, 

PHILADELPHIA. Babylonian Antiquities. The expedition organized by 
the University of Pennsylvania for excavation in Babylonia, and which 
is now at work in the field, has already succeeded in securing for the Uni- 
versity several collections of antiquities, of which a full account will be 
given in future numbers of the JOURNAL. For the present, simple men- 
tion will be made of that purchased on July 21, 1888, and called the 
Joseph Shemtob collection. A short paper concerning it appeared in the 
October number of the Hebraica (pp. 74-6). The writer. Dr. R. F. Har- 
per, says that the collection contains about 175 important tablets of almost 
every description, and he makes especial mention of the following: tablets 
and a cone of Hammurabi ; various tablets belonging to the reigns of 
Ammi-satana, Ammi-zaduga, Samsu-satana, Samsu-iluna, and others of the 
dynasty of Hammurabi ; tablets of Abesu (a new king) ; an inscribed mor- 
tar of Burnaburias ; inscribed bricks of Esarhaddon ; large astrological 
tablet of Nabopolassar ; large barrel-cylinder and inscribed bricks of Nebu- 
chadnezzar ; contract tablets of Neriglassar, Darius, Xerxes, Artaxerxes, 
Kandalanu ; a fine, large alabaster vase, with quadrilingual inscription 
containing the words, "Xerxes, the great king"; astronomical tablet of 
the Arsacidae era. 

MEXICO. 

PALENQUE (Chiapas District). Discovery of an Ancient Ruin. An in- 
resting ancient monument has recently been discovered here, upon the 
River Xhupa. Though now a complete ruin, three distinct stories are dis- 
tinguishable. The ground-floor measures 120 X 75 feet : the floor above 
is reached through openings in the ceiling; and here is found a room 
measuring 27 X 9 ft. On stone slabs set into the wall are basreliefs of 
human figures, warriors, etc. The slabs are in a very bad state of preser- 
ation : they are to be sent to the capital of Chiapas. Not far from this 
onument are the vestiges of a quite large town, in complete ruin. 
ientific American, in Amer. Architect, Feb. 23. 

Discovery of the Substructures of the Temple of the Cross. M. Charnay 
communicated to the Academie des Inscriptions, at its meeting of Feb. 15, 
the news that the Temple of the Cross at Palenque had fallen in and 
partly disappeared. Captain Villa, being sent by the government, penetrated 
into the substructures. He found immense halls adorned with polychro- 
matic statues, and numerous sarcophagi containing mummies. Before 
his arrival, the inhabitants had penetrated into the interior of the pyramid 
and carried off several mule-loads of objects. Paris Temps, Feb. 16. 

A. L. FROTHINGHAM, Jr. 




THE AMERICAN 

JOURNAL OF ARCHEOLOGY 

AND OF THE 

HISTORY OF THE FINE ARTS. 



THE JOURNAL is the official organ of the ARCHAEOLOGICAL INSTI- 
TUTE OF AMERICA, and of the AMERICAN SCHOOL OF CLASSICAL 
STUDIES AT ATHENS, and it will aim to further the interests for which 
the Institute and the School were founded. It treats of all branches of 
Archaeology and Art Oriental, Classical, Early Christian, Mediaeval, and 
American, and is intended to supply a record of the important work done 
in the field of Archaeology, under the following categories : 1. Original 
Articles ; 2. Correspondence from European Archaeologists ; 3. Archae- 
ological News, presenting a careful and ample record of discoveries and 
investigations in all parts of the world ; 4. Reviews of Books ; 5. Sum- 
maries of the contents of the principal Archaeological Periodicals. 

The AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHEOLOGY is published quarterly, 
and forms, each year, a volume of above 500 pages royal 8vo, illus- 
trated with colored, heliotype, and other plates, and numerous figures. 
The yearly subscription for America is $5.00 : for countries of the Postal 
Union, 27 francs, 21 shillings or marks, post-paid. Vol. I, unbound or 
bound in cloth, containing 489 pages, 11 plates and 16 figures, will be 
sent post-paid on receipt of $4 : Vol. II, containing 521 pages, 14 plates 
and 46 figures, bound for $5.00, unbound for $4.50 : Vol. Ill, containing 
531 pages, 33 plates, and 19 figures ; and Vol. IV, 550 pages, 20 plates, 
and 19 figures ; bound for $5.50, unbound for $5. 

All literary communications should be addressed to the Managing Editor, 
Prof. A. L. FROTHINGHAM, Jr., Ph. D., Princeton College, Princeton, N. J. : 
all business communications, to the Publishers, GINN & COMPANY, Boston. 

The Journal can be obtained from the following firms, as well as from 
the publishers in Boston, New York, and Chicago : 

Baltimore, J. Murphy & Co., 44 W. Baltimore St. 
Boston, Clarke & Carruth, 340 Washington St. 

Cupples, Upham & Co., 283 Washington St. 



Chicago, A. C. McClurg & Co., 117-121 Wabash Ave. 
Cincinnati, Robert Clarke & Co., 61-65 West 4th St. 
New York, G. P. Putnam's Sons, 27 West 23d St. 
B. Westermann & Co., 838 Broadway. 
Philadelphia, Robert M. Lindsay, 1028 Walnut^St. 

EUROPE. 

Berlin, Mayer & Miiller, Franzosische Strasse 38-39. 
London, Triibner & Co., 57-59 Ludgate Hill. 
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Turin, Ermanno Loescher, 19 via di Po. 
Florence, Loescher & Seeber, 20 via Tornabuoni. 
Rome, E. Loescher & Co., via del Corso. 



REVIEW OF PAST WORK. 

It has been the aim of the editors that the JOURNAL, besides giving 
a survey of the whole field of Archaeology, should be international in 
character, by affording to the leading archaeologists of all countries a 
common medium for the publication of the results of their labors. This 
object has been in great part attained, as is shown by the list of eminent 
foreign and American contributors to the four volumes already issued, 
and by the character of articles and correspondence published. Not only 
have important contributions to the advance of the science been made in 
the original articles, but the present condition of research has been brought 
before our readers in the departments of Correspondence, annual Reviews 
of various branches (like Numismatics, Biblical Archaeology, Greek Epi- 
graphy), and reviews of the more important recent books. 

Two departments in which the JOURNAL stands quite alone are (1) 
the Record of Discoveries, and (2) the Summaries of Periodicals. In the 
former, a detailed account is given of all discoveries and excavations in 
every portion of the civilized world, from India to America, especial 
attention being paid to Greece and Italy. In order to ensure thorough- 
ness in this work, more than sixty periodical publications are consulted, 
and material is secured from special correspondents. 

In order that readers may know of everything important that appears 
in periodical literature, a considerable space is given to careful sum- 
maries of the papers contained in the principal periodicals that treat 
of Archaeology and the Fine Arts. By these various methods, all impor- 
tant work done is concentrated and made accessible in a convenient but 
scholarly form, equally suited to the specialist and to the general reader. 



PROGRAM OF VOLUME V, 1889. 

We are glad to announce that the Journal has been made the official 
organ of the American School of Classical Studies at Athens, and will thus 
be enabled to publish a large part of the results of the excavations so bril- 
liantly carried on during the last two years at Sikyon, and Ikaria as well 
as at Plataia and at Anthedon. The report of the excavations at Ikaria 
will include papers on the topography of the Ikarian region, on the archi- 
tectural remains of the shrines of Dionysos and Apollon, the inscriptions, 
the archaic warrior-slab, the sepulchral stelai, and other pieces of sculpture 
of different periods. The work in the theatre of Sikyon will be reported 
by MM. McMurtry and Earle. Professor F. B. Tarbell, Annual Director 
of the School for 1888-89, presents a study of the Attic Phratry, and will 
write on a fragment of the Preamble to Diocletian's Edict De Pretiis Rerum 
Venalium, found at Plataia. Also, Dr. Charles Waldstein has contributed 
a paper on his important discovery, among the recent finds on the Akropo- 
lis, of the head of Iris belonging to the slab of divinities from the eastern 
frieze of the Parthenon, which is in the British Museum. In view of recent 
acquisitions, especially by the Baltimore branch of the Archaeological Insti- 
tute, there will be articles, by Dr. Hartwig and others, on a collection of 
black- and red-figured vases signed by well-known Greek artists, such as 
Nikosthenes, Xenokles, Epiktetos, Duris, Philtias. The series of papers by 
Messrs. Clarke and Emerson on Greek antiquities in Southern Italy, already 
promised, has been delayed, but will soon be commenced. 

One change in the present arrangement, to be begun in volume v, will 
undoubtedly be welcomed by our readers. Up to the present, the book- 
reviews have not been numerous: it is now proposed to carry out the 
principle followed in the NEWS and the SUMMARIES : that is, to give a 
condensed view of the entire field by printing in each issue a large number 
of notices of the most important books recently published, under the head- 
ings, Oriental, Classical, Christian, Renaissance, and Prehistoric Archaeology. 

The various series commenced in past volumes will be continued : such 
as those by Dr. Wm. Hayes Ward on Oriental Antiquities, by MM. Mu'ntz 
and Frothingham on Christian Mosaics. Dr. Ward will publish some 
Hittite Sculptures ; an inedited archaic Babylonian cylindrical object from 
Urumya ; and a paper on the so-called " human sacrifices" on Babylonian 
cylinders : Mr. Talcott Williams, a note on the Arch of Chosroes. Professor 
A. C. Merriam will review the late discoveries in Greek Epigraphy, and 
M. Ernest Babelon the latest publications and discoveries in Numismatics. 

The present policy of making the JOURNAL a complete record of con- 
temporary archaeological work, by its correspondence, book-reviews, news, 
and summaries, will be continued. 



NOTICES. 

London Athenaeum. We have no hesitation in saying that no other periodical 
in the English language is so well fitted to keep the student who lacks time or 
opportunity to read all the foreign journals abreast of the latest discoveries in every 
branch of archaeology. 

Gottingische Gelehrte Anzeigen. No comprehensive account of the most recent 
discoveries exists, and the new American Journal can do most meritorious work and 
fill a deficiency which, since the time of Gerhard's death, has been often deplored by 
every archaeologist who had not the good fortune to be at the fountain-heads. 

Philologische Rundschau. We may expect that the American Journal of Archae- 
ology will take an honorable position by the side of those already existing in Europe. 

Bibliotheque de I'Ecole des Charles. As we think it (the American Journal 
of Archaeology) is called upon to render real service, not only in the United States, but 
in Europe and in France, we take pleasure in announcing it here. The plan is vast 
and well conceived. 

Archivio di Letteratura Biblica ed Orientale (Turin). Periodicals are divisi- 
ble into three categories : some have no pretensions to be classed as learned ; some 
pretend to be but are not so in reality ; others, finally, pretend to be and really are. 
The periodical which we announce ( The. American Journal of Archaeology] belongs to 
the last category. 

New York Evening Post. The American Journal of Archaeology will not dis- 
appoint the hopes of the friends of the science in America. If not well supported, 
it will be because there is little real interest in America in classical and mediaeval 
archaeology. 

Chicago Evening Journal. The American Journal of Archaeology is alike credit- 
able to the country and to the earnest and scholarly gentlemen who have it in charge, 
and we are pleased to know that it has already achieved an enviable reputation in 
Europe. 

London Academy. Mr. J. S. Cotton, at the annual meeting of the Egypt Ex- 
ploration Fund (London, Dec. 22, 1887), referred to the American Journal of Arche- 
ology and the American Journal of Philology, which he defined as being of a higher 
order of merit than any publications bearing similar titles in Great Britain. 



GINN & COMPANY, Publishers, 

Boston, Neiv York, and Chicago. 



AMERICAN 
JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY. 

Vol.V. JUNE, 1889. No. 2. 

PAPERS OF THE AMERICAN SCHOOL OF CLASSICAL 

STUDIES AT ATHENS. 

THE DECREES OF THE DEMOTIONIDAI. 
A STUDY OF THE ATTIC PHRATRY. 



In the Athenian State as constituted by Kleisthenes, every citizen 
belonged to three subordinate political corporations ; he was member 
at once of a tribe, a deme, and a phratry. Of these three, the last 
was the least conspicuous. The phratry did not rival the deme in the 
frequency of its meetings and the importance of its affairs ; nor did it 
enter, like the tribe, into the political and military organization of the 
State. But it had in its keeping an important trust, that of prevent- 
ing the intrusion of illegitimate members into the body politic. This 
trust it shared in a measure, it is true, with the deme ; but inasmuch 
as both male and female children were received into the phratry, and 
that, as a rule, in their earliest years, while the deme enrolled in its 
register only males, receiving them at the age of seventeen, we can 
hardly go wrong in regarding the phratry as the chief guardian of the 
purity of Athenian citizenship. An acquaintance with it is thus essen- 
tial to an understanding of Athenian political life. 

Our principal literary sources of information on the subject are as 
follows r 1 (1) Aristotle, in the 'Afyvaiaw HoXtreta, gave an account 
of the organization which he conceived to have existed at Athens be- 
fore the profound reforms of Kleisthenes. The passage is preserved 

x See especially PLATNER, Beitrdge zur Kenntniss des attischen Rechts; MEIER, De 
gentilitate attica; BUSOLT, Griechische Staats- und Rechtsaltertumer, $159, in Iwan Miil- 
ler's Handbuch der klassischen Alter tumswissenschaft, Bd. iv 1 . I have not been able to 
see SAITPPE, De phratriis atticis (Gottingen, 1886/7). 

135 



136 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHEOLOGY. 

in a more or less garbled form by Harpokration, Pollux, and other lexi- 
cographers, and is given verbatim in the Patmian Scholia published in 
the Bulletin de Correspondance Hellenique (vol. I, p. 152). According 
to this, each of the four original tribes consisted of three phratries, 
each phratiy of thirty gentes, and each gens of thirty men. This 
account is so artificial in its numerical symmetry, and so fanciful in the 
reasons assigned for it, as to excite the gravest doubts of Aristotle's com- 
petence as a witness for the period in question. Where, indeed, could 
he have obtained full and trustworthy information ? As to whether 
the phratries were affected by the reforms of Kleisthenes, Aristotle has 
left us two unfortunately ambiguous notices. One is in the Politics 
(vi. 4 : Bekk.) and seems to say that the phratries, as well as the tribes, 
were then remodelled and increased in number. The other is in the 
recently discovered fragments of the 'Afyvaicov TIoTureia (n, a Land- 
wehr) and seems to say just the contrary. 2 (2) Several writers of the 
fifth and fourth centuries B. c. refer to the phratries of their own day. 
The most instructive of these references are in Isaios and the private 
orations of Demosthenes (genuine and spurious). These are the chief 
basis of our knowledge. (3) Scraps of relevant information, and of 
misinformation as well, are preserved by scholiasts and by the lexi- 
cographers, Harpokration, Pollux, Hesychios, Suidas, etc. 

Inscriptions have until lately yielded little to supplement this scanty 
literary evidence. That little may be classified thus : (1) the decrees 
of the Ekklesia conferring citizenship on a foreigner, regularly author- 
ize him to be enrolled as a member of such tribe, deme and phratry 
as he may choose (elvai (>v\fjs KOI brffjiov teal (frparpias 179 av fiov^ijTai,, 
or some similar formula. This is the regular order of mention. Only 
in CIA, II, 115 6 do we find STJ/JLOV KOI 0^X779 real fyparpla^. (2) Two 
temenos boundary-stones give us names of phratries, the only names 
indisputably known, and one of these in a mutilated form, viz., the 
'A^a&u 4 and the Seppi/c .... at. 5 Two other boundary-stones, 
one of the Za/cvdScu 6 and one of the 'EXacrtSat, 7 give names with re- 

2 The difficulty of dealing with these two statements is.illustrated by the case of 
BUSOLT, who in his Griechische Geschichte (pp. 394-5, published in 1885) decides that 
Kleisthenes did not meddle with the phratries, but in his Griechische Altertiimer (p. 
144 (11) , published in 1887) reverses this decision. 

*Cf. BUERMANN, Jahrb.fiir Phil., Suppl., ix, 643 ; DITTENBERGER, Sylloge Inscr. Graec., 
43, note 7. 

4 DITTENBERGER, Sylloge, 302; CIA, n, 1653. 5 CIA, n, 1652. 

6 DITTENBERGER, Sylloge, 303. 7 Classical Review, in, p. 188. 






A STUDY OF THE ATTIC PHRATRY. 137 

gard to which it is impossible to decide whether they belonged to gentes 
or phratries. (3) Two short fragments of phratrial decrees, eulogizing 
deserving members, are given in CIA, n, 598, 599. The Dyaleis of 
600, who enact a decree in reference to the lease of a piece of real 
estate, are probably to be regarded, not, with Kohler, as a phratry, but, 
with Buermann, 8 Gilbert, 9 and Busolt, 10 as a union of two phratries. 

Such was, in outline, the material available for the study of the Attic 
phratries down to 1883. In that year there was found at Tatoi, the 
site of the deme of Dekeleia, a stele, on the front of which were pre- 
served 57 lines of a phratrial decree, dated in the year 396/5 B. c. and 
dealing with the phratry's most vital duties. This was published by 
Koumanoudes in the 'E^yLtepWA/o^atoXoYt/c^ (1883, 69 if.) and by 
Kohler in the Addenda to the second volume of the Attic Corpus 
(841 b ). It has been made the subject of special articles by Szanto in 
the Rheinisches Museum (1885, 506-520) and by Gilbert in the Jahr- 
bilcherfur Philologie (1887, 23-28). Szanto's paper is ingenious and 
suggestive, but is pervaded by a most improbable view of the relation 
of phratry to gens, and marred besides by some downright and inex- 
cusable blunders. Gilbert corrects Szanto on one important point, the 
question as to where that portion of the decree which was intended to 
be of permanent application begins, but hazards a theory of his own 
which is demonstrably false. For in the summer of 1888 the stone 
bearing this inscription was cleaned, with the result that the back also 
was found to be inscribed. Of the new text, published by Pantazides 
in the 'E^yLcept? (newspaper) of Sept. 1/13, 1888, and by Lolling in 
the 'Apxcuohoyifcov AeXr/W for August, lines 155 were engraved at 
the same time with the portion previously published and form its con- 
tinuation. These lines, like those on the front, are engraved a-roL^Tj- 
&6v, with occasional aberrations. Two or three lines are apparently 
all that is lost at the end of the part on the face of the stone. Lines 
56-68 were added many years afterward. So far as I can judge from 
an excellent squeeze (I have not seen the stone), this portion would 
belong to the third cent. B. c. or the first part of the second. The let- 
ters are extremely irregular and unevenly spaced, which makes a more 
exact determination of the date peculiarly difficult. Ae/eeXee? for 
Ae/ceXea? in B, 65 is probably only a blunder of the stone-cutter. I 
give below the text of the whole document, with the restorations of 

8 Op. tit., 645, Note. 9 Griech. Staatsaltertumer, i, 199< 3 >. 

10 Griech. Stoats- und Rechtsalter turner, 145< 5) . 



138 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY. 

Kohler and Lolling, followed by a translation. The foot-notes do not 
touch upon orthographical peculiarities, of which there are several. 

TEXT. 

FACE A. 
Ato9 t&paTpio 

lepevs @eoSft>/9O9 TSiixfravTiBo u dv\ejpa'^re KOI ecrTrjcre Trjv GTrfkriv. \ 
5 lepecoa-vva T&L lepel Bioovai T\dBe ' OLTTO TO /^eto 12 K0)\r)v, 
pov, o|9, 13 dpyvpio \ \ ' CLTTO TO Kopeio /ca)\fj\v, 7r\evpov, 09, 
Xoivitcialiov, OLVO r)fjLL%ov, dpyvpio K | 

10 TaBe eBo^ev TOLS fypaTepvi, 67rl| Qopjjuiwvos ap^ovTO^ ' 
oi 9, (j)paTpiap%ovTO<> Be IIa^Ta/cXe|o9 e Oto* | 

'Iepo/cX^9 elire' OTTOCTOI /JL^TTCO BieBucdcrlOTjcrav KCLTO, TOV VO/JLOV 
15 TOV ^ i rj/jLOTLO)Vi,B\a)V, BiaBtKacrai, Trepl avTayv ro9 <^paT6p|a9 avTL/ca 

7T/309 TO A|t09 TO QpCLTplO, (frepOVTaS T7]V 



air 



b TO /3&>yLto ' 14 09 S' av Sogy /jurj wv cf)pdTTjp e 



20 ^a\ei^aTco TO ovo/xa avTO 6 /ep|et>9 teal 6 ^paTpiap^o^ GK TO 
o TO ev ^^oTLwvi^wv 15 KOL TO avTiypd^o' 16 6 Be 
TOV aTro^iKaaOevTa 6(f)\i\,Tc0 e/caTov Bpa%/jLa$ t 



11 The words f65a>pos Ev^avriSo are engraved in rasura. The letters, if regularly 
distributed, would have just filled the space. Instead of this, the letters of &f6Swpos 
are crowded, with the result of leaving a blank space sufficient for two letters after 
Eii^ai/TiSo. I conjecture that, after the name had been once engraved, the priest 
desired to add his demotikon, and that this was attempted and found impracticable. 

12 That the peiov was the offering for a young child and the Kovpeiov that for an 
[adopted] lad [or man], as AUGUST MOMMSEN conjectured (Heortologie, 308) and as 
LIPSIUS, even after the publication of the first part of this text, was disposed to believe 
(Meitr und Schoemann's Attische Process/ 2 ) 3 tes Buch, Note 165), is now definitively 
disproved. See J5, 57-60. I can suggest nothing better than the explanation of 
KOHLER, which has been generally adopted, that the pe'iov was the offering for a 
daughter, and the Kovpeiov that for a son. 

13 This is the reading of Kouuianoudes. Kohler's ttuXriv ir\evp6vos is to me unin- 
telligible. [Compare the sacrificial calendar from Kos, Journ. Hellen. Studies, 1888, 
p. 335 : 6vL /6pe[i>s Kal /epa] 7rape%ei ' (7)^77 Se oijara. A. C. M.] 

u A solemn mode of voting, perhaps the usual one in the phratries ; cf. HEROD., 
vin. 123; PLUT., Themist. 17; PLUT., Per. 32; DEM., XLIII. 14 (ed. Bekker). 

15 This construction occurs elsewhere only with deme-names of gentile form, and 
indicates that the Demotionidai were a local body. See MEISTERHANS, Gram. d. att. 
InschriftenW \ 83, 19( b >. 

16 The copy, it is implied, was not kept in Demotionidai ; perhaps in Athens. I 
conjecture that the copy was intended as a protection against tampering with the 
record and against the confusion which would result if the register should be injured 
or lost. That such a safeguard was desirable may be seen from DEM., XLIV. 41 ; 
LVII. 26, 60. 



A STUDY OF THE ATTIC PHRATEY. 139 

25 T&H Aa T\WL Qparpiwi,' ea-wpaTTev Se TO apjvpi,o\v TOVTO rbv 
lepea teal TOV (f>paTpi,ap^o\v rj auro? ofyeikev . rrjv Be SiaSt,Kaaiav\ 
TO \OLTTOV evai TWL vcrrepwi ereu 77 OH a v TO Kopeov Ovarji,, rr)t 

30 Kopeam&t 'A7raT|optft>z> ' (frepev Be rrjv tyrjfov drrro TO ftw/jLO. e\av 
Be Tt? /3o\r)Tai efalvai e? A?7yu,oTta>z>| t&a?, wv az> a 
e^elvai av\TWi' e\e(r6ai 8e eV auTot? crvwr)<y6pos T\OV 

OLKOV 7T6VT6 avSpa? V7T\p TpLCLKOVTCL 6T7J jejOVOTaS, TOVTO? $6 \ 

35 e^opKwo-dTW o (frpaTpiapxos teal 6 ip6\vs o-vwryyoprja-ev TO, Sifcaio- 
TdTa KOI OK I edaev oSeva fjirj ovra (frpaTepa (frpaTpiQev ' OTO 8' av 
TWV efyevTwv dTro^rjc^icroyvTali, ATj/jLOTicoviSai,, 6<p6t\6TO) ^tXta? 

40 Spa|^a? tepa? Twt Att Twt QpaTpltoi ' ea-7rp\aTTT(o Se TO dpyv- 
piov TOVTO 6 tepeu? | TO Ae/ceXe^wz^ OLKO rj auTO? o^etXeTw. e|f ti/at 
Se /cat aXX&M Twt jBoXofJievwi TW\V fypaTepwv eairpaTTev Tcot /cot- 

45 van' 17 TaO|[Ta] S' et'at a?ro <&op/jiia)vo$ ap%oi>TO$ , 18 eTrtjf-^rJ^^t^ei/ 
p'Xpv 7Tpl &v a\v SiaSiicd^ev Serji, KCLTO, TOV WICLVTOV \ 
eav 8e /jirj eTri^lrrj^icrTji,, o<$>e\T\wirevTaKoa'la<$$pa'%iJ,a<s 

50 lepa? TWL Atl | [TJCO^ <&pa,Tpico[(, ' e^cnrpaTTev Se TOV lepea \ [/cjat 
a\\o[v TOV /3o]Xo/x6i/oi/ TO dpyvpiov \ [TO]VT[O TWL KOLVWL]. TO 
Be \OLTTOV ayev TCL \ \_fjuela KOI TO, Kopei\a e? A./ce\iav etrl T][O^ 

55 /3a)/j,6v eav 8e pr) O^vcnji enrl TO (Bw/JLO, o(j)\^\eTco TrevTrj KOVT~\a 
Spa^yw-a? lepas TW\[_L Au Twt QpaTplwi ' ea^TrpaTTeTco Be 6 iep\[ev<; 
TO dpyvpiov TOVTO 17] 



FACE B. 

eav Be TL TOVTCOV Bt,a/cci)\,vrji,, OTTOL av 6 l\epev<$ Trpoypdtyrji,, evOav- 

Oa a<yev TO, yuetja real TO, Kopeua ' Trpoypdfav Be TrpoTre/jLTT^a TT)? 

5 AopTrta? ev TrivatciaM, \e\evKWfjL\evwt uij'X.aTTOv 20 rj 



17 The common fund; cf. THEOPH., Char. xxx. 5. The fund of Zeus Phratrios was 
the fund of the phratry. 

18 According to SZANTO, everything preceding ravra 8' elvai (except the sentence 
rV 5e . . . . &ca/j.3, lines 26-29, which he regards as standing out of its proper con- 
nection) belongs to the provisions for the immediate future, and the ravra 8' elvai marks 
the beginning of the permanent law. But, as Gilbert pointed out, if the pronoun 
referred to what follows, it would probably be raSe. More decisive is the presence, 
in the next clause, of Se, which is irreconcilable with Szanto's view. The permanent 
law begins with r^v Se SiatiiKcuriav in line 26. The aorists eAeVflat, e'o/j/ca><raTaj, make 
no difficulty ; cf. _B, 29 and MEISTERHANS, op. cit. : Anm. 1638. 

19 SzANTO twice (pp. 507, 518) gives the sense of this as being dass der Phratriarch 
jedes Jahr die Abstimmung darilber einzuleiten habe, wer diadikasirt werden solle. As if 
&v Uv SfTi could be an indirect question ! 

20 This crasis would not occur in a decree of the Ekklesia ; MEISTERHANS, op.cit., $ 24. 



1 40 AMERICAN JO URNAL OF ARCHJEOLOG Y. 



OTTO dv A|e/C6Xe^? Trpocrfyoirwa-iv ev acrrei. 21 TO B\e tyrfaicr/jLa roBe 
KOI TO, lepeaxrvva dva<y\pdtyairbv lepea ev arr)\r)i, \i6ivrii Trp\6o-6ev 

10 TO /3a)/jLO Ae/ceXeidcriv re\eai, TO)?? eavro. Nt/co^^yu/o? elrre ' ra 
fjiev d\\a /car\d ra Trpbrepa ^rr^^io-fjiara a tcerai Trepl r\e<; elcra- 
70)7779 rwv TraiBwv /cat rfjs BiaB\iKao-ias, TO9 Be /judprvpas rpes, 

15 09 eiprj \TCLI Trl T'f]i dvaKpicrei,, rrape^ecrOai, eic, r wv eavro Oiaawrcov 
fjuaprvpovras ra vTrepwrat/jLetya) 2 ' 2 \ teal eTrofjbvvvras rbv Ata TOZ> 
QpdrpioV | fjiaprvpev Be T09 fj^dprvpa^ real e7roijivv\vai e^oyLte^o9 
TO fifo/Jbd' eav Be fir) wen ev T|w(t) Qidawi rbrwi rocroroi, rbv 

20 dpi6fjbbv, e\/c rwv d\\(av cfrparepcov nrape^ecrdw . 'orav \ Be TJI, 77 
BiaBucaaia, 6 fyparpiap'^ps fjur) 7r|[p]oTe^o^ BiBorw Tr/(i 



Trepl rwv 7raL\Ba)v Tot9 arcaai (f>pdrep(ri rrplv av ol av 



TO TO eaa 



25 ryofjLevo Oiaawrai /cpvftBrjv a|[7rjo TO fico/AO (fcepovres rrjv 

\ io-mvrat ' real ras ^77^09 T9 rorwv evav\riov rwv airdvrwv 
epwv ra)v 7rap6v\ra)v ev rr)i dyopdi 6 (j) 

30 adrco /cal dvayopeverco orrorep dv\ tyr)(f)ia'Q)vrai' edv Be 
/jievcov r&v 0\iaa-(t)r(t)v evai avrois (f>pdrepa ol aXXo i 
d7roty7}<f>LcrQ)vrai,, o<fcei\ovr\u>v e/carbv Bpa^jjids iepds rwi Atl 

35 <&\parpi(Dt, ol Oiacrwrai, rrKrjv oaoi av r&v \ Oiavwrwv 
rj evavriofjLevoi \ fyaivwvrau ev rr}i BiaBucaaiai, ' edv Be \ 
aatvrai ol Oiao-urai, 6 Be elo-d\ya)v e<f>f)i et9 T09 a[7r]avra<;, Tot9 Be 

40 a7racr|t Boei %vai (frpdryp, ewypacfreaOa) et9 ra 

edv Be tt7ro-v|r77^)io-w|^T[a]t ol arravres, b<j>ei\erw e/carbv 

lepds rwi Att TOH Qparpiwi ' edv Be diro-^r^iaa^vwv rwv Qia- 

45 awrwv pr) e<f)r}\L els T09 arravras, Kvpia eara) rj drro^^^tcri^ r) 
rwv QiavwTtov* ol Be Otaa-wrat, jjie\rd rwv aXXcov (frparepwv /JLTJ 
<j)povra)V ri)v \ ^rj<^ov Trepl rwv TraiBcov rwv e/c TO didcro \ TO 



81 Lolling refers to LYSIAS, xxm. 3, which mentions " tlie burlter's shop near the 
Hermne " as the place 'iva. ol Ae/ceArs Trpoa-QoiTua-w. BLASS says that we have no in- 
dications as to the date of this oration (Alt. Beredsamkeit, I, 632). But, surely, the 
presence of Plataeans in Athens implies a date prior to 387 or not much later ; see 
PAUS., IX. i. 4. This was probably, then, the place in 39(5/5. But the wording of 
the clause ttiro .... irpoa-^oiTucriv provides for possible changes. 

28 According to LOLLING, lines 1 115 are written in rasura, which may partly account 
for the awkward and ungrammatical expression. TOVS ^aprvpas Tpels is anomalous for 
TOUS rpe?s ndprvpas; cf. KEIL, Zur Syll inscr. Boeot., p. 620. irapexeo-dai does double 
duty, being needed in both relative and anUvnlrnt clauses. I do not see the force 
of vir6 in vTrtpwTda/j.ei'a, but it seems to have been thought important, since, by omitting 
it, the tpuTuufva could have been written entire, whereas, as it is, the last two letters 
had to be omitted altogether. 

"These were called, above, ri 7pa / u J uaTe?ov rb v ATjyuoTtwpiSwi' Kai rb avriypaQov. 



A STUDY OF TEE ATTIC PHRATRY. 



141 



avrwv. TO Se ^rj^ncrfjLa roSe Trpocrava^pa^rdrw o lepevs (e)^9 rrjv 
50 a-rrf\r]v rrjv \i\divrjv. "Op #09 fJLaprvpwv eVl rrji el<7a<ya)\<yi rwv 
' fjiaprvpS) ov elcrdyei, ea\vrwi vbv %vai rorov yvr)(nov ey 
, d\7]6rf ravra VTJ rov Ata roi^ <&pdrpio\v, evopicb(v)ri /jiev 
55 IJLOL TroXkd teal dyadd ev\cu, el S' eTTiop/coirjv, rdvavrLa. 2 * 



60 



s eiTrev ' BeSo^dat rot? (frpdrepcri Trepl \ TT}? elcra>ya)yfj$ 
, rd /lev d\\a Ka\rd rd irporepa ^Irfj^icrfjiaTa, OTTCO? S' 
dv et'Scocrt ol \ ^/oare/oe? TOV9yLteXXo^Ta? elo-dyea-Ocu, d7ro\<ypd$ecr6ai 



TWL TTpwrwi 25 erei r) wi av TO Kovpeo\v d<yei TO OVOJJLCL Trarpodev /cal 



rov 



65 



Ka TT 



Trarpodev /cal rov SIJ/JLOV Trpo? rbv \ 

(pparpiap^ov ' rbv Se <$>parpla\jp'%ov d7ro<ypaTlr]\a/j,eva)V dvaypd- 
tyavra eK^riOevai, OTTOV dv Ae/cjjeXee? Trpocrfyoirwcn, Kn,0[evai 8e 
Kal rbv leped] \ dvajpd-^ravra ev cravii\_WL Xev/cwi ev rwi iep~\\- 
wi Tr}? Ar/ToO? , 26 TO Se ^[^tj(j)La-fj,a rbSe Trpoa-avaypdtyai, \ et? rrj~\v 
o-rfarjv [rrjv \i6ivr)v.~\ 

TRANSLATION. 

Theodores, son of Euphantides, priest of Zeus Phratrios, had this 
stele engraved and erected. 

The sacrificial portions due to the priest are as follows : from the 
melon, a haunch, a rib, an ear, and three obols of money ; from the 
koureion, a haunch, a rib, an ear, a quart-cake, a half-chous of wine, 
and a drachma of money. 

The following decrees were passed by the phraters in the archonship 
of Phormion at Athens [396/5 B. c.] and the phratriarchate of Panta- 
kles of Oion : 

On the motion of Hierokles : For all who have not yet been sub- 
jected to a (Uadikasia according to the law of the Demotionidai, the 
phraters, having promised in the name of Zeus Phratrios so to do, shall 
hold a diadikoMa immediately, taking their ballots from the altar. 
And, whoever be found to have been introduced illegally, the priest 
and the phratriarch shall erase his name from the register kept in 

81 The wording of this oath is extremely muddled ; probably the work of Nikode- 
mos, who seems to have been exceptionally illiterate and bungling. 

2o irpuTca for irporffxf is extraordinary. It may help to prop up the three similar 
examples given by KUHNER, Griech. Gramm., n, 22 (ARIST., Birds, 824 should not 
have been cited), two at least of which have been corrected by critics. Cf. the cases 
of irparos with genitive quoted in STEPHANOS, Thesaurus, s. v. irp&ros. 

26 Probably in Dekeleia. 



142 AMKHH'AN .H)in;.\.\ i, oi<' A&CHJBOLOQT, 



i :m<l from the copy thereof. And lie who introduced the 

rejeeted member shall be lined LOO drachmas, to In- devoied i<> /ens 

I'hi-nfrios. This money Ilic pries! :ind (lie phrnfrinrch shnll colled, or 
l>c responsible for Ihe simoiinl. 

In future I lie diadikatiadlB]] be held in Ilie yenr following thnl in 
which (lie hnurnim is Sacrificed, nn the Konreolis of Ilie A pnl diiri;i , the 
hnllols bcinu; Inken from lhe;dl;ir. And, if ;my disfranchised member 
wishes l<> :i|)pe:d l<> Ilie I >emol ionidni, he shnll hnve Ilie nidil. I n these 
cases the bouse Of DekeleiaHS Shall ehnnse live men nl.nve Ihirly yenrs 
nf :i;-c :is ;id\oe;iles, In \\hnin flic plir:il risirch ;ind the priest sh:dl 
:idniinisler ;in n;ilh In lie .-ihsnliilely jnsl in Iheir ;idvne;iey ;ind nnt to 

allow any one illegal!}' loU-Inn^ to the phratry , And every appellant 

rejected |>y the I )einot i< mi<l:ii shnll he lined I ( )( )( ) d r:idim:is, l I ' de- 
voted |o /ens riirnli'ins. 'This money I he pricsl of the hnnse nl' I )ekc- 
Icisins slinll <-nlleel, nr he responsible Inr Ihc iiiiiniinl. A nd it . sluill 
;ilsn he perinissihle I'nr :iny oilier plirntcr who wishes In collect this Cor 
the common I'mid. These provisions sliiill lie in force from (he nivhon- 
ship of riiormion. 

Tlie plinilrinn-li slisill every ye;ir put to vole lh<- c:iscs of those lor 
whom :i (litHliktiKHt. is n-ipiired. ( Mherwise, he si nil I he lined ;"()( hi nicli- 
in:is, lo he devoted to /ens I Ninil rios. 'This money Ilie pries!, or :my 
one else who wishes, shnll collect for I he common fund. 

In future Hie mrin :m<l I he l:nnm,i shnll he <;iken lo I he ;dt:ir in 
hekelein. And, if lliey he not s.'iei'ilieed on Ilie ;dl:ir, (he oll'ender 
shnll he lined f>0 drnchnuis, to lie devoled lo /ens I'hrnl I'ios. This 
money the priest sluill collect, or he responsible lor the ninoiini. . . . 
Ami, ii'nny of these CMIISCS prevent, the nirin :md Ihe knurcia shnll he 
<nk<'ii to \vhnlev<'r |>lnce the priest mny nd\<'rlise, thesnid ndvertisc- 
ment 1<> he mn<le lour dnys hcfoiv (he I )orpi:i. on n whifew:ished lo;ird 
not less thnn n spnn hrond nl Ihe nsnnl resoi'l, lor the lime hein^, of 
the Dekeleinns in the city. 

This decree, together with Ihe priest's portions, Ihe pricsl shnll hn\e 
cn^rnvcd nl his own expense on n stone stele in Dekelein l.eloiv ihenltnr. 

On the motion of NikodemOS ! 'The cni-lier decrees in force ill re^-nrd 
lo the introduction of children nnd HM- <l/<t<H/;rtxi<i nre hei-ehy nmended 
ns follows : 

The three witnesses whom it hns been required to produce for the 
( \nminnli<n shnll he fellow-l hinsotes of the nppliemil, testifying to the 
matters of in< | niry nnd eonlirmin^ Iheir word by nn onlh in the nnme 



of /ens I'hralrios. And the witnesses shall touch I he allar dunn;- 
their testimony and oalli. A IK I, if I here l>c noi so many in MM- lliiasos 
in (pieslion, they shall lie furnished from the other phralers. 

At the ilitttlikdNitt the phral riarch shall not. permit the whole body 
of | l i raters lo vole in regard lo I lie children, nnlil the l'ello\v-l hiasotes 
of the candidate hi nisei I' have voted secretly, taking llicir ballots IVoin 
(he altar. An<l the phrat riareli shall count their ballots before the 

whole body of phraterspresenl at the meeting and |>roelaim which way 

Ihev ha\'e voted. And if, when the thiasotes have voted favorably, 
(he rest of the |>hraters vole adversely, the ihiasotes, except those who 
openly denounce or oppose | (lie child | al llie <//ti<li/-<i.</<i, ;-liall I.e lined 
Mil) drachinas [apiece |, to he ilevoled to /ens Thra trios. ( )n the other 
liand, if the Ihiasotes vote adversely and the applicant | /'. e. t father or 

L -il;irdiail | appeal to llie whole body :m.| the whole body decide llial, 

the child belongs lo the phrati'N, he shall he enrolled in llie enenil 
registers; l.lll, if the whole I H ,d y vole advelX'ly, he | /'. r., (he Calher 
Or :'iiardian | shall I.e lined I OO drachmas, In I.e devnled to /ens I'lna 
Hi" . And, if, when llie Ihiasotes have voled adversely, no appeal [fl 
laken lo Ihe \vlnle l)o<ly, (he sidverse vole .(' the ihiasoles shall lie 
dfid i\e. And (he meinl.ers (.Cany thiasos shall not vole with I here.. I 
ol'lhe phraters on (he children of their o\vn flu. 

This additional decree the priest shall have eii'-raved mi (he -.lone 
Stele. 

( )ath of witnesses at I he in! rod net inn of children : I testily that the 
child whom he in! rodnces, [ saying | 1 hat il i- hi laul'nl -HI by a \\ ed 
ded wife, this is true l>y /ens I'hratrios, [and I pray | thai milch i-.,,,.! 
may liel'all me if I swesir truly, and the contrary il' I IW6AT falsely. 

On the motion of Menexcnos : K'esolved |y the phralers lo amend 
MM- former decrees in rcL-ard to I he in! ro duel ion of children, as follows : 
In order thai I he phralers may know I hose who are lo lie introduced, 
there shall I.e presented lo the phratliarch, during the year l.clnre Ihe 
l:nur<ii, is lironn'hl, a, written statement of Ihe name | of each child |, 
with the father's name and dctne, as well as the mother's name, with 

r father's name and deme. And, when Ihe slatem. nl have l.ecn 
made, Ihe phralriarch shall inscribe (hem and post them up al (he n ual 
resort, for Ihe time bein^;, of the I )el<e|eiaii-., and (he pri< I :il " hall 
in ribe them on a while board and post, il np in Ihe temple of |,efo. 

Thi:-> additional decree -hall be em-raved on llie tOH6 Stele, 



144 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY. 

COMMENT. 

The foregoing document is difficult of comprehension especially for 
two reasons. In the first place, the subjects of eia-aycoyrj and Sta&t- 
Kacria, with which these psephisms deal, are not here taken up for the 
first time. As regards the diadikasia, to be sure, Szanto 27 and Busolt 28 
are (or were) of another opinion. Regarding the Demotionidai as a 
gens, with which our phratry was intimately connected, either as con- 
tained in it (Szanto) or containing it (Busolt), they see in the "law of 
the Demotionidai " a recent enactment of the gens, and suppose that 
the diadikasia was in the archonship of Phormion first introduced into 
our phratry and presumably into others as well. Now, it may be, as 
Szanto and Busolt have assumed, that the first of our phratrial pse- 
phisms is symptomatic of the same movement which found expression 
in the archonship of Eukleides in the revival of the law, that only 
those should be citizens both of whose parents were citizens, though the 
interval of time, eight years, is hardly favorable to such an assump- 
tion. Butj at any rate, the psephism of Hierokles does not introduce 
a new practice. If the " law of the Demotionidai " had been a recent 
enactment, it would almost certainly have been called a -^nfjfyicrpa : 
and the language, "all who have not yet been subjected to a diadi- 
kasia according to the law," implies that some have already passed 
that ordeal. The law is not a novelty, but it has been laxly observed, 
and is now to be again enforced. Furthermore, as we now know, there 
have been one or more earlier psephisms of the phratry in regard to 
elcra'yM'yrj or SiafctKacria or both. The irporepa ^rj^icriJiara to which 
Nikodemos refers (B, 11) may include the psephism of Hierokles, but 
imply at least one besides. The measures now enacted presuppose the 
immemorial vopos and the previous legislation, of whose precise nature 
we are ignorant. 29 

In the second place, the style of our document is extremely clumsy 
and inexact. Attention has been called above to the illiterate syntax 
of certain passages. What is far more serious is the inconsecutiveness, 
the incompleteness and the ambiguity in statement of principles. It 
requires talent and training of a high order to frame a good law, and 
these the legislative methods of the Athenians did not tend to develop. 

27 Op. cit., 507. 28 Griech. Alt., \ 160. 

29 The words ots ftpyTai eVl ry avaitpio-fi Trape'xea-flcu seem to me to refer to a previous 
psephism. The novelty in Nikodemos' measure was not the requirement of witnesses, 
but the requirement that they should be of the thiasos of the candidate. 




A STUDY OF THE ATTIC PHRATRY. 145 

Least of all were such qualities likely to be found in the subordinate, 
rural corporations, as these psephisms bear witness. Hence it is use- 
less to bring to bear upon them strict rules of interpretation. 

In consequence of these difficulties, a complete and certain explana- 
tion of these decrees is impossible so long as our materials remain what 
they are. The way in which the newly discovered text has thrown 
some ingenious theories to the winds is a warning against over-confi- 
dence in dealing with riddles still unsolved. Nor, even if the consti- 
tution and procedure of this particular phratry lay clearly before us, 
would it be safe to assume that all the Attic phratries were cut out on 
the same pattern and pursued the same methods. There was of course 
a fundamental likeness between phratry and phratry. The conditions 
of membership must have been the same for all, 30 being none other than 
the conditions of Athenian citizenship. But beyond this the variation 
may have been wide. Our stele shows us one phratry modifying its 
rules and regulations. If the same phratry performed its duties in 
different ways at different times, how much more is such difference 
likely to have existed between different phratries. Yet, in spite of all 
these difficulties and limitations, the new text sheds enough additional 
light to justify a review of the whole subject. 

One thing which is now put beyond a peradventure is, that the mem- 
bers of this phratry did not all belong to one deme. Szanto, who regards 
the phratries in general as subdivisions of the denies, saw no difficulty 
in supposing that all the members of this phratry were of the deme 
ion, to which the phratriarch Pantakles belonged, in spite of the facts 
at the inscription was found at Dekeleia and the meetings for the 
mission of children were required to be held in that deme (A, 52 ff.). 
is view, always improbable enough, is now shown to be certainly 
se. It is scarcely conceivable that the rendezvous of the Dekeleians 
in Athens should have been selected as the place to post notices intended 
reach all members of the phratry (B, 5-6, 64.-65), unless there had 
n Dekeleians in the phratry. A still more cogent proof is supplied 
y the provision of B, 61. If the members had all belonged to one 
deme, it would have been idle to require the mention of the father's 
demotikon. But, besides Dekeleia and Oion, we cannot name any deme 
represented in this phratry, nor can we say whether there were any 
others. If there were, they were probably, like Oion (i. e. no doubt 



30 Except that some phratries were by law not open to S^oTi-ony-rot; see BUERMANN, 
Jahrbucher fur Philologie, Supp., ix, 643. 



146 AMERICAN JO URNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY. 



in the immediate vicinity of Dekeleia. At least, the 
presumption, derived from other sources, that the phratries were unions 
of neighbors, receives some confirmation from our inscription. It looks 
as if this phratry were localized in and near Dekeleia, not, indeed, in 
the sense that all the members actually lived in that neighborhood, 
but that they belonged to that group of demes. But, whether all the 
members of these demes or of any one of them belonged to the phratry, 
we cannot tell. If the Dyaleis of CIA, n, 600 are rightly regarded 
as a union of two phratries, then, as the two phratriarchs there men- 
tioned were both Myrrhinusians, it follows that members of the same 
deme might belong to diiferent phratries. The same inference has been 
drawn by Buermann from the formula of the decrees conferring citi- 
zenship, elvai <j)V\f)s Kal SIJ/JLOV KOL $paTpla<$ ^? av {3ov\r)rai, which 
suggests that, as after the choice of a tribe there was still open the 
choice of a deme, so after the choice of a deme there was still open the 
choice of a phratry. It may be then that the demesmen of Dekeleia 
and Oion were not all enrolled in our phratry. And thus we are as 
far as ever from being able to estimate even approximately the size 
of an Attic phratry, or, what comes to the same thing, the number of 
phratries in the State. Between the twelve commonly accepted until 
lately and the three hundred and sixty once proposed by Buermann, 
there is still room for indefinite guessing. 

Nor does the new text supply any decisive answer to the important 
question raised by Szanto, Are the Demotionidai a gens or a phratry? 31 
and answered by him in favor of the former. It should be premised 
that the Demotionidai, if a gens, are to be regarded, not with Szanto 
as a wider organization including the phratry, but rather with Busolt 
as the nucleus around which non-gentiles were grouped to form the 
phratry. Now the first two occurrences of the name do not favor the 
view that the Demotionidai are a gens. The " law of the Demotio- 
nidai " is the law of the phratry (A, 14) ; ergo, one naturally infers, 
the Demotionidai are the phratry. Busolt, 32 to be sure, asserts, Die 
Satzungen des Geschlechts galten auch fur die Pkmtrie, but the passage 
in Isaios to which he refers aifords no confirmation of the assertion, 

31 There is a third alternative possible, viz., that both gens and phratry were called 
Demotionidai. In that case, we could understand the phratry in the first two instances 
and the gens in the third. I should prefer this to Szanto's view, but do not think it 
necessary. 

32 Griech. Alt., \ 159, with references to this inscription and ISAIOS, vn. 15. 



A STUDY OF THE ATTIC PHRATEY, 



147 



and the general impression produced by the psephisms before us is 
that the phraters were a law unto themselves. Again, as the phratry 
as a whole has control of the register (J5, 39-40; A, 19-20), it is hard 
to see why a gens, and not the phratry, should be named as the body 
with whom the register is kept (A, 21}. But the " appeal to the Demo- 
tionidai " (A, 30) makes a difficulty. How, asks Szanto, not without 
force, can there be an appeal from a body to the same body again ? 
On the other hand, we may ask, Why should the phraters, who in gen- 
eral manage their affairs collectively, abdicate in favor of a section of 
their number in the most important of their proceedings? The ques- 
tion is more forcible now than before, because, in the detailed regula- 
tion of the diadikasia by the psephism of Nikodemos, we find no dis- 
position to accept as final the decision of any subordinate body. On 
the whole, therefore, I am disposed to see in the Demotionidai the 
phraters, and the phraters only. If this be right, the word "appeal " 
is indeed not strictly appropriate, but perhaps the interpretation sug- 
gested below for the passage in question may make the employment 
of the word more intelligible. 

If our inscription teaches nothing about the relation of gens to 
phratry, it redeems this silence by the proof it brings that every mem- 
ber of the phratry belonged also to some one or other of a number of 
religious associations or thiasoi. We can with some confidence go a step 
further. If any dependence is to be placed on the literal meaning 
of .B, 23J[, all the members of any thiasos were expected to take 
part at the diadikasia of the child of one of their own number, and 
were all liable to be fined ; in other words, the thiasoi were subdivisions 
of the phratry. Further, according to the present wording of our 
text, these thiasoi were, at least in some instances, very small bodies ; 
the possible case is considered of the membership being less than four 
(B, 18-19). But it may be that in the first version of lines 11-15 a 
larger number of witnesses than these was prescribed. As to the nature 
of these thiasoi, we learn nothing beyond what the name itself implies, 
nor do other sources of information have much, if anything, to say of 
such associations, at least under that name. 33 But, inasmuch as Qia- 
awTdi and bpryewves are practically synonymous, it seems permissible 
to bring these thiasoi into connection with a much debated statement 
of Philochoros. His words, as quoted by Photios and Souidas, s. v. 



33 The "thiasoi of Herakles," mentioned in ISAIOS, ix. 30 may be analogous. 



148 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHEOLOGY. 



are as follows : rou? 8e (frpdropas eTrdvay/ces 

/cat rou? ofJLO<yd\aiCTas, ou? ryevvrfras /ca\ovfj,ev. Opin- 
ions have differed as to whether o#? here refers to both opyewvas and 
6fj,oyd\aKTas, or only to 6/jLoyd\aKTa^. But, even without the con- 
text, the latter alternative seems to me almost certain, 34 and those who 
had the context so understood it. 35 See Harpokration s. v. Tevvijrcu, 
and Bull, de Corr. HelUn., i, 152, from which we learn further that the 
sentence in question was taken from the fourth book of Philochoros' 
Atthis. This book covered the latter half of the fifth century B. c., so 
that the statement quoted probably referred to the phratries of the post- 
Kleisthenean period. We thus learn that a phratry consisted of two 
classes of members, yevvfjrai, or members of a gens (or gentes) based 
upon real or fictitious kinship and opyewves or members of a religions 
union or unions, perhaps not laying claim to kinship. Conformably to 
the statement of Philochoros, we find admission to a phratry coupled 
with admission to a gens in Isaios, vn. 16 and Dem. LIX. 77, and with 
admission to a body of bpyewves in Isaios, n. 14. But now, although 
opyewves might be contrasted with yevvfjrai, and were so contrasted 
by Philochoros, yet the name in its broad sense is applicable to any 
religious association. A gens was a religious association ; hence a body 
of gentiles could be called opyewves. Such at least is the clear statement 
of the Etymologicum Magnum, s. v. Tevvrirai, m and I see no ground for 
doubting it. The combined testimony of these passages may be summed 
up by saying that a phratry consisted of two or more religious associ- 
ations, one at least of which was or might be a gens. Probably then, 
by the thiasoi of our inscription, we are to understand any gens (or 
gentes) included in the phratry and a number of non-gentile associa- 
tions. Possibly the OIKOS Ae/ceXetw^ may have been a gentile or quasi- 
gentile thiasos. 37 

So much for the constitution of the Demotionidai. What, now, were 
the special circumstances which evoked the psephisms of 396/5 ? As 
I conceive the situation, there had been in our phratry three closely 
connected abuses, to the reform of which the psephism of Hierokles 

34 <7/. BUSOLT, Griech. Gesch., i, 395 0). 

35 Except perhaps POLLUX, in in. 52 ; so BUSOLT, loc. cit. 

36 The confused words of the same lexicon, s. v. 'Opye&ves: StWcrx^o n avSpuv, &s 
T&V 'yevvr]Tu>v nal <f>par6pcav, seem to point the same way. 

37 That the ol/cos Ae/ceAet<i> was a religious association is evident from its having a 
priest (A, 41-42}. Whether this priest was identical, as some suppose, with the 
priest of the phratry, is not clear. 



A STUDY OF THE ATTIC PHRATRY. 149 

was directed. (1) Meetings for the reception of children had been held 
elsewhere than at Dekeleia. This is a certain inference from A, 52 if., 
and that the practice was considered an abuse is almost equally certain. 
I think we can plausibly conjecture how the abuse arose. During the 
years 413404, Dekeleia had been continuously occupied by a Spartan 
garrison, and the residents of the neighborhood had been shut up in 
Athens. During these years, whatever meetings the Demotionidai 
held must have been held in the city. Moreover, when the war was 
over, it is likely that many, habituated to city life, did not return to 
their country homes, but remained in the capital. What more likely 
than that the Demotionidai, having got into the way of it, should have 
found it convenient to continue meeting and transacting business in 
Athens ? (2) But the irregularity went further than is implied in the 
mere substitution of one meeting-place for another. These meetings 
had been held without the presence and sanction of the priest of Zeus 
Phratrios. This is clear from the priest being appointed to collect the 
fine from future offenders an unintelligible provision if he were an 
aider and abettor in the offense. Naturally, if the priest was not 
present, he did not receive the sacrificial portions to which he was 
entitled. The instructions of B, 7, and the consequent announcement 
of the iep(0crvva at the head of the stele, bear witness to an attempt 
to restore neglected rights. Henceforth the priest is made the judge as 
to whether circumstances necessitate a meeting elsewhere than at Deke- 
leia, and it falls to him, if need be, to choose and advertise another place, 
fact, all that part of the first decree which relates to ela-aycoyr) was 
in the interest of the priest a fact which may explain the 
uirement that he shall bear the expense of the stele. (3) The names 
f new members had been entered in the register without the diadi- 
'. This was simply part and parcel of that confusion into which 
e affairs of the phratry had fallen. The psephism of Hierokles 
imed at correcting these laxities and restoring the traditional order, 
at of Nikodemos, on the other hand, bringing the tkiasoi into promi- 
nce and making them jointly responsible for their members, seems 
introduce innovations. What the occasion of this move was I am 
nable to say. 

Let us now attempt to realize, step by step, the process established 
by the decrees of 396/5 for seeking admission to the phratry of Demo- 
tionidai. There is probably no fixed rule as to the age at which a child 




1 50 AMERICAN JO URNAL OF ARCHJSOLOG Y. 

shall be presented, but the ceremony under ordinary circumstances takes 
place within the first three or four years of the child's life. 

The regular occasion, according to the evidence of several scholiasts 
and lexicographers, is the Koureotis, the third and last day of the 
Apatouria-festival. This statement has been disputed by August 
Mommsen, 38 who assumes that the presentation began on the Dorpia, 
the first day of the festival, on no better ground than that it would 
have been a bad arrangement to postpone the serious business till the 
last. But the evidence of the grammarians receives some confirmation 
from our inscription, which fixes the diadikasia upon the Koureotis. 
And it may well be doubted whether an attendance of the scattered 
phraters sufficient to transact business could have been secured for 
more than a single day. Unless insuperable obstacles, such as war, 
intervene, the meeting is held at Dekeleia. Thither are brought the 
children, 39 male and female, and with them the victims and other offer- 
ings which law or custom prescribed. Schoemann conceived such meet- 
ings as being held in the fypdrpiov, which according to Pollux (in. 52) 
was TO lepbv et9 o o-vvyeaav (sc. ol <j)pdropes). It is noteworthy that 
Stephanos of Byzantion (s. v. fyarpia) and Eustathios (ad. II., 239. 30 
and 735. 50) know the fypdrpiov only as a TOTTO? or TOTTO? wpicr/jievo^. 
At all events, the Demotionidai meet in the open air for the ela-aycoyr) 
as well as for the SiaSitcaa-ia : for they are in presence of the altar, 40 
and that this was not in a covered building we may infer, not only 
from its use for burnt sacrifices, but also from the phraseology of S, 9; 
one would not say "in Dekeleia before the altar," if this altar were in 
a building. The meeting is presided over by the phratriarch. Each 
applicant presents his child, and is subjected to an examination, search- 
ing or perfunctory according to circumstances. Then, while the sacri- 
ficial portions assigned to Zeus Phratrios burn upon the altar, he takes 
oath that the child he presents is yvrja-io^ ey yaperrj^. Following the 
oath of the father or guardian, comes the examination of the three wit- 
nesses whom he produces from among the members of his thiasos. They 
testify with one hand upon the altar and confirm their testimony with 
an oath. We should expect, then, to find the phraters proceeding at 
once to vote on the application, and, in case of acceptance, to enter the 

38 Heortologie, 308-310. 

39 That the candidates were presented in person appears from ISAIOS, vn. 16; DEM., 
LVII. 54: cf. ANDOK., i. 126, for admission into a gens. 

40 See, especially, B, 17-18. 



A STUDY OF THE ATTIC PHRATRY. 151 

name of the child in the register. Such was the practice in other phra- 
tries, so far as known to us : 41 but the practice of the Demotionidai, as 
regulated by the psephism of Hierokles, seems to have been different. 
For a year later the child is still 6 ela-ayo/jievos (B, 24) and the father 
or guardian 6 elo-dyav (B, 37-38), and not till after a favorable issue 
of the Sia&iKao-ia does registration take place (B, 39). I would sug- 
gest, therefore, that the diadikasia of the Demotionidai, instead of being 
a procedure otherwise unknown to us, was nothing more or less than 
the trial and vote which every well-conducted phratry held on the ad- 
mission of each new child, the peculiarity lying solely in the interval 
of a year required between the first presentation and the vote. The 
object of this arrangement would be to secure due advertisement of the 
names and alleged antecedents of the candidates, and thus to prevent 
fraud. At the meeting on the Koureotis of the next year following, 
the phratriarch is required to bring up each case in turn. There is 
opportunity, for whoever will, to make objections (B, 34--36). Then 
follows the vote, which may result in any one of five ways. (A) If the 
child's felloAv-thiasotes vote favorably, the case must then go before the 
remaining phraters. (1) If they vote favorably, the child's name is 
enrolled in the two registers (this case, as being self-evident, is not men- 
tioned by Mkodemos). (2) If the phraters vote unfavorably, the child 
is rejected and each thiasote (or the thiasos collectively?) including pre- 
sumably the father or guardian (unless the latter should not belong to 
the thiasos), but excluding any who may have opposed the candidate 
in the previous discussion, is fined 100 drachmas. (B) If the child's 
fellow-thiasotes vote unfavorably, then an appeal may or may not be 
taken to the remaining phraters. (3) If no appeal is taken, the child 
is rejected, but there is, apparently, no fine. If an appeal is taken and 
(4) the action of the thiasos is sustained, the child is rejected and the 
eladycw is fined 100 drachmas ; but (5), if the decision of the thiasos 
is reversed, the child is accepted and his name enrolled. For cases (2) 
and (4) there remains the possible appeal to the Demotionidai. The 
subject is beset with difficulties, and I do not pretend to clear them away. 
But it is noteworthy that, whereas, in case a child is rejected at the or- 

41 IsAios, vii. 16-17 ; DEM., XLIII. 13-14 ; DEM., LIX. 59 : cf. ANDOK., 1. 127. The 
phratry of DEM., XLIII, might be the Demotionidai, since Eubulides was of the deme 
Oion. But this may have been Oloj/ Kepa^et/c 6v ; or, if it was Olov AfKe\eii<6v, the 
phratry, as shown above, may have been different. The apparent difference of prac- 
tice points to a different phratry. 

2 



152 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY. 

dinary diadikasia by his fellow-thiasotes, it is the elcrdywv who is said 
to appeal (B, 3$), and, whereas at the extraordinary diadikasia of 396/5 
it is the elcraryaya)v of a rejected member who is fined (A, ##$),. here 
the rejected person is himself authorized to appeal, and, in the event 
of failure, the fine is said to fall upon him (A, 30-31, 38-39}. Is this 
a mere carelessness of language, as Gilbert thought? Possibly so. But 
may we not take the language literally ? In that case, this paragraph 
provides that one who had been rejected in infancy may, as an adult, 
seek admission again in his own person. He refers his suit anew to 
the phratry ; the years that have elapsed since he was on trial before 
disguise a little the inappropriateness of the word e^irjfjn,. Such a 
renewed application, made when proof would be harder than ever to 
obtain, would be a serious matter and would call for great caution. 
The oZ/eo? Ae*;eXeKHi>, which holds a position of dignity in the phratry, 
appoints five synegoroi, whose duty it is to oppose the claims of the 
applicant. The case is brought to trial before a meeting of the phra- 
ters. If the applicant succeeds in securing a majority vote, he is of 
course at once admitted ; if he fails, he is visited with a heavy fine, 
1000 drachmas, and remains what he was, a metic. 

At a much later day, in the Macedonian period, it was thought de- 
sirable to make still ampler provision than had existed for the adver- 
tisement of the names of candidates. It was now required that, at 
some time during the year preceding the Apatouria at which applica- 
tion was to be made, the name of each child should be reported to the 
phratriarch. When the time allowed had elapsed, 42 the list was posted 
at the rendezvous of the Dekeleians in Athens and in the temple of 
Leto in Dekeleia, each name being announced in the form, Mevcov 
M.evJ;evov ef Oi'ou KOI Nt/caper^ KaXXtTrvrou TFkwdew?. Perhaps, 
at this time, the meetings of the phratry were so thinly attended that 
the mere presentation of a child did not constitute a sufficient adver- 
tisement. At any rate, the psephism of Menexenos gives us a fresh 
glimpse of laxity in the conduct of the affairs of the phratry, and of 
an effort, probably ineffectual, to secure reform. 

POSTSCRIPT. The Berliner philologische Wochenschrift for Feb. 
16 and 23, 1889, containing a short discussion by Buermann of the 

42 Of course, if the announcement was to be of any use, it must be made some time 
before the ela-ayca-y-f), but, with characteristic carelessness, that point is not made clear 
in the psephism. The language used would allow the presentation of names to the 
phratriarch up to the date of the Koureotis : or should we understand rf irpdry ere* 
as meaning, in the preceding civil year, i. e., before midsummer? 



A STUDY OF THE ATTIC PHEATRY. 153 

new part of this inscription, reached me as I was finishing the fore- 
going article. Buermann's interpretation differs from mine on some 
important points. The most serious divergence concerns the elo-a<ycoyr), 
which, by implication, he puts in the year following the offering of 
the koureion, and consequently immediately before the diadikasia. 
Conformably to this, he takes rw Trpcaray erei rj, in B, 60, as equiva- 
lent to TO) vcrrepw era 77. The phrase is a strange one, but I do not 
believe it can be so understood. Apart from this, I think my views 
preferable. That ela-ajcoy^ and $LaSi,/ca<ria are two distinct acts ap- 
pears from A, 13-19, B, 12-13, 20-21, in spite of ela-ayo/jievo and 
ela-dywv (B, 2, 37-38}. As far as that goes, they might both come on the 
same day. But the dissociation of the ela-aywyrj from the offering of 
the victim on behalf of the child creates great difficulties. I will not 
press the argument, that Hierokles ought to have written rrjv Be ela-a- 
rywyrjv KCU rr)V $ia$iKa(Tiav TO \OITTOV elvai TO> varepo) erei K. T. X., 
if such was his intention. But what meaning could the sacrifice have, 
if the child was not presented at the same time ? 

Buermann infers from the terms of the oath (B, 52) that only sons, 
and not daughters, were enrolled. He might have quoted, further, 
A, 28 and B, 60. But, for the admission of daughters, we have the 
evidence, not only of the Scholiast on Aristophanes, Acharnians 146, 
but also of Isaios, in. 73-76. I therefore think it more likely that 
the omission of reference to daughters in the oath and the psephisms 
is due to carelessness. 

Through the courtesy of Professor Pantazides, I have seen also, at 
the last moment, the advance sheets of his discussion of the inscrip- 
tion, shortly to appear in the 'E^/^epl? ^Kp^aioKoyucr), and have been 
able to appropriate from him two or three valuable suggestions in 
regard to minor points. 

F. B. TAEBELL. 

American School, Athens, 
March 12, 1889. 



PAPERS OF THE AMERICAN SCHOOL OF CLASSICAL 

STUDIES AT ATHENS. 
DISCOVERIES IN THE ATTIC DEME OF IKARIA, 

1888.* 



IV. CHRONOLOGICAL REPORT OF EXCAVATIONS. 

[PLATES III, IV, V.] 

For an account of the manner in which our attention was directed to 
Dionysos, the reader is referred to the Seventh Annual Report of the 
American School at Athens, containing Professor Merriam's report as 
Director of the School for 1887-8. I was appointed by him to super- 
intend excavations at Dionysos, in case it should seem advisable to 
undertake such work, and toward the last of October 1887 we made 
a trip to examine the district ; as a result of this, Professor Merriam 
decided to take down the walls of the ruined church and see if the iden- 
tity of the spot could not be fixed beyond doubt by inscriptions and 
other data. Permission to excavate was applied for at once, but was 
not obtained till the month of January ; and on Monday, Jan. 30, 
work was begun with six workmen, the plan being to clear the ground 
in the immediate vicinity of the church and to remove the walls. 
PLATE in gives the appearance of the church before work was begun, 
and shows the ancient monument which had been transformed into the 
apse of the church. The most important find made during the first 
three days was that of the wall-blocks and flat roof-pieces of this 
monument. These were found directly behind the apse, where the 
architrave had been lying ever since the time of Chandler. 1 On 
Thursday I took two workmen to show me a stone which had " flowers 
and letters " on it. They led me nearly to the western extremity of the 
valley, and on a ridge called Kotc/civo Kopdfa, a short distance to the 
north of the road to Kephisia, they pointed out a grave partially un- 

* I desire to make acknowledgment of my great obligation to Professor Merriam 
for his direction, advice and constant assistance in all my work, and also to Dr. Wald- 
stein and Dr. Tarbell for assistance and suggestions in the arrangement of this report. 

1 Travels in Asia Minor and Greece, vol. n, p. 200. 

154 



REPOR T OF EXCA VA TIONS IN IK ART A . 155 

covered, and close to it the torso of a seated woman in very high relief, 
the head of which had been broken off and sent to Germany. 

The grave was of a late period, though possessing an earlier bound- 
ary-wall of good construction. For one of the sides had been used a 
sepulchral stele which bore two rosettes and an inscription of the 4th 
century recording the names of the two deceased, one a Plotheian and 
the other an Ikarian. This inscription, as I believed, had never been 
published, and it seemed a discovery of importance in relation to the 
sites of the denies of Ikaria and Plotheia, the proximity of which 
had already been surmised. Not till some months later was it found 
that our inscription had already been seen and copied by Milchhofer. 2 
On the same day there was found to the west of the church a massive 
marble seat (PLATE iv and Fig. 28) which had been brought here from 
its original position, as was determined afterward by the discovery of 
other seats of similar form remaining in situ (at K on PLAN l). 

On Friday, Feb. 3, work was carried on north of the church, and 
resulted in the most important discoveries of the first week, including 
a nude male torso of archaic style ; a draped statue of a young woman, 
wanting the arms and head ; a female head (afterward stolen) found 
directly above the draped statue but perhaps too small to belong to 
it ; a fragment of a relief of the best period, representing a seated woman 
with a vessel in her right hand while with the left she holds the mantle 
away from her breast; three inscriptions, one a boundary-stone, the 
other two, decrees of the Ikarians. The one which came to light first 
was on a stele in perfect preservation and supplied absolute proof that 
here was actually the site of the deme of Ikaria (see A. J. A., iv, p. 421) 
more than this, that the official seat or centre of the deme could not be far 
distant. Gravestones with mention of the deme to which the deceased 
belonged establish nothing more than a possibility that the place of 
finding may have been the actual deme-site, but it is hardly conceivable 
that a public decree of a deme concerning only its internal affairs should 
be set up anywhere but within the limits of the deme. Thus, by the 
discovery of this inscription alone, the first object of our excavations 
was accomplished. During the remainder of this week the finds were 
of no special importance, and on the first of the following week a 
violent snowstorm obliged us to return to Athens. 

Wednesday, Feb. 15, work was resumed, and the remainder of the 
week was devoted mainly to taking down the walls of the church and 

*Mitih. Inst. Athen., 1887, p. 312. 



151) AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHEOLOGY. 

to digging beneath it. These walls were formed chiefly of large blocks 
of marble taken from other structures, such as architraves, pieces of 
flooring, blocks from peribolos-walls, slabs ornamented in the Byzan- 
tine style and belonging to an earlier church ; but with these were found 
also a large number of fragments of reliefs, statues, and inscriptions. 
Beneath the flooring in the centre of the nave we came upon the torso 
of an archaic draped statue ; between the narthex and the nave was 
found, doing service as a sill, the archaic stele of a hoplite closely re- 
sembling the stele of Aristion (see A. J. A., v, pp. 917) ; and from the 
substructure of the front wall there was taken a colossal head in the 
archaic style, and a stone having inscribed on one side a long pre- 
Eukleidean decree, and, upon the other, various accounts of moneys 
transferred from demarch to demarch. These are of different periods, 
the oldest showing the three-barred sigma. The two bases indicated 
on PLAN I of the excavations as B and C were below the level of the 
church, of which the front wall passed over C, and one of the side 
walls over B. 

The work of the following week, beginning with Monday, Feb. 20, 
was devoted to laying bare the walls ac and cd of the structure D, and 
resulted in the finding of the upper portion of the torso of a Seilenos, 
a child's head, a bronze anathema incised with the figure of some 
divinity, and a tragic masked head. During the week beginning Mon- 
day, Feb. 27, the few days on which the weather was clear were em- 
ployed in sinking trenches on the slight eminence immediately to the 
south of the site of the church. While some of these trenches yielded 
no result, one of them struck the large base or platform indicated on 
the plan as J, and another led to what proved to be the pronaos of the 
Pythion, where we found a small relief representing Apollo sitting on 
the omphalos with an adorant before an altar in front, and the inscribed 
threshold of the naos (Fig. 27). Work was continued at the same time 
on the lower level. The wall ab of D was laid bare, and just outside 
of it were found two hands, one of colossal and the other of less than 
life size both of fine workmanship. A portion of the next week was 
employed in digging to a considerable depth within the walls of D and 
inside the peribolos-wall E, where there was a large mass of rubbish 
which had evidently been thrown in designedly as filling. This labor 
was well rewarded by the discovery, within the structure D about a 
meter below the bottom of the wall, of a portion of the beard of the 
archaic colossal head, every fragment of which is of value for deciding 



REPORT OF EXCAVATIONS IN IK ARIA. 157 

the important questions suggested by it. A trench 3 m. deep and 10 
long Avas run west from the end of the peribolos-wall without finding 
anything. On the upper level were disclosed the walls L, M, N, 0, and 
the seats at K. Two days were devoted to work on a second site, 
about half a mile N. w. from the principal excavations, near the road, 
where a column with its drums strewn on the ground, and a portion 
of a wall seemed to invite investigation (see PLAN n). At the end of 
the column were found fragments of a large marble vase (Fig. 30\ 
and near these the heads and necks of three griffins (Fig. 31). 

On the week beginning Monday, March 12, one day was given up 
to the thorough clearing out of the little enclosure in the locality just 
referred to, but the remainder of the time was spent on the principal 
site, in laying bare the whole of the Pythion and the structure O ; so 
that all the outlines can be made out (PLATES iv, v). This completed 
our work for the spring of 1888. 

On November 13, work was resumed with the object of clearing away 
the large mass of soil between the Pythion and the two bases on the 
lower level. Last spring, a trench was cut here down to virgin soil, 
without revealing anything, but it seemed advisable to clear out the 
whole mass, in order to leave no possibility untested. The results were 
of less importance than those previously attained, but were still of value, 
especially when we remember that every stone in situ is of the greatest 
moment in making out any general plan. South of the base B were 
found two smaller bases for votive offerings. The wall 0, which 
seemed last spring to belong to some building, was found to extend both 
ways for a short distance, then to diverge at each end for about two 
meters, and there stop. This wall is thus shown to be of entirely 
different character from what had been supposed. The sculptural finds 
in this part of the excavations consisted of a haunch of a lion or griffin 
and a male portrait-head of the Roman period. An overhauling of the 
debris on the southeast of the apse yielded a few fragments which had 
been overlooked last year, one of these of great importance, namely, 
the left thigh of the archaic draped torso, proving that it was a seated 
statue. To the north of wall E there was found last year a platform 
of rather rough stones laid close together. It was our intention to follow 
out this platform this year, and discover, if possible, what it was. For 
this purpose a passage was cut along the wall bo of D in order that the 
workmen might have an easy exit. About half-way between the two 
ends of be was found a huge marble slab cut pyramidally on one side and 



158 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHEOLOGY. 

hollowed out on the other. On the side, along the three edges which 
are intact, are sculptured five strange objects. A corner piece having 
on it a similar object was found last year. The platform was found 
to continue to the west, but the great depth of the soil deposited over 
it made the work so slow that it seemed best to abandon it, at least 
temporarily, and to devote all our resources to clearing up the whole 
space within the precinct. 

Some excavations on a small scale were made in various parts of the 
region where it seemed that there might be graves. Upon the ridge 
which runs down from Pentelikon close to the site of the chief exca- 
vations, we found a sarcophagus of Hellenic workmanship, absolutely 
without ornament but very beautifully finished. It contained a skele- 
ton, but no remains of vases. In another place, to the west of the 
principal site, we discovered a wall 14.85 m. long, constructed of two 
courses of blocks averaging 1.20 m. long, and 0.80 m. high. A space 
about 6.00 m. wide was cleared away behind this, and at a depth of 
1.60m. a marble urn was found, filled with ashes and the bones of a 
child, together with a few fragments of vases. There was a precisely 
similar urn in the nave of the old church before our excavations were 
begun, this having probably served as a font : the bottom of still 
another one was found in the course of the excavations : we have 
thus abundant evidence that at Ikaria, as perhaps in all parts of 
Greece, cremation was practised contemporaneously with the burial 
of the body. 3 

In the valley along the course of the old road, northwestward, are 
several short walls forming the front of separate grave-enclosures, 
perhaps family /jLVijfjLara. 4 

In the second week in January, 1889, the excavations were continued 
during a few days. The platform outside wall E was entirely cleared, 
and a trench was sunk in the terrace N. w. of the excavation. The 
virgin soil was reached at a depth of over two meters, but nothing was 
found. We must therefore be content with a negative result, which, 
indeed, is not without value. 

V. TOPOGRAPHY OF THE IKARIAN DISTRICT. 

A word may first be said upon the name of the district where the 
excavations were made. In a note which the Ephor-General of Anti- 

3 Of. BECKER-GOLL, Charikles, m, p. 132 ff. ; HERMANN, Privatalterthumer, 40. 

4 DEMOSTHENES, vs. Eubulid. \ 28 ; vs. Makart. \ 79. 



TOPOGRAPHY OF THE IKARIAN DISTRICT. 159 

quities, Mr. Kabbadias, furnished to Professor Merriam in the autumn 
of 1887, giving directions for finding the site, the name was written 
<7To kiovvcro. Afterwards, I was careful to note how the workmen, who 
were peasants from the surrounding region, spoke of the place, and 
I never once heard <TTO AioVvo-o except where the preposition efc would 
naturally be used (e.g., ITa/xev CTTO Aiovv<ro= TLrjyaLVOfjLev et9 TO Ato- 
vvcro). However, this would not determine whether the name were 
masculine or neuter, since the vernacular, with certain exceptions, drops 
the final v of the masculine accusative singular. Mr. G. Heliopoulos, 
the brother of the owner of the property, informs me that AtoVuo-09 is 
the correct form, and that it is so written on the old Turkish map which 
came into the owner's hands at the time the property was purchased. 
Dionysos is, moreover, the form given on Leake's map in some of the 
later copies of his Demi of Attica, and also by Rangabe". 1 Curtius and 
Kaupert 2 write Dionyson, which is undoubtedly incorrect. 

In the speech of the people it is always Dionyso. It seems extremely 
probable that the name is a reminiscence of the cult of Dionysos applied 
to the whole region, and has remained in the mouths of the people for 
more than two thousand years. According to Chandler, 3 who visited 
the place in 1766, the church was sacred to St. Dionysios, and so it is 
given on Finlay's map 4 of the region, but Rangabe" "would not ven- 
ture to say that the church was dedicated to this saint." While we 
were taking down the walls of the church, some of the workmen spoke 
of St. Dionysios being present ; but this may have entered their heads 
merely from the similarity of the name. Mr. Heliopoulos says that it 
is not known to what saint the church was dedicated, and there seems 
to be now no solid tradition that it was sacred to St. Dionysios. But 
nearly all of the peasant families in Stamata are newcomers of the 
present century, and perhaps among the inhabitants whom Chandler 
found in Old Stamata there may have been a genuine tradition. If the 
older church structure was actually sacred to St. Dionysios the Areopa- 
gite, not the Zakynthian saint, this would be an instance of the frequent 
transfers from the ancient religion to hagiology. But that in any case 
the name of the region owes its origin directly to the ancient cult of the 
wine-god and not to the saint succeeding him is evidenced by the fact 

1 Antiquites Helleniques, No. 985. 2 Karten von Attika, xn (Pentelikon). 

3 Travels in Asia Minor and Greece, .vol. II, p. 200. 

4 Remarks on the Topography of Oropia and Diacria. This map, somewhat reduced, 
was used for the Seventh Annual Report of the School, and is again utilized here. 



160 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHEOLOGY. 

that the name is Dionysos not Dionysios. Here, then, at Dionysos we 
have the site of the deme of Ikaria. The spot at which the principal 
excavations were made appears on the upper edge of Curtius and 
Kaupert's map of Pentelikon. Here was the eSpa, the political and 
religious centre of the deme. Let us attempt to determine its boun- 
daries. To the north, close to the deme-centre, looms up the height 
which on Leake's map is called Aforismd and on that of Curtius and 
Kaupert, Stamatavuni. The name Aphorism6 is sometimes applied 
more distinctively to the height at the end of the range, close to V rana. 5 

The name Stamatavuni (Stamata Mountain) is unknown among the 
peasants here who call it, rather, in Albanian Mal /6 Dionyso (Moun- 
tain of Dionysos). This height is the turning-point of a whole range 
reaching to the Marathonian plain on the north and the Kephisian plain 
on the west, but towers far above the rest of the range with the excep- 
tion of Aphorismo, which seems to be of about the same elevation. 
Here we certainly have the ancient Mons Icarius, the name being, per- 
haps, extended to the whole range. 

To the east of the excavations are three terraces, on one of which are 
remains of a fine marble wall of a good period, which must have 
belonged to a building included in the limits of the deme. Beyond 
these terraces is a deep ravine, through which a path leads to Marathon, 
and here may be placed the" eastern boundary of the deme. Crossing 
several ridges beyond this ravine, we arrive at the ruined village of 
Rapedosa, 7 where Leake placed Ikaria ; and Hanriot, 8 Tithras. This 
locality would naturally be a site for a deme, but there are no remains 
in the village to show that there actually was here a deme-centre of 
importance; There is hardly a piece of marble to be found, all the 
walls being composed of rough blocks of mica-schist. Still further to 
the east is the range called Argaliki, which skirts the coast, leaving room 
for the present carriage-road from Athens to Marathon. This is the 
mountain which Leake thought to be Mons Icarius. The southern 

6 LEAKE fixes the name here in his text (Demi of Attica, p. 78), though he gives 
it a wider range on his map. 

6 Pronounced nearly mdlya. 

7 Kapentosa, Rapendosa,- or Rapendosia are the usual spellings, but Rapedosa as 
given in Curtius is correct, as it is an Albanian word (JRape-dosa), and has no n-sound. 
Kapentosa must be a mere transliteration of the modern Greek pronunciation. But 
neither in English nor in German is there any excuse for inserting n. Rapatosa 
and Rapotosa are given on Finlay's two maps of this region. 

8 Recherches sur la topographie des d&mes, p. 168. 



TOPOGRAPHY OF THE IK ART AN DISTRICT. 161 

boundary of Ikaria is formed by the steep and rugged side of Penteli- 
kon, from which a low ridge runs down to the seat of the excavations. 
Upon the eastern side of this ridge was found the unomamented Greek 
sarcophagus described above. It is not unlikely that there were build- 
ings belonging to the deme along the ridge ; several terrace-walls are 
still visible on the slopes. To the east of this elevation the plain extends 
for a considerable distance before meeting the main range of Pentelikon, 
and there was room here for a considerable population. But habitable 
land in greater extent is afforded by the valley which stretches north- 
westward from the deme-centre, between Pentelikon on the southwest 
and the range which begins in the Kephisian plain on the north, and 
rises gradually until it culminates in the height Mai' Dionyso. The 
ancient road leading through the valley can be traced in several places 
by its border-lines of graves. The enclosure with the fallen column 
(see PLAN n) was close to the road directly opposite a grave-enclosure. 
About a quarter of a mile west of KOKKWO ~Kopd<f)t, are several huge 
marble blocks which must have belonged to a structure of large 
dimensions. One of these blocks is 1.68 m. long, 1.20 m. wide, 0.60 m. 
thick. The inscription on the stele found at K.OK/UVO Kopd<f>i, estab- 
lished a certain probability that the site of the ancient deme of Plotheia 
was near; but the recent excavations conducted for the American 
School by Mr. Washington at Old Stamata have resulted in the finding 
of three dedicatory inscriptions of Plotheians, one of them upon a large 
altar not easily to be moved any great distance ; so that the Plotheian 
deme-seat, with its various temples, mentioned in an inscription pub- 
lished many years ago, 9 may be placed almost with certainty at Old 
Stamata, which is situated just beyond the ridge that bounds the Ikarian 
valley on the northeast. A road leads from Old Stamata across the 
ridge to the road which passes through the valley to Dionysos, the 
journey from Plotheia to Ikaria requiring about an hour. Another 
road leads up from KOKKIVO K.opd<f>i to the present village of Stamata, 
passing quite near Old Stamata. It is not impossible that the territory 
of Plotheia extended down to KOKKLVO Kopdfa and touched the terri- 
tory of Ikaria in the valley ; but the range of hills seems a natural 
boundary, and I am more inclined to think that- the whole valley, in- 
cluding the locality where our stele was found, was within the limits 
of Ikaria. 

9 C. L A., ii, 570. 



162 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHEOLOGY. 

Now that the sites of both Ikaria and Plotheia have been determined, 
we ought to be able to make a reasonable conjecture as to the position 
of another deme which is usually grouped with these two, namely Sema- 
chidai. The similarity of the myths of Ikaria and Semachidai has been 
noted by Leake 10 as evidence of the contiguity of these two demes ; and 
that Semachidai was near Plotheia is proved by the fact that they were 
both members of a community called Epakria, 11 of which more below. 
Now, in which of the neighboring localities where ancient remains are 
visible can we with the greatest probability place the site of Semachidai ? 
About a quarter of a mile west of Old Stamata is a small hill, called 
Bala by the Albanians, upon the sides of which are a few unimportant 
remains, mentioned by Milchhofer. 12 Still further to the west, beside 
the road leading from Kephisia to Stamata, are some ancient remains, 
including some large bases for votive offerings. The locality is called 
Old Spata. The place called Bala was undoubtedly a portion of Plotheia, 
and the remains at Old Spata are not of a nature to encourage the hypo- 
thesis that there was a distinct deme-centre there. North of the present 
village of Stamata, at a distance of perhaps a mile and a half from Old 
Stamata, is a place called Amygdalesa. Here excavations were made 
by Mr. Washington, but no inscriptions identifying the place were 
found. Although the remains show that there were ancient buildings 
on this site, I do not feel satisfied that it indicates the position of a deme- 
centre. But the site, which is only a few rods away from the present 
road to Marathon, would be entirely suitable for the deme of Hekale. 13 
Hanriot 14 maintains that the present village of Stamata is on the site of 
Hekale, and Lolling 15 thinks this possible. But at Stamata itself there 
are, so far as I know, no ancient remains whatever. Leake 16 placed 
Hekale at the village of Grammatiko, Kastromenos 17 prefers Kalentzi. 

Following the road to Marathon over several ridges, after a walk of 
about three-quarters of an hour from Stamata, a vale called Kov KOV- 

10 The Demi of Attica, p. 104. 

11 STEPHAN. BYZ. : 277yua%i8at, STJ/UOS 'ATTLK^S, airb STf/ua^ou, V Ka ^ T0 " s Ovyarpaffiv 
firfev<t>dri Ai6vv(ros, afi >v al lepeTat avrov. "Ecrri Se rrjs 'AvTiox'iSos (f>v\TJs. 4>t\^opos Se 
TT)S 'ETra/cpias (pTjffl rbv Srjfj.ov. C.I. A. II, 570: 'dmoi kv 5e[y HAjcofle'as airavras rtXtlv 
apyvpio[v es t]epa, ^ es U\caBeas % e's 'E7roK/jea[s 3) e's 'Aj^Tji/atous, KTA., where the arrange- 
ment of the words seems to indicate a progress in each case from a smaller to a larger 
body. 

12 Mitth. Inst. Athen., 1887, p. 312, where the name is wrongly spelled Pala. 
"PLUT. Theseus, $ 14. l4 Recherches sur la topographic des denies, p. 167. 

15 BAEDEKER, Oriechenland (1888), p. 127. 16 The Demi of Attica, p. 122. 

"Die Demen von Attika, p. 80. 



TOPOGRAPHY OF THE IKAEIAN DISTRICT. 



163 



vdpt is reached, lying at the foot of Mt. Aphorism6, and shut in on all sides 
except the south. At about the centre of the opening there are ruins of 
a church and a monastery, in the walls of which are utilized many large 
blocks that must have belonged to ancient structures. Two reliefs men- 
tioned by Milchhofer 18 are lying on the ground close by. This spot has 
not, so far as I know, been mentioned as a deme-site by any of the numer- 
ous writers on Attic topography, but there are few places of which such an 
assertion can be made with greater plausibility. The circumstance that 
the plain is shut in on nearly all sides practically excludes the possibility 
that the remains which are here visible have been brought from a distance. 
If the ancient road to Marathon followed the same course as the present 
one, which crosses the northern extremity of this open space, and then 
divides, one branch leading to Vrana, the other to Marathona, then 
Koukounari would be as likely a site for Hekale as Amygdale'sa. But 
the ancient road to Marathon may have been more direct than that of 
to-day, which turns rather abruptly to the right just after passing 
Amygdale'sa. The demolition of the walls of the structures here would 
probably lead to the discovery of some inscription which would settle 
the identity of the site ; but the owner, Mr. Heliopoulos, is not at present 
willing that this should be done. I am disposed to think, however, that 
we have here the site of the deme of Semachidai. We have literary evi- 
dence that the Epakrian community was situated near the Marathonian 
Tetrapolis, 19 and it is interesting to note that, on Finlay's map 20 of this 
district, Epakria is so placed as exactly to cover this vale of Koukou- 
nari, and to include Old Stamata, also running down to the south 
into the region of Rapedosa and Ikaria. In his text, Finlay says . 
" Epakria bordered on the Tetrapolis and apparently embraced the 
northern and eastern slopes of Pentelicus, but neither its extent nor 
the situation of its capital can be determined." Hanriot and others 
have attempted to locate it in the region north of Marathon. Now 
that we can form a more accurate idea of its position, having definitely 
located one village included in it, we have new reason to look with 
interest upon the history and development of the community. 

Philochoros, as quoted by Strabo, 21 states that Kekrops first brought 

18 Mitth. Inst. Athen., 1887, p. 313, where the place is wrongly called Kukunarti. 

19 BEKKER, Anecdota Graeca, I, p. 259 : 'EiraKpia ovo/j-a x<*>P as ^^rja-iov TerpairfaeoDS 
KLfj.fvi]s. 20 Remarks on the Topography of Oropia and Diacria. 

21 STRABO, IX. 1.20: KfKpoira trpSirov fls 5wSe/ca ir6\eis awoiKiffai rb Tr\r)Qos, wv ov6- 
,uciTa Ke/cpOTna Tfrpdiro\is 'EiraKpia Ae/ceA.eta 'E\fv<rls "A<pi5va (Xfyovffi 8e nai irXyQwr i- 
KUS 'A<f>i8vas) &6piKos Bpavpwv Kvdrjpos 



164 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHEOLOGY. 

the population of Attika together into twelve vroXet? (which must- mean 
communities rather than cities), and he gives the names of these with 
one omission. One of these was Tetrapolis, which we know was made 
up of the four villages, Marathon, Oinoe, Probalinthos, and Trikory- 
thos ; another was Epakria. The statement of Philochoros is undoubtedly 
founded on a genuine tradition, although we cannot put confidence in 
the number twelve, which may have been chosen by the historian as 
corresponding to the number of the original phratries. As Wilamowitz 
suggests, 22 topographical researches are the most trustworthy means of 
determining how many of these old communities there were. It is use- 
less to attempt, with Leake, 23 to reconcile with the statement of Philo- 
choros a certain passage which occurs in nearly the same form in both 

X^ O ' */ 

the Etymologieum Magnum and Souidas : 'E-Tra/cpia %fc>pa- 'A^zWou? 
TraXat Kco/jLrjSbv oltcovvras TrpeoTO? KeKpcoifr a-vvayayo)V Karw/cicrev 
et? TroXet? SvorcaiBeKa ' ical rrjv rwv TTO\I,TWV eTrcwv/jbiav d(f> eavrov 
Ke/cpoTriav Trpocrrjyopevcre ' Bvo Se TeTpa7roXe9 e/cdXea-ev, etc 
7r6\ea)v e/carepav polpav Karacrrrjcra^ ' rpels Be ra? XotTra? e 
tov6fj,aore real TJ Trpocre^T)? %&>/oa ravrais rat? rpialv aural? 
fca\eiTo. This must be looked upon as merely a forced attempt to 
make up the number of twelve communities from the few which sur- 
vived as such in the historical period. The only value of the passage 
lies in its record of the tradition that Epakria was composed of three 
villages, and this is generally accepted as a fact by modern writers on 
Greek Constitutional History. Thus Busolt 24 speaks of der Semachidai, 
Plotheia und eine dritte Gemeinde umfassende Verein der Epakrier. 

What was this third village? Hanriot 25 conjectured that it was 
Ikaria, but he had nothing on which to support his conjecture, as he 
did not know the site of even one of the three denies, nor was he able 
to prove that Ikaria was in the vicinity of Plotheia. But, now that we 
know that Ikaria and Plotheia were adjacent denies, I think that his 
conjecture may be renewed with much greater probability. Let us con- 
tinue with the history of Epakria, which gains a new interest for us 
if, as I believe, Ikaria was actually the third member of the union. 
Now, although these old unions had already lost all political significance 
previous to the historical period, some of them survived all the reforms, 
even that of Kleisthenes, under the guise of religious communities. Thus, 

22 Philologische Untersuchungen, I, p. 123. 23 The Demi of Attica, p. 30. 
24 Staats- und Rechtscdterthumer, g 115, in Handbuch d. kl. Alter. 
85 Recherches sur la topographic des dimes, p. 152. 



ARCHITECTURAL REMAINS IN IK ARIA. 165 

an inscription 26 found between the present village of Marathona and the 
sea shows that in the fourth century the four demes of the Tetrapolis 
maintained a religious community of which there was an archon, per- 
haps chosen in turn by the different demes, and also four /epo-Trotot, 
one from each deme. The decree of the deme of Plotheia, already 
referred to more than once, shows that Epakria also survived as a re- 
ligious community after it had lost all political significance. 

The name of Epakria is met with in certain inscriptions in a quite 
different sense, namely, as a TpiTTvs. 27 A rpirrvs was a third part of 
a tribe, a division adopted for convenience in naval assessments. 28 Late 
historians and lexicographers speak of the rptrru? as a division of the 
old tribes prior to Kleisthenes ; but this may be nothing more than an 
attempt to trace a historical institution back to the mythical period. 
But Epakria as a T/HTTU? cannot be identical with Epakria as a com- 
munity, for one deme, Semachidai, belonged to the tribe Antiochis, 
while Plotheia and Ikaria were of the tribe Aegeis. Dittenberger 29 
suggests, however, that, while these religious communities were usually 
composed of demes of different tribes, it would be natural that, because 
of the membership of one or more demes of a tribe in such a com- 
munity, one T/HTTU? of this tribe should be named from it. Applied 
to the particular case in point, this would imply that the most important 
demes in one rpirrvs of the tribe Aegeis were Ikaria and Plotheia ; 
and that, since these were two of the three demes constituting the re- 
ligious community of Epakria, the name of this community was trans- 
ferred to the T/HTTV?. 

VI. ARCHITECTURAL REMAINS.* 

[PLATES III, IV, V.] 

Our architectural work at Ikaria centres about the remains of a monu- 
ment of semicircular form (A: PLAN I ; see PLATES in and iv), used in 

K Mitth. Inst. Athen., 1878, p. 261 = DITT., SylL, 304. 

27 Koss, Demen von Attika, p. 8 ; DITT., Syll., 300. 

88 DEMOSTH. xiv. 23. w Hermes, xvi, p. 187. 

* Thanks are due to Mr. S. B. P. Trowbridge for making the original plan of the ex- 
cavations, to Messrs. H. S. Washington and E. W. Schultz for additions and elevations, 
and to Professor W. R. Ware for preparing these for reproduction, and for the res- 
toration "of the semicircular monument showing the object of the vertical band on 
the front stones, viz., to produce the effect of pilasters. The Plates are from photo- 
graphs by Professor Louis Dyer. 



166 



AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHEOLOGY. 



later times to form the apse of a Christian church. The front portion 
of the substructure, the pavement, and the first course of blocks have 
the appearance of being in situ; but the rear of the substructure has 
been repaired at a late time, as is evidenced by the presence in it of 
bricks and mortar, and of a block which was originally one of the 
end pieces of the uppermost course, holding the architrave. The floor 




FIG. 21. Upper surface of roof of Choregic Monument. 




FIG. 22. Lower surface of roof of Choregic Monument. 

has spread somewhat, and one of the blocks in the lowest course has 
been broken, allowing its fellows to slide in toward the centre. A 
groove in the upper stones of the substructure shows the original posi- 
tion of the lowest course. In the second course, as now existing, all the 
blocks are of diiferent heights. One block, now in the interior, appears 
to have been originally an end piece, as is shown by the projecting ver- 
tical band at the end, so that not more than one block of this course can 



ARCHITECTURAL REMAINS IN IK ARIA. 



167 



be in situ. Behind the apse, an architrave with an inscription had 
long been exposed to view, and, during the first few days of our exca- 
vations, there were found two large slabs fitting together and form- 
ing a semicircular roof, and also seven blocks similar to those in the 
apse. As the roof-pieces afford the surest basis for a reconstruction of the 
monument, both lower and upper sides are shown in Figures 1, < 2 ! 2. The 



fiWOTSeW^ 










FIG. 23. Choregic Monument restored. 

under side, which is worked smooth, is surrounded by a shallow channel, 
0.10 m. wide and 0.015 m. deep, the edges of which are carefully bev- 
eled. This channel undoubtedly overlapped the walls at the sides and 
the architrave in front, the overlapping portion forming a simple cor- 
nice. Taking the measurements inside the channel as representing ac- 
curately the dimensions of the original walls, we will compare them with 
those taken from the other pieces. The length of the interior arc 
3 



1 68 AMERICAN JO UENAL OF ARCHJEOLOG Y. 

is 4.83 m. The present interior length of the first course, of which 
the height is 0.82 m., is 4.74 m., leaving 0.09 m., which is accounted 
for by the end blocks at both sides being broken. The height of the two 
blocks which supported the architrave is 0.635 m., and, taking the 
other two stones that have the same height as also belonging to the 
upper course, we obtain a length of 4.82 m. The blocks are roughly 
cut, so that a difference of one centimeter in the measurements may 
be passed by. For the two original intervening courses, there are 
eight blocks, four having a height of 0.65 m., and four of 0.625 m. 
Of the four of the latter height every stone is intact, and these give 
a length of arc of exactly 4.83 m. One block of the remaining course 
is broken on one edge and the length of the stones of this course 
comes to 4.81 m. The front width of the roof-pieces inside the chan- 
nel is 2.83 m., which agrees perfectly with the length of the archi- 
trave. The extremities of the architrave are not square, but are cut 
with a curve corresponding to that of the Avails. Comparing the meas- 
urements of the architrave with those of the end pieces of the upper 
course, the widths of the cutting and of the architrave are found to 
be exactly the same, being 0.36 m., but the depth of the cutting is 
0.40 m., while that of the architrave is only 0.315 m., leaving a space 
of 0.085 m., which must have been filled by small capitals. Fig. *23 
gives the front elevation of the monument, as restored from the exist- 
ing remains. There may also have been columns, one on each side, 
as in a temple in antis; but no remains of such columns were found, 
nor does the architrave show any trace of such supports. The roof 
undoubtedly held adornment of some sort, as is shown by the cut- 
tings on the upper side of the stones. The presence of such adorn- 
ment and the inscription on the architrave, besides the general form 
of the structure, constitute the data from which we must form our 
conclusion as to the character of the monument. That it was a me- 
morial of victory is set forth by the inscription ; but are we justified 
in holding that the victory had connection with the choregia, and thus 
in calling it a choregic monument ? 

The choregic monuments of which we know the exact form are three, 
all at Athens : the well-known monument of Lysikrates in the Street 
of the Tripods ; the monument of Thrasyllos, which, up to the time of 
the Greek Revolution, stood above the Dionysiac Theatre on the south 
side of the Akropolis, drawings of it being given by Stuart and Revett ; l 

1 Antiquities of Athens, vol. ir, chap, iv, pis. i, 11, m, ff. 



ARCHITECTURAL REMAINS IN IKARIA. 169 

and the monument of Nikias, which Dr. Dorpfeld has reconstructed 
from the fragments found in the Beule gate. 2 The monument of Lysi- 
krates is an elaborately ornamented circular building, counted among 
the earliest surviving examples of Corinthian architecture. Upon the 
roof is a large three-branched akroterion disposed as a base for hold- 
ing the tripod, and the architrave bears the inscription, 3 which has the 
regular form of an official choregic memorial. The monument of Thra- 
syllos was in the form of a portico, having upon the roof a statue of 
Dionysos, which is now in the British Museum. Whether the tripod 
rested on the knees of the seated statue, as some maintain, or was dis- 
played in the interior of the structure, is still an unsettled question. 
For the inscription, see "Choregia." The monument of Nikias had 
the fa9ade of a small hexastyle Doric temple. There is nothing to 
show where the tripod was placed. For the inscription on the archi- 
trave, see " Choregia" 

We will now compare the Ikarian monument with these three chief 
examples. The Nikias and Thrasyllos monuments are both of such 
form that they admit of being called vaoi, the word which Pausanias 
uses in describing the structures on the Street of the Tripods. The 
foundation of a fourth choregic monument, now exposed in the cellar 
of a house near the Lysikrates monument, is of quadrangular shape. 
A semicircular exedra-like form, such as that of the Ikarian monu- 
ment, has been unexampled among choregic monuments ; but the num- 
Iber which we know is so small, and the variety exhibited by even these 
few so great, that this does not make positively against identification of 
the monument at Ikaria as choregic. 
The surface of the upper side of the roof-stones (Fig. 21) is rough, 
and the top is surrounded by a bevel 0.11 m. wide on the curved side 
and 0.13 m. across the front. The socket at d is circular with a diam- 
eter of 0.22 m., that at e is about 0.32 by 0.24 m., but very roughly 
made. The right-hand side of the central socket has been split away, 
as is indicated by dotted lines in the sketch, but a fragment found in 
the debris shows that the original cutting was the same as on the other 
side ; a and b form one continuous cutting, but b is cut two centimeters 
deeper than a ; the cutting c is only 0.03 m. deep. I have no opinion 
to advance as to the nature of the object which these cuttings were 
made to receive. I hold that they could not have been intended for 
the direct support of a tripod, and that so complicated an arrangement 

*Mitth. Tnst. Athen., 1885, p. 217 ff. 3 DITT. Syll, 415. 



170 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY. 

would not be necessary for a tripod-base. If the top of the monument 
was adorned with a group of figures, a tripod might have been displayed 
in connection with the figures, or within the monument. As I take it, 
the roof-pieces furnish no data which make decisively either for or 
against the choregic character of the monument. 
The inscription on the architrave (Fig. 23) reads : 

ArNIA^EANOIPPOSEANOIAHSNIKHSANTESANEOESAN 



"Hagnias, Xanthippos, and Xanthides, having won, dedicated (this 
monument)." 

The height of the letters varies from 0.05 to 0.06 m. This in- 
scription was first seen, in 1766, by Chandler, who gave the first 
word as AtVta?. 4 AtWa? is given also by Bockh, 5 by Rangabe", 6 
and again by Milchhofer in his letter to the Philologische Woehen- 
schrift. 7 But the second letter of the first name is certainly a gamma, 
and thus we have, in place of a name of which there is no absolutely 
certain occurrence, 8 a name by no means uncommon and used in Ikaria, 
as we know from two inscriptions 9 in which one c A7^ta9'I/ea/Keu9 10 
is mentioned as a trierach. The use of dveOea-av and the circum- 
stance that the victors are three in number would show that the in- 
scription, if choregic at all, belonged to the class of private monu- 
ments. But, even under this supposition, there would be difficulties, 
inasmuch as the two known choregic inscriptions in which three vic- 
tors are mentioned 11 seem best explained by the fact that the three 
are of one family, while in the present case there is nothing to in- 
dicate any relationship. 12 But, aside from the preceding, the fact 

4 Travels in Asia Minor and Greece, vol. u, p. 200. 

5 a I. G., 237. 6 Antiques HeUeniques, vol. n, 985. 

7 The inscription is repeated in the volume of the C.I.A., n, which has just ap- 
peared, No. 1317, and A I N I A^ is given on the authority of Lolling. KOHLER re- 
marks that, if confidence can be placed in Lolling's copy, the inscription cannot be 
earlier than the beginning of the second century B. c. ; but I see nothing in it which 
would preclude the idea that it is as early even as the fourth century. 

8 C. I. G., 4668: 5377, 7789 are fragments, and the exact form of the name is not 
certain. 

9 C./.J., n, 794, 811. 

10 See Seventh Annual Report of Am. School at Athens, pp. 87-8. 

11 DITT., Sytt., 422, and Inscr. No. 7 from Ikaria (Amer. Journal of Archaeology, v, 28). 

12 REISCH. De Musicis Graecorum Certaminibus, takes this as a choregic inscription 
of a nature similar to that in Dittenberger referred to in last note, which he believes 
to relate to several different contests. 



ARCHITECTURAL REMAINS IN IKARIA. 171 

remains, that there is no mention whatever of the choregia in the in- 
scription. What justification is there for holding that xoprjyovvres or 
%oprjyrj(ravT6<; was tacitly understood, as one is compelled to hold if 
he maintains that the monument is choregic ? To be sure, from the 
size of the monument, it is not easy to believe that it was commemo- 
rative of any less important victory than that of the choregia, and if 
the presence of a tripod could be proved, as it can be in the case of an- 
other base the inscription upon which omits the ^opTjywv (Ikarian 
Inscr. No. 6, Amer. Journal ofArchceology, v, 27-8), we should be jus- 
tified in supplying xoprjyovvre? in the inscription. But the remains 
preserve nothing to show decisively that the monument was choregic ; 
so, while not absolutely denying that the monument may have been 
choregic, it seems to me that this attribution should still be held in 
suspense. 13 

The base B (PLAN i), measuring 2.615 by 1.66 m., is constructed of 
three marble blocks fitted closely together but not held by clamps. 
The surface is well finished, but the edge toward the base C is smoother, 
showing that another course of slabs covered the whole surface except 
at this edge. Close to this base, and at the same depth, was found 
the torso of an archaic seated statue ; and it seems probable that this was 
the object which the base supported. The three blocks rest directly on 
the earth, without any substructure. The base C consists of a substruc- 
ture of large roughly-hewn stones, and, above these, two marble blocks, 

13 [I cannot agree with Mr. Buck here. A careful review of all the evidence 
before us has led me to the belief that this monument could be choregic only, and 
I have so called it (Report, p. 54, etc.}. The monument itself and the form of the 
inscription had already led RANGABE (Antiq. Hellen., No. 985), MILCHHOFER (Ber- 
lin, philol. Wochenschrift, June 18, 1887), REISCH (Mus. Gr. Cert., p. 46) to this con- 
clusion, without the results of our excavations before them, by which the decisive 
proof has been furnished. BOCKH (C.I.G., 237) and KOHLER (C.I.A., n, 1317) 
classed the inscription among those of agonistic or uncertain type. But its form is 
most closely allied to that of the Ikarian choregic Ergasos monument (see Mr. BUCK'S 
article " Choregia," Inscription No. 7), and that of Timosthenes (" Choregia," Note 9, 
DITTENBERGER, Sylloge, 422), which has recently been found by Milchhofer to have 
been rural likewise, from the Mesogaia near Kalyvia (Mittheilungen Inst. Athen., 1887, 
p. 281). The omission of xop^yowres and of the designation of kinship are due, I 
think, to one and the same cause, the thought that these were immaterial in consid- 
eration of the position of the monument, and a desire not to cumber the architrave 
with too much detail, conspicuousness being preferred to exactness. The omission of 
Xop-ny&v occurs in four inscriptions of G.I. A., n (1248, 1283, 1285, 1286), where the 
employment of xPV renders the reference certain. More important is the Ikarian 
Archippos inscription (" Choregia" Inscr. No. 6) mentioned above, in which the 



1 72 AMERICAN JO URNAL OF ARCHJEOLOG Y. 

smooth on the top and sides and bolted together by two clamps shaped 
thus | |, the surface measuring 1.88 by 1.61 m. Two upright bolts 
indicate that another course rested upon the two blocks in situ, and a 
border, of which the surface is slightly smoother, enables us to give 
the dimensions of the second course as 1.54 by 1.27 m. The remains 
would be well adapted for an altar-base. A large marble altar was 
found in the front wall of the church, its dimensions being : height, 
1.115 m. ; sides, 0.87 and 0.665 m. Around the upper margin runs a 
moulding, and in the top there is a cutting 0.06 m. deep and 0.10 m. wide. 
Around the bottom edge, also, a moulding was carried, this being now 
entirely broken away. Estimating its thickness at 0.02, and adding 
twice this, 0.04, to the measurements of the altar, we get for the bearing 
surface 0.91 by 0.705 m. If we suppose this to have rested on the 
second course of the base last considered, we shall have left a margin 
of 0.32 by 0.28 m. ; but, if this seems too wide, we may insert a third 
step having the dimensions of 1.22 by 0.985 m., thus giving two steps 
about 0.15 by 0.14 m. In the structure D, ab and be are foundation- 
walls formed of large oblong blocks roughly hewn on the outer side, and 
lined on the inner side with small uncut stones. The average length 
of the blocks is a trifle over one meter ; the thickness of the wall is 
0.65 m. The width of the facing-blocks varies from 0.35 to 0.50 m. 
Of the wall ad only a portion of the substructure is left and one stone 
of the upper course, distant 1.77 m. from the corner a. In cd, there 

omission is quite as striking as in the monument under consideration. (To this may 
be added as a parallel case the omission to name the kind of chorus in three out of 
22 inscriptions collected by Reisch ; see "Choregia.") This only reiterates a not un- 
commonly recurring fact, that the precinct itself was often regarded as sufficient indi- 
cation of the purpose of a monument. The importance of the site of our excavations 
as a centre for dedications may be seen from the fact that 27 bases for this purpose 
were found. Of these, 8 were in situ and 5 were inscribed. All the latter related 
either to the drama or to its patron divinity. The only contest here of which our 
materials give any trace is that of the drama, and as the Hagnias monument is a 
local one, set in the midst of Dionysiac dedications, to what god should it be dedi- 
cated except to him before whose statue it probably stood ? The question of a tripod 
is immaterial ; indeed, according to Mr. Buck's argument in his "Choregia" the mon- 
ument, if choregic, should have no tripod. The question whether one victory is 
intended, or more, and whether these victories were gained by father and sons or by 
each separately, is also immaterial. Certain it is, that there is victory, and there is 
dedication undoubtedly to Dionysos. The monument is therefore choregic, and 
matches fitly with the record of Hagnias' two liturgies as trierarch of the State. And 
Hagnias is the only Ikarian of whom we have mention as displaying such liberality 
toward the State and toward his native deme. A. C. M.] 



ARCHITECTURAL REMAINS IN IKARIA. 



173 



is, besides the substructure, a course of the wall itself. This is of the 
peculiar double construction seen in all the walls here which are in any 
way finished. They are, as shown in Fig. 24-, made up of stones cut 
evenly on the outside, but irregular on the inside, and, as an inner 
facing for these, of smaller stones cut evenly on the exposed side. The 
walls ge, which are of irregular polygonal stones, have no apparent 
connection with the building, and are probably older. Their upper 
surface is below that of the substructure-walls of the building. About 
0.50 m. from the corner d and 1.25 m. below the w T all cd, lies a sort 
of trough of schistous stone, the outside measurements of which are 
1.32 by 0.80 m., the inside, 0.84 by 0.50 m. The depth of the hollow 
is 0.18 m. This trough or basin, evidently in situ, at such a depth must 
point to some very early occupation of the site. Exactly what was the 




FIG. 24. 




FIG. 25. 

purpose of the structure D, I am unable to suggest. The wall E, 
12.10 m. long, forms part of the peribolos-wall, which was in part made 
up by the walls of some of the buildings enclosed within the sacred 
precinct. This wall also is double, but the blocks are of large dimen- 
sions on both sides, as is shown in Fig. 25. Fig. 26 gives a side view r of 
the substructure and of the upper course, which now begins 4.03 m. 
from the corner c. The Figure shows the peculiar cutting upon the 
face of these stones, namely, in long nicks arranged alternately. The 
length of these nicks varies from 0.02 to 0.05 m. Along the whole length 
of this wall there extends on the outside, upon a level with the lower 
part of the substructure, a platform formed of irregularly shaped slabs. 
The greatest width of this platform is 2.28 m., but the average width is 
about 2 m. 



174 



AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY. 



The wall F, which terminates in a Byzantine grave, belongs to a late 
period, and is built of small stones. Upon it rested the column with the 
Ergasos inscription (No. 7). We turn now to the building H, which, as we 
know from an inscription on the door-sill, was the Py thion, or temple of 
the Delphian Apollo (PLATE v). This building is on a much higher 
level than the remains heretofore mentioned, the difference in level be- 
tween the base B and the threshold of the Pythion being 2.074 m. 
Though much of the north side 14 of the temple has disappeared, not even 
the substructure of the wall on this side being left, 15 the material for a res- 




or 



FIG. 26. 




V* 



-*** 1 ' 

77f THRESHOLD Of THE PYTH/O/1 

FIG. 27. 

toration is ample. The anta 6, in the front, is 1.35 m. from the corner 
a. At the point c, the lower part of the opposite anta remains, broken 
off short ; and, measuring 1.35 m. from this, we have the position of the 
corner d, of which the substructure is still extant. From the point A, on 
the line drawn at right angles to the corner as found, to g, the end of the 
threshold, is 2.95 m., while from the other end to the exterior face of the 

14 More properly northeast side, as the front does not face the east, but the south- 
east. 

15 This may be due in part to the fact that the water from the higher ground found 
an outlet by the north side, and had cut a channel several feet deep beside it, passing 
over the foundations of the building G. 






ARCHITECTURAL REMAINS IN IK ARIA. 175 



wall e is 3.73 m. This threshold, shown in Fig. 27, is of very careful 
workmanship, and compares favorably, for instance, with the threshold 
which was unearthed by the excavations of the Athenian Archaeolo- 
gical Society in the Peiraieus. 16 Upon the surface is the inscription 
I KAPIQNTO P V0ION 'Iieapiwv rb Uv6iov, the Pythion of the Ikari- 
ans. 17 The height of the letters varies from 0.06 to 0.07 m. They are 
of the fourth century ; and, though the and of the last word are 
much worn, their outlines are still visible. It is very unusual for a 
Greek temple to be "labeled" in this way. At i and k are two upright 
slabs, 0.82 m. apart, probably holding up another slab, making a kind 
of table or altar ; in front of these was found the relief with Apollo, 
Artemis, and an adorant. /, m, n, o and^> are all bases for votive offer- 
ings, as in the pronaos of the Heraion at Olympia, and are apparently 
in situ. The internal dimensions of the pronaos are : width, 6.63 m. ; 
depth, 1.83 m. 

The cella is nearly square, its depth being 6.40 m. and its width 
6.63 m. At the point q, 3.72 m. distant from the wall of the pronaos 
(measured in the interior), an insignificant wall, 2.55 m. long, pro- 
jects toward the altar r, which is formed of four slabs of mica-schist 
overlapping each other at the ends, and filled in with small stones. 18 
From the north side of the altar to the line of the north wall of the 
temple the distance is 2.78 m. ; the altar, like the door, was thus not 
in the axis of the building, but was somewhat nearer to the south 
wall, while the door was considerably nearer to the north wall. 

At s is a wall which separates the cella from a small chamber 
(dSvrov) in the rear, which had no entrance from the outside. At 
2.00 m. from s a base (t) is inserted for some votive offering ; v and w 
are two marble slabs similar in purpose to those (i and k) in the pro- 
naos. The depth of the rear chamber is 1.36 m. The interior wall 
of the Pythion is double, and is built with small stones on each face. 19 

16 Cf. UpaKTiKa Of 1 886, p. 83 and iriva.% 2. 

17 Cf. MEISTERHANS, Grammatik d. att. Inschriften^, \ 55, 9, and Note 1019. 

18 [These were packed so firmly within the upright slabs that they have seemed 
to me to indicate a foundation especially prepared for a very heavy object, such as a 
large statue. A. C. M.] 

19 [Dr. DORPFELD, who kindly visited the site with me, called my attention to a 
terracotta fragment among many, mainly roof-tiles, which I had saved from the 
earth-heap. This fragment showed that it was originally about a foot in diameter, 
formed like a pipe with a rim around the bottom. This was used, Dr. Dorpfeld 
said, for the purpose of admitting light through the roof into the garret above the 
ceiling, and was similar to contrivances found at Pompeii. A. C. M.] 



176 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY. 

Abutting on the Pythion in the rear is the structure G, possibly for 
the priests. Of its wall ab the substructure is complete ; of ac only 
scattered blocks of the substructure remain ; of cy we have both sub- 
structure and some of the upper wall : cy was not built into xz, but 
terminated against it, yz forming a common party-wall for the two 
buildings. 

/is a large base or platform made up of at least twenty marble slabs, 
of which fifteen are still in place. Here may have been the great altar 
of the deme-centre. 20 

At K there are two massive marble seats, one a double seat (arms 
broken) finished smooth on the right-hand side, and on the other side 
finished smooth only on the edges, evidently intended to fit to another 
seat. The other seat is single, and is so worked as to show that it was 




CMC 0FT//F 2WU8LE &EAT3 

FIG. 28. 

fitted to others on both sides. The back of this seat is quite gone. 
The heavy slabs upon which the seats rest are in situ, although they 
have been much canted, and they show that the seats are in their 
original position. Another double seat, which was found near the 
church during the first week of the excavations, and is the best pre- 
served, is shown in Fig. 28 (see PLATE iv). It has precisely the same 
measurements as the double seat at K, and is worked smooth on the 
left-hand side only. It is thus plain that this seat was carried from 
K, where it originally belonged, so that the series of five seats was 

20 [The axis of the threshold of the Pythion and of its altar or statue-base appears 
to intersect the centre of this platform. If we take the platform as the site of the 
chief altar, the unusual and unsymmetrical placing of the doorway of the Pythion 
may find a possible explanation in the desire to leave the line of vision unobstructed 
from the statue of Apollo to the great altar of the deme. T. W. L.] 






ARCHITECTURAL REMAINS IN IKARIA. 



Ill 







originally placed as shown on the plan. 21 The length of the base 
is 3.55 m., the combined length of the two double seats and one 
single one, 3.48 m. L, M, and N are rude walls of uncut stones. is 
of the same construction, but, on account of its shape, is more inter- 
esting. The length of the straight portion ab is 10.60 m. At both 
ends, the walls ae and bd are carried out at approximately the same 
angle, each about two meters long, e and / are short foundation- 
walls intended to support the slab g of corresponding dimensions, 
which was found near them. I do not see how this wall could have 
formed part of any temple-building, nor does it appear to have any- 
thing to do with a peribolos. Can it be part of a rude structure for 
theatrical representations? 22 The slight 
eminence behind the marble seats would 
be an excellent sitting-place for an au- 
dience, commanding a view of the plain 
of Marathon and water beyond between 
Aphorism6 and Argaliki on the left, 
and of the sea between the coast of 
Attika and Euboia directly in front. 
The wall M cannot be part of an origi- 
nal choroSj or dancing-place, for vari- 
ous reasons. It is not a continuous 
curve ; and, if it were, it would meet 
the hill behind the marble seats before 
becoming a circle. If it is taken as a 
wall of the orchestra, the seats for the 
priests come in a straight line across 
the centre of the orchestra. Such an 
arrangement is unheard of in any known 
Greek theatre. Still, the theatres in the rural demes must have been 

21 [In a line with these seats toward /was another with a rounded back : total height, 
0.95m..; height of seat above ground, 0.38 ; width, 0.71 ; horizontal depth of chair out- 
side, 0.57 ; depth of seat inside, 0.34 ; width of seat, 0.48. With these seats one may 
compare the four in situ at Rhamnous, described by Lolling, Mittheilungen Inst.Athen., 
1879, pp. 284-6. Others existed originally beside them. By their inscription, they 
were consecrated to Dionysos, and this has led Lolling to conjecture that they stood 
before a sanctuary of that deity. At Ikaria, I would suggest that their site was that 
of the deme agora, of which mention is made by inscriptions in other demes (C. I. 
A., n, 571, 573). We sunk a trench in front of these seats toward the wall to 
a depth of 3 meters: only ordinary soil was found. A. C. M.] 

28 [Or the Aeo-x??, as in the deme of A^j/?7,(7. J.C?.,93? A. C. M.] 




cr- CAP 



FIG. 29. 



178 



AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY. 



rude affairs at best, and may often have differed very widely from gen- 
erally received principles of construction. 23 

Besides the remains in situ, there are on the ground many archi- 
tectural fragments, both structural and ornamental, including some 
good akroteria. Two drums of fluted poros columns were found. One 
was broken at one end ; diameter of the other end 0.42 m. The second 
drum measured 0.41 m. in diameter at one end, 0.42 m. at the other. 
There are also some fine examples of Byzantine decorative ornament, 
which would be of interest to students of that art. 

PLAN n shows the remains of importance found upon the second 
site where excavations were carried on. AB is a well-built wall, 13.65 

m. in length. The lowest course, 
made up of well-finished blocks 
0^40 m. high and averaging about 
1 .36 m. long, is still in situ, though 
some of the blocks have slipped 
toward the decline and are some- 
what out of line. There are blocks 
forming a substructure under the 
east end, but the west end rests 
directly on the ground. Upon 
this foundation rested two courses 
of blocks set upright. One of 
these, 1.85 m. long and 0.38 m. 
high, is still in position. CD is a 
poor wall of unfinished slab-like 
stones, 17m. long. In about the 

middle there is an opening, perhaps the entrance to the enclosure. E 
is a base of mica-schist blocks upon which stood the column that now 
lies stretched out on the ground over a space of ten meters. 24 This 
column consisted of seven unfluted drums secured together by iron 
bolts. The holes for these bolts are of peculiar and ingenious shape for 
securing firmly the lead by which they were fastened, when once run in 
and set. In the top of each lower drum there is a socket about 0.15 m. 
deep, 0.05 m. broad, and about 0.15 m. long at the top but narrowing 
down at one end for about half the depth and then widening again. A 
small channel for running in the lead communicated with the socket 

33 Some of the walls mentioned may have been terrace walls. 
24 \_Cf. PLUT., ViL Isocr.: avrf S"ltroKpaTei eVl rov yuHjjuaros eVrjj/ Kicav 
W, $' ov 2et/>V ir-rix&v evrd. This was near Kynosarges. A. C. M.] 




FIG. 30. 



ARCHITECTURAL REMAINS IN IK ARIA. 



179 



from the outer edge of the drum. The corresponding socket in the 
bottom of the upper drum is not so long, and is a plain cutting of the 
same section throughout. The uppermost drum is ornamented with a 
narrow moulding (Fig. 29) and has on the top a circular socket 0.55 m. 
in diameter and 0.03 deep. Lying exactly at the head of the column, as 
it lay pn the ground, were found fragments of marble which make up a 
large vase-shaped object with beautiful guilloche and fluted ornaments 




- Front/ >- 



Side 



FIG. 31. 



(Fig. .30). Close to this spot were also found two griffin-heads with a 
portion of the neck ( Fig. 31) ; and a third head was found below the 
wall AB. The whole of the ground between the two walls AB and CD 
was thoroughly cleared, but nothing else was discovered. The few 
objects mentioned are accordingly the only materials from which to 
form a conjecture as to the occupation of the site. The enclosure lies 
exactly on the line of the ancient road leading through the valley to 
Ikaria. Two vases similar to ours are shown on a Panathenaic vase 



180 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY. 

set up, apparently as votive offerings, on slender columns. 26 For the 
decoration of such vessels with griffins' heads, we have not merely 
literary evidence, such as the krater dedicated by the Samians and 
described by Herodotos (iv. 152) as having heads of griffins ranged 
about it at intervals, but extant examples, as, for instance, two bronze 
kraters in the Vatican Museum, one with six griffins' heads turned 
inward, and another with five heads facing outward. Our griffins' 
heads are of a later type than those found at Olympia and the few 
specimens found in Athens on the Akropolis. Furtwangler 26 has 
made a careful classification of griffin types, which do not concern us 
except in their relation to Greek art in general. The griffins found by 
Schliemann at Mykenai are closely akin to some Egyptian types of 
xviii xx dynasties, which are again borrowed from Syrian, prob- 
ably Hittite, art. The first purely Greek type presents the eagle's 
head with wide-open mouth (in earlier types the mouth is always closed 
or only half-open), locks hanging down the neck, and large ears be- 
tween which is a horn-like projection. In the later examples of this 
type, the projection becomes a mere conventional knob. This is the 
only type found at Olympia. It is also found in many other places, 
and is shown on the oldest coinage. In the fifth century this type dis- 
appears. Its successor keeps the ears but removes the middle pro- 
jection and the side locks, substituting a mane or comb running over 
the top of the head and the back of the neck. To this last class our 
griffin-heads belong, though they have the mouth closed, a still later 
variation. 27 

25 SALZMAN, Oamiros, pi. 57: cf. Jahrbuch Arch. Inst., n, p. 151. 

26 ROSCHER, Lex. Myth., "Gryps." 

27 [The enclosure was situated upon a small ridge running back toward Pentelikon 
from the ancient roadway, elevated some four or five meters above it, and sloping in 
all directions except behind. Graves existed on the opposite side of the road ; but 
we found that these had already been opened. Many pieces of marble, some finely 
cut, lay about. The despoilers had also torn up the foundation of the column in 
search of treasure, and had dug underneath it. Two large blocks of schist were still 
in place, and part of a third extending between them. Upon these blocks there 
had undoubtedly been slabs of marble upon which the column immediately rested. 
One of these lay close by, a fragment only, and in it was the dowel hole for a clamp 
of this shape I I. The vase which stood on the column was composed of several 
pieces, and within was roughly hollowed out somewhat. We succeeded in piecing 
together two sections only in height, and only one side of these, less than a half, though 
there were many other fragments. The two sections were of nearly equal height, 
amounting together to 0.98 m. measured on a perpendicular; largest diameter, 1.33 m. ; 



ARCHITECTURAL REMAINS IN IKARIA. 



181 



length of fluting, 0.72 ; width of flutes at bottom, 0.03 m., at top, 0.09 m. ; width of 
guilloche, 0.21 m. Upon the top of the upper section something else rested. At in- 
tervals of 0.61 m. on the upper surface, just within the edge, were sockets about 0.08 
m. wide, sloping inward about 0.05 m. to the depth of a centimeter. There were three 
of these on the portion built up, and no doubt the series was continued at equal inter- 
vals about the entire circumference. These sockets could not have been for the griffins' 
necks, as the tenon of one of the latter still exists, and is considerably longer than the 
sockets,' and of a totally different shape. That the griffin-heads ornamented the upper 
part of the vase as a whole seems necessary, but, to admit of this, the vase must have 
had a third section, which, being lighter than the lower portions, was secured by 
means of the notches just described. This section, narrowing above, as is usual with 
sepulchral vases, would finally give a proper support for the three griffin protomai, 
serving a decorative purpose. The use of such heads in this way is said by Furt- 
wangler to have ceased in the fifth and fourth centuries (op.cit., p. 1771). It is at 
this period that I place the monument, for many reasons. Not only is this the epoch 
of the I H bolt, but it does not seem to me possible that so exquisite an example of 
the double guilloche ornament (Fig. 30} could belong to a later time. Both in this 
ornament and in the flutings, the simplicity, purity and perfection of touch exhibit 
the highest art. The peculiar form of this guilloche is found in a severe type upon 
the gable ornamentation of the treasury of the Geloans at Olympia (cf. BATJMEISTER, 
Denkmdler, p. 1075), on terracottas of Sicily (W. ZAHN, Ornamente klass. Kunst-Epoch., 
IV Heft, Taf. 16), and is employed by HITTORFF in his restoration of the interior 
decoration of Temple Tat Selinous. The griffin with closed mouth appears on coins 
of Abdera in the first part of the fourth century, and especially on the gold medallion 
from Koul Oba representing the head of the Parthenon statue of Pheldias. This 
medallion cannot be later than 350 B. c. and is probably much earlier, and it is 
claimed by KIESERITZKY (Mittheilung. Inst.Athen., 1883, p. 315) to represent the origi- 
nal most faithfully. Finally, all the buildings that we know-in Ikaria show a uni- 
formity in their mode of construction, even in slight details, which brings them closely 
within a restricted period. Earlier temples existed there during the fifth century, 
as appears from an inscription ; and the necessity for rebuilding within the fourth 
century may be guessed as one stands near the entrance of the valley and, casting his 
eyes across upon Dekeleia, observes how completely defenceless was Ikaria against 
the raids of the merciless Spartans and still more merciless Athenian exiles, in the 
Dekeleian war. And if I were to hazard one guess among many that might be made, 
as to the purpose of this unusual monument, it would be that it was erected as a 
cenotaph, after the return, in honor of the dead of that long reign of terror Ovs Se 
yu$7 fvpiffKov KfVOTo.cpi.ov ovToTs eTTOtTjtrav peya. XEN., Anab., VI. 4. 9. A. C. M.J 



Athens, 
January, 1889. 



CARL D. BUCK, 

Member of the American School 
of Classical Studies at Athens. 



NOTES ON ROMAN ARTISTS OF THE MIDDLE AGES. 



I. 

From the close of the xi to the beginning of the xiv century, there 
flourished various groups of Roman artists architects, sculptors, painters 
and mosaicists many of whose works are still found in Rome itself and 
scattered through the surrounding provinces. 1 According to the best 
authorities, the following groups can be clearly made : 

I. School of Paulus : c. 1100-1180. 



1100 Paulus 
1 


1148-54 Petrus 


loannes Angelus Sas 
1160-80 Nicolaus 



ii. School of Ranucius : e. 1135-1209. 

c. 1135 Kanucius = Rainerius 

I 



1143 Petrus 



Nicoh 



1168 Johannes 1168 Guitto 

1209 Johannes 

1 The following is a brief bibliography of the subject : WITTE, in the Kunstblatt 
for 1825 (No. 41); GATE, in the Kunstblatt for 1839 (Nos. 61-4); PROMIS, Notizie 
Epigrafiche degli artisti Manmorarii Romani dal X al XV secolo, 1836; BOITO, L'archi- 
tettura Cosmatesca, 1860 ; BARBIER DE MONTAULT, in Didron's Annales Archeologiques, 
xvm, pp. 265-72 (1858) ; GREGOROVIUS, Geschichte der Stadt Rom im Mittelalter, t. v, 
p. 618 sqq; RoHAULT DE FLEURY, Le Latran au Moyen Age, p. 174 ; CROWE and CAVAL- 
CASELLE, A History of Painting in Italy; J. H. PARKER, in his series of pamphlets on 
Rome (cf. the catalogues of his photographs) ; G. B. DE Rossi, in Bullettino di Archeo- 
logia Oristiana, 1875, p. 100 sqq; RICCI, Storia deW ' Architettura in Italia, 1858 ; MOTHES, 
Die Baukunst des Mittelalters in Italien, 1884 ; Resoconto delle Confer enze dei Cultori di 
Archeologia Cristiana in Roma dal 1875 al 1887 ; BOITO, L' 'architettura del Medio Evo in 
Italia, 1880; Mostra della Cittd di Roma alia Esposizione di Torino neW anno 1884; D. 
SALAZARO, L'Arte Romana al Medio Evo. Appendice agli Studi sui monumenti della Italia 
Meridionale dal IV al XIII secolo, 1886 ; A. L. FROTHINGHAM, Jr. in American Journal 
of Archaeology, vol. i, 351, n, 414 ; FALOCI-PULIGNANI, II Chiostro di Sassovivo, 1879. 
182 



NOTES ON ROMAN ARTISTS OF THE MIDDLE AGES. 183 

in. School of Laurentius : c. 1150-1332. 
c. 1150-80 Laurentius 
1180-1213 Jacobus I 
1210-35 Cosma I 



1231-5 Luca 1231-5 Jacobus n 1276-7 Cosma n 

! 

Jacobus in 1296 Petrus 1296-1303 Johannes 1295-1332 Deodatu 8 

The school of Laurentius succeeded that of Paulus and was associ- 
ated with the last members of that of Ranucius. 2 Of the two earliest 
schools, that of Paulus worked mainly in the city itself, that of Ranu- 
cius in the province. It may be that a further school, that of Vassal- 
lectus, should be recognized, but, as only two artists of this family are 
known, there is not as yet sufficient ground for doing so. A majority of 
the artists of this period are, however, still unrelated to the foregoing 
schools. 

This explanation was necessary to introduce the following notes, 
which are given for the purpose of adding more names to the schools, 
more signed works to names already known, and of identifying artists 
hitherto considered as distinct persons. On another occasion it will 
be in place to show at length that these Roman artists were not merely 
decorators, according to the prevailing impression, but must be reck- 
oned among the best architects and sculptors of the period. Their 
ability was so generally recognized that they were called everywhere 
to build and decorate churches. Naturally, the provinces immediately 
surrounding the eternal city were the chief centre of their labors, but 
the entire country from the Mediterranean to the Adriatic between the 
southern borders of Tuscany and the northern limits of the Neapolitan 
provinces is indebted to Roman artists for many of its mediaeval monu- 
ments. They were even called as far as Sicily on the south and Eng- 
land on the north. 

I. School of Paulus. The known works of Paulus (c. 1100) are, (1) 
the altars, pavement and other mosaic decoration (if not the architec- 
ture) of the Cathedral of Ferentino, executed between 1106 and 1110 ; 
(2) a pavement in the Vatican gardens, conjectured to be that of the 

8 Jacobus, son of Laurentius, was associated with Nicolaus, son of Angelus, in the 
church of San Bartolommeo in about 1160. 

4 



184 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHEOLOGY. 

old basilica. To these I propose to add a third : the altar and pre- 
sumably the architecture of the church of San Lorenzo near Terra di 
Cave in the Comarca very near Rome. The inscription on the altar 3 
records the date of the consecration by the bishop of Palestrina, 1093, 
and ends with the name of the artist: PAVLVS CV. SVIS ON3. MEMO- 
RARE DEVS. The first words, Paulus cum suis omnibus, show that 
the chief artist had a number of pupils under him. The dates of the 
known works of the sons of Paulus loannes, Petrus, Angelus and 
Sasso are so much later that it does not seem possible that they are 
here referred to. They worked between 1148 and 1154. The cum 
suis omnibus must then refer to earlier pupils. The position of San 
Lorenzo, so near Rome, makes us certain that this Paulus could be 
none other than the Roman artist. His artistic career is thus carried 
back more than ten years, and we have stronger grounds for considering 
him to be not only a mosaicist but an architect. 

ii. School ofRainerius=Ranucius. Comm. Enrico Stevenson proved, 
some years ago, that the artist who seems to be the founder of this school 
was called indifferently Rainerius or Ranucius. 4 The only work known 
to be by him is the central window and probably the entire facade of 
San Silvestro in Capite at Rome, in which he was assisted by his sons 
Nicolaus and Petrus, whose later independent works are dated 1143 
and 1150. I believe that a still earlier work of Rainerius, before the 
cooperation of his sons began, is to be found in the church of the famous 
monastery of Farfa, near Fara in Sabina, a little N. of Rome. This 
monastery was doubtless, in the early Middle Ages, one of the great 
artistic centres in the vicinity of Rome, and the resort of its artists. 
The pavement of the choir of the old church is of the usual opus alexan- 
drinum or mosaic- work of the Roman school. Its inscription contains 
the name of the artist, which has been read erroneously, I believe, 
Raino? The reading given by Guardabassi 6 seems the most correct: 

3 The Inscription is thus given in KICCI, Stor. dell' Arch, in Italia, I, 496 : Hoc altare 
Sanctorum reliquiis liquore \ Laurentii Nerei et Achillei Martyrum \ Quadraginta Martyrum 
Herasmi Martyris \ anno dominicae incarnationis MXCIII \ indictione IIII N. N. apl. ro- 
mano pontiftce \ III Clemente ab. Ugone Praenestino \ Episcopo dedicatum \ Paulus cu. suis 
oib. me\morare Deus. 

MOTHES (Die Baukunst d. Mittel. in Italien, p. 672) reads in the last line, by an 
evident error, opb. 

* ENRICO STEVENSON in the Arch. soc. st. patria, 1880, p. 375 ; and Mostra della 
Citld di Roma, p. 177. 

5 Resoconto delle conferenze dei Oultori di archeologia Cristiana, p. 107 : communica- 
tion of E. STEVENSON, who reads : Maino magister marmorarius. 

6 Indice-Guida dei monumenti pagani e Crlstiani . . dell' Umbria: Perugia, 1872, p. 68. 



NOTES ON ROMAN ARTISTS OF THE MIDDLE AGES. 185 

Magister Rain, hoe opus fee. Here, Rain, is evidently an abbrevia- 
tion, probably from lack of space, for the full name Rain(erius). Such 
further evidence of the activity of this head of one of the schools is all 
the more interesting that only a few years ago he was thought not to 
have been himself an artist, though his sons were known to be. 

There were two provinces where Roman artists, though not monopo- 
lizing the artistic activity, as they did nearer home, still exercised great 
influence by their works, and even formed local scholars by whom the 
artistic traditions of Rome took a permanent hold even after the departure 
of the transient guests. These provinces were Umbria and the Abbruzzi 
with part of the Marches. In Umbria, we find two other influences 
the Lombard and the Tuscan which may be said to preponderate over 
the Roman. In the Abbruzzi, the Roman artists found an art that 
more easily amalgamated with their own, and was dependent on the main 
centres of Byzantine-Italian influence in Southern Italy. The main 
features of the decorative mosaic- work of the Roman school were evi- 
dently derived directly from Southern Italy, indirectly from Byzantium, 
during the latter half of the xi century. Byzantine artists were then 
imported from Constantinople by Desiderius of Monte Cassino : through 
the conquest by the Normans of South Italy and Sicily, their cities, 
full of Byzantine art, were brought into close relations with the Papal 
States. 

in. Andreas and Petrus. During the course of the xni century we 
meet with a number of artists of the name of Andreas whose works 
are found, some in Rome itself, some in the borders of the Abbruzzi. 
Two of these were made known by myself 7 through the kindness of 
M. Eugene Miintz, by reference to a dated work of theirs, now de- 
stroyed, but a record of which was preserved in the xvi century by the 
Pompeo Ugonio in the MS. of his important antiquarian work entitled 
Theatrum Urbis Romae. According to Ugonio, the marble choir-seats 
of the ancient church of & Maria in Monticelli in Rome, inlaid in mar- 
ble like those of Civita Castellana, bore an inscription dated 1227, show- 
ing that they were executed by a master Andreas and his son of the 
same name : Magister Andreas cum filio suo Andrea hoe opus fecerunt 
A. D. MCCXXVII. There are traces of the activity of both of these mas- 
ters and their co-workers. We find at the church of San Pietro at Alba 
Fucense, on the edge of the Abbruzzi, a pulpit in which the elder Andreas 
worked in connection with a Johannes whom I am disposed to identify 

7 Resoconto delle conferenze, etc., pp. 275-6. 



186 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHEOLOGY. 

with the Johannes Guittonis of the school of Rainerius or Ranucius whose 
pulpit in Santa Maria di Castello at Corneto was executed in 1209. 8 
Both are evidently Roman artists. The inscription reads : 

Civis Romanus doctissimus arte Johs 
Cui cottega Sonus Andreas detulit onus. 
HOG opus excelsum struxerunt mente periti 
Nobilis et prudens Oderisius adfuit abbas. 

It seems probable, then, that the school of the Andreas is a continua- 
tion of that of Rainerius. At about the same time, i. e., c. 1225, was 
executed the choir-parapet in the same church at Alba, in which we 
find three artists engaged Gualterius, Moronto, and Petrus under the 
general direction of Andreas Magister Romanus. Here, Andreas is 
expressly called a Roman, and the work is about contemporary with 
the choir-'seats of S. Maria in Monticelli. 

The same Petrus, who appears c. 1225 as a subordinate of the elder 
Andreas, seems to be the colleague of the younger Andreas in the tower 
of the cathedral of Rieti (in the same province as Alba) in the year 
1252. The inscription reads : Incipit istud opus in Matris nomine 
Christi | Petrus et Andreas Henricus suntq(ue) mag(ist)ri. It is rather 
difficult to believe that even the younger Andreas could have lived until 
1283, more than fifty years after the execution of his juvenile work in 
1227 ; otherwise we might attribute to him the architecture of the 
episcopal palace at Rieti, in which, judging from the following inscrip- 
tion, Giovanni Pisano is supposed to have had a hand : lussu Pisani 
sic opus ineipitur \ Andreas operi praefectus, etc. 

Can other traces be found of the Petrus who worked with the two 
Andreas during the second quarter and middle of the century ? Although 
there are many artists by this name who flourished at about this time, 9 

8 Cf. PERKINS, Italian Sculptors, p. 84; Butt. arch. Oriatiana, 1875; DASTI, Notizie, p. 400. 
9 1 give here a tentative list of the artists of the Eoman province by the name of 
Petrus who worked in the xui century : 
1190. Abbey church of San Eutizio, near Norcia : 

Magister Petrus fecit hoc. 
1197. Ambone in church of San Vittorino in the Abbruzzi : 

Petrus Amabilis. 
1186 c. 1220. Works in cath. of Segni ; at S. Paolo and cloister of S. Giov. Lat., Koma : 

Petrus Bassallectus. 
1212. Great fountain called del Sepali, at Viterbo : 

Petrus loannis. 



NOTES ON ROMAN ARTISTS OF THE MIDDLE AGES. 187 

and identification is thus rendered rather puzzling, I believe him to be 
the same artist who executed at Rome, in about 1240, the fourth and 
later side of the cloister of San Paolo-fuori-le-mura, where we read : 
Magister . Petrus .fecit . h(o)c . opus. I should also consider as a work 
of his riper years the shrine of Edward the Confessor in Westminster 
Abbey, the date of which is 1269. The inscription, no longer existing, 
read : Hoc opus est factum quod Petrus duxit in actum \ Romanus civis, 
etc. 10 Evidently, none but a mature artist, with a well-established repu- 
tation, would have been called to England for this great work. 

IV. Vassattectus and Petrus Oderisi. In this connection, I will men- 
tion incidentally some works which will be fully illustrated by a paper 
in a subsequent number of this Journal. The name of Vassallectus 
has already been mentioned as that of one of the foremost artists of the 
xiu century. Several of his signed works are known, and they show 
him to be a prominent architect, sculptor, and mosaicist. To these I 
wish to add two, one signed, the other not. The first is a small taber- 
nacle in the church of San Francesco at Viterbo, inscribed Ms. Vassallec- 
tus . me .fecit . ; the second is the superb monument of Pope Hadrian V 
in the same church, which to me seems to be by his hand. 

The last artist to be mentioned is one apparently not previously known 
Petrus Oderisi. There is a Petrus Odericius or Oderisius, author of 
the tomb of Count Ruggiero ("f" 1101) now in the museum at Na- 
ples, who is supposed perhaps wrongly to have executed this work 
immediately after the death of the Norman Count. But the artist I 
refer to flourished in the second half of the xiu century. Various con- 
jectures have been made regarding the authorship of the mausoleum of 

1229. Cloister of Sassovivo, near Foligno : 

Petrus de Maria, 
c. 1230. Early part of cloister of San Paolo at Kome : 

Petrus de Capua. 
c. 1240. Later part of cloister of San Paolo : 

Magister . Petrus .fecit h(o)c . opus. 
1252. Tower of the cathedral of Kieti : 

(inscription in text). 

1268. Tomb of Clement IV in San Francesco at Viterbo: 

Petrus Oderisi. 

1269. Shrine of Edward the Confessor in Westminster Abbey : 

Petrus . . Romanus civis. 

10 Resoconto, etc., pp. 173-5; SCOTT, Westminster Abbey, 2nd ed.; PERKINS, Ital. 
Sculpt., pp. 80-1. 



1 88 AMERICAN JO URNAL OF ARCH^EOLOG Y. 

Pope Clement IV (+ 1268), executed shortly after his death and placed 
in S. Maria ai Gradi in Viterbo, whence it has been transferred to the 
church of San Francesco. A copy of the original inscription (now 
destroyed) made by Papebroch contains the words : Petrus Oderisi 
sepulcri fedt hoc opus. 

A. L. FROTHINGHAM, JR. 



REVIEWS AND NOTICES OF BOOKS. 



FE. FEANZ. Mythologische Studien II. Der Weihefriihling und das 

Konigsopfer. 8vo, pp. 65. Wien, 1888. 

The chief part of this interesting but uncritical essay is devoted to show- 
ing that kings were formerly made a sacrifice of, for the good of their people. 
His taste leads him to think this one of the most sublime aspects of the life 
of ancient races. The legends of Vikings, Britons, Langobards, etc., are 
put under contribution, but more especially Greek mythology and history. 
The Trojan war is only the Trojan festival of sacrifice, recurring within 
spaces of ten years ; and from it the Greek games were later developed. In 
this and similar conclusions, Dr. Franz seems to mount to such airy heights 
that the average reason would hardly follow him. In the punishment of 
the Scythian prince, Skyles, and the assassination of Philip of Macedon, 
are found examples of this self-sacrifice of kings ! The satyrs in the train 
of Dryas are also explained as youths devoted to death-sacrifice. The dili- 
gence and completeness with which these myths are collected is, however, 
very praiseworthy, and the material gathered into the book is both attractive 
and entertaining. HAEBEKLIN, in Woch.f. klass. PhiloL, 1889, No. 19. 

ORIENTAL ARCHAEOLOGY. 

V. A. SMITH. The Coinage of the Early or Imperial Gupta Dynasty 
of Northern India, 1889. 

This work by the compiler of the valuable index to the twenty volumes 
of 'Reports of the Archaeological Survey of India is reprinted from the Journal 
of the Royal Asiatic Society. It may be called the most important con- 
tribution to Indian numismatics since Professor Percy Gardner's British 
Museum Catalogue of the Coins of the Greek and Scythic Kings of Bactria 
and India (1886). In form it is an expansion of a paper on the gold coins 
of the Guptas which appeared in 1884 in the Journal of the Bengal Society. 
But Mr. Smith has now included the silver and copper coinage; and he 
has been able to revise his former opinions by an examination of the exam- 
ples in the British Museum, in the Bodleian, and in Sir Alexander Cun- 
ningham's unrivalled private collection. He has also had the advantage 
of consulting the proof sheets of Mr. Fleet's forthcoming great work on the 
Gupta inscriptions, which definitely determines the dates of the several 
reigns. So far as we know, this is the first serious examination that has 
been made of the early Indian coins in the Bodleian collection, for Mr. 

189 



190 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHEOLOGY. 

Stanley Lane-Poole's recent catalogue was confined to the Muhammadan 
coins. The present paper extends to 158 pages, of which a little more than 
one-half contain the catalogue proper, while the rest deal with such matters 
as types and devices, legends, find-spots, mints, etc. In opposition to the 
old view, that Kanauj was the Gupta capital, he maintains that all the evi- 
dence points to Pataliputra, the modern Patna, while Ajodhya, or Oudh, 
was probably also a great city with a copper mint. The paper is illustrated 
with four autotype plates, and one photo-lithographed plate of monogram- 
matic emblems, the meaning of which remains unknown. Mr. Smith con- 
tents himself with stating that these monograms certainly do not indicate 
mint-cities but probably had some religious or mythological significance. 
Academy, April 6. 

CLASSICAL ARCHEOLOGY. 

Seventh Annual Report of the Managing Committee of the American 
School of Classical Studies at Athens. 1887-88. Cambridge, 1889. 
The first part of the volume is occupied with Professor Th. D. Seymour's 
report for the past year, declaring the work accomplished in Greece and 
the publications issued, as well as the decision to continue the system of 
Annual Directors. Then follows Professor Martin L. D'Ooge's report as 
Director for 1886-87, detailing the occupations, labors, and excursions of 
the members during his term of office. The greater part, however, consists 
of Professor A. C. Merriam's report for his year, 1887-88. The seven 
members of the School devoted themselves to different specialties, and nearly 
all prepared papers for publication. The excavations were continued at 
Sikyon and begun at Ikaria. A very thorough monograph of Ikaria is 
given, including a bibliography of the subject and the different theories 
regarding its site, a list of Ikarians from literary sources and from inscrip- 
tions, and an enumeration of the sources for the story of Ikarios and Eri- 
gone. The work is done in a scholarly manner and is at the same time 
interesting reading a combination not very often to be found. 

PAUL ARNDT. Studien zur Vasenkunde. Leipzig, 1887. 

In view of the present opinion regarding Greek vases that, excepting 
very early and very late classes, they were nearly all manufactured at 
Athens the writer enlarges upon the contrary opinion held by Professor 
Brunn, his master, who not only disputes the Attic origin of vases in gen- 
eral but assigns the great bulk of the black-figured and red-figured vases 
of Italy to the age after Alexander. Mr. Arndt exaggerates his teacher's 
views in so extreme a manner as to deny the early date of nearly all painted 
vases; he calls Euphronios, for instance, an Italian potter of the third cen- 
tury B. c. As an exception, he allows the antiquity of the Francois vase. 



REVIEWS AND NOTICES OF BOOKS. 191 

Though the book is interesting as calling in question current views, it is 
devoid of judgment and perception. P. G., in Journal of Hellenic Studies, 
Oct. 1888, pp. 388-9. 

H. AUER. Der Tempel der Vesta und das Haus der Vestalinnen am 
Forum Romanum. 22 pp. and 8 pi. Wien, 1888. 

This is a valuable completion of the previous monographs by Lanciani 
and Jordan, and partially harmonizes their views. The author treats with 
especial care the two points on which these writers disagree the recon- 
struction of the temple of Vesta, and the date of the house of the Vestals. 
Jordan's co-worker, the architect T. O. Schulze, had already, by careful 
study of the architectural fragments, demonstrated the untenability of Lan- 
ciani's reconstruction of the temple; and Auer accepts his results, amend- 
ing them mainly by a study of the relief in the Uffizi. In regard to the age 
of the house of the Vestals (considered by Lanciani to be of the time of 
Septimius Severus and reconstructed after the fire of 191 A. D., and by 
Jordan to belong to the reign of Hadrian), Auer puts forward the theory, 
that its construction does not belong to one but several successive periods. 
According to him there are four parts: (1) the earliest, or western, com- 
prising the atrium itself and the sleeping rooms, perhaps of the period after 
Nero's fire; (2) the wing on the south side of the peristyle, of the time of 
Hadrian ; (3) the north wing of the peristyle, of the reign of Severus ; (4) 
finally, the second or additional floor on the s. and w. From these results 
it is seen, that the oldest part of the atrium was farthest removed from the 
temple of Vesta, and that their connection belongs to later times. Now, up 
to the time of Augustus, we hear of a grove near the temple, but in the later 
periods of the Empire it evidently did not exist, as we can see from the 
excavations. Very probably it lay between the atrium and the temple, 
and its place was taken by the large colonnade by which the atrium was 
enlarged under Hadrian. There are many reasons in favor of this theory, 
and the work is careful and scholarly. O. RICHTER, in Berl. phil. Woch., 
1889, col. 570-1. 

O. BENNDORF. Wiener Vorlegebldtter fur archdologische Ubungen, 1888. 
12 plates in folio. Wien, 1889. 

With this issue, the Wiener Vorlegebldtter, hitherto almost restricted to 
libraries, becomes of use to the general public. Each Heft can now be 
separately obtained, while previously the whole series had to be subscribed 
for at once. The present Heft, in plates i-vn, gives drawings of the oldest 
painted vases that have the signatures of artists. They are those which 
Klein describes in his Griechischen Vasen mit Meistersignaturen, pp. 27-41. 



192 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY. 

Among these nine vases, the Franyois vase, the most important of those 
of the sixth century, now finally appears in a thoroughly trustworthy 
representation. Plates vin and ix give an instructive selection of repre- 
sentations of wedding ceremonies, taken from Greek painted vases and 
Roman sarcophagi. The remainder of the plates contain various conjec- 
tural representations of the Ilioupersis of Polygnotos, which Pausanias de- 
scribes in the Lesche at Delphoi. The series begins with a representation 
made under the supervision of Count Caylus and ends with one by Benn- 
dorf himself. Though great advance is naturally to be observed in the 
ideas entertained concerning Polygnotos, the last effort can hardly be said 
to have yet reached certainty. Benndorf '& restoration is visibly influenced 
by the reliefs on the Heroon of Gjolbaschi (Lykia), and would seem to be 
too far removed from the free arrangement of figures on such painted vases 
as appear to contain echos of the art of Polygnotos. The Ilioupersis ought 
also to be restored with more regard to the picture of Haides in the same 
Lesche. They were undoubtedly contrasting pieces, containing the same 
number of figures and occupying equal space, and both began with a boat- 
scene on the shore. ADOLF TRENDELENBURG, in Woch.f. Mass. PhiloL, 
1889, No. 21. 

This second series published by Professor Benndorf is extremely inter- 
esting for the good selection of subjects and quality of the illustrations. It 
is the first step toward the publication of a corpus of signed vases. This 
number contains the oinochoe of Gamedes, the famous amphora of Klitias 
and Ergotimos, the amphora and cup of Exechias in the Louvre, and seven 
other works of this artist. Finally, three plates are devoted to restorations 
of the Ilioupersis of Polygnotos : that prepared under direction of Professor 
Benndorf from contemporary vase-paintings, when compared to that of 
Riepenhausen in 1804, is a good example of the progress of archaeological 
criticism. SAL. REINACH, in Revue Critique, 1889, pp. 322-3. 

F. BAUMGARTEN. Ein Rundgang durch die Ruien Athem. Mit 10 

Abbildungen. 8vo ? pp. Vi-83. Leipzig, 1888. 

The intention of this little treatise is to provide the pupils of gymnasia 
with a good outline of Athenian topography. All reference to modern 
literature on the subject is therefore very justly omitted, and only the 
passages from ancient authors usually read in the higher schools are cited. 
The enthusiasm and accuracy of the book and the absence of polemic spirit 
make it a first-rate work for students. The southern declivity of the Akro- 
polis is supplied with a double Asklepieion, instead of a double sanctuary 
of Asklepios and Themis. The remarks about the agora might also arouse 
objection, but in other respects the modest intention of the book is excel- 
lently carried out. P. WEIZSACKER, in Woch.f. Mass. PhiloL, 1889, No. 17. 



RE 'VIEWS AND NOTICES OF BOOKS. 



193 



OSCAR BIE. Die Musen in der antiken Kunst. 8vo, pp. 105. Berlin, 

1887. 

A very valuable addition to the material here treated consists in the reliefs 
of Praxiteles found at Mantineia (Bull. Corr. Hellen., 1888, pp. 105-28). 
Also, they are important as the only representation of the Muses from the 
fourth century. In general, they confirm Bie's previous results, according 
to which the muses during this period are nine in number, and carry as 
new attributes the scroll and the masks of tragedy and comedy. In the 
earlier period they are three, and have only musical attributes. In the 
Hellenistic development, besides being representatives of music and poetry, 
the muses take science also into their realm, and, besides the simple chiton 
and himation, they now sometimes wear a stage-dress. E. KROKER, in 
Berl. phil. Woch., 1889, No. 9. 

H. BLUMNER. Lebens- und Bildungsgang eines griechischen Kunst- 

lers. 8vo, pp. 34. Basel, 1887. 

In the form of a lecture, Bliimner seeks to give an outline of an artist's 
training and surroundings. His school-days, travels in Greek cities, public 
exhibitions, and at times his pecuniary rewards. The material from which 
this is drawn consists of anecdotes from ancient authors. Widely sepa- 
rated as they are in time, and often preserved because they were unusual 
or amusing, in the present essay they are blended into a picture whose out- 
lines, at least, we may be sure are quite correct. E. KROKER, in Berl. 
phil. Woch., 1889, No. 11. 

H. COLLITZ und F. BECHTEL. Sammlung der griechischen Dialektin- 
schriften. Band in, Heft I. Die megarischen Inschrifien von F. 
BECHTEL. 8vo, pp. 59. Gottingen, 1888. 

After an interval of three years, another part of this publication has been 
brought out, and Collitz' departure to America has caused the services of 
F. Bechtel to be added to the undertaking. The second volume not being 
completed, the third volume begins with number 3001. From Megara and 
its colonies are collected 112 inscriptions showing evidence of local dialect ; 
and the use of squeezes and careful copies has given rise to much greater 
accuracy. In some of the inscriptions from Megara, Rhangabis and Pit- 
takis noticably agree with each other in a number of notorious mistakes, 
but, which of them was always the borrower in such instances, it is difficult 
to decide. Some inscriptions seem to be arbitrarily omitted, but they will 
doubtless appear in some future issue. The remarks attached to the inscrip- 
tions are often too short, and the references to other publications are meagre 
(the numbers in Cauer's Delectus being nowhere cited). The index of the 



194 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHEOLOGY. 

first Heft of volume n has also appeared, and like the other parts of the 
entire publication is characterized by unusual care and accuracy. W. 
LARFELD, in Berl.phil. Woch., 1889, Nos. 4-5. 

FRIEDRICH FEDDE. Der Filnfkampf der Hellenen. 4to, pp.40. Leip- 
zig, 1888. 

In regard to the much-debated question of the pentathlon, the author of 
this program comes to several valuable conclusions. It seems, now, that the 
leap was measured, and thus absolute superiority was required in it, not 
merely an average performance. The normal order of the five events was : 
foot-race, diskos, leap, darting, and wrestling, though it was apparently often 
deviated from. An average degree of training and activity seems to have 
had much to do in deciding the victory in the entire pentathlon, and only 
in special cases did a victory in wrestling decide it. From a remark in 
Pausanias, that in the Olympic pentathlon never more than three disks 
were used, Fedde argues that the contestants were divided into companies 
of three. Whoever won the most victories in his triad took the prize, in 
case there were no more than three contestants. When there were many 
contestants, the victors in these triads strove with each other for the victory 
over all. The investigation is characterized by a thoroughly scientific 
method, and, in the result it reaches, merits preference over all other discus- 
sions of the subject. M. LEHNERDT, in Woch.f. Mass. Philol, 1889, No. 83. 

B. HASSOULLIER. Ath&nes et ses Environs. Collection des Guides- 
Joanne, Grce. 8vo, pp. 179, 14 maps and plans. Paris, 1888. 
This book contains an excellent description of Athens accompanied with 
neat and clear maps. Though for the use of the travelling public, the 
modern city is dismissed in a few pages, and the greater part of the book 
(pp. 36-151) is consecrated to the antiquities. In describing the Pandro- 
seion, M. Hassoullier places it in the western half of the Erechtheion, and 
so is compelled to make the sanctuary a double one. The inscriptions that 
relate to the Erechtheion would seem, however, to show that it was not 
within but adjoining the Erechtheion on the west. Dorpfeld's notion, that 
the old temple of Athena, which has been recently uncovered, stood there 
in the time of Pausanias, is also adopted. This would seem to rest on rather 
too slender proof to warrant its insertion in a guide-book. The description 
of the city itself is supplemented by excursions to Marathon, Sounion, 
Aigina, and Eleusis. P. WEIZSACKER, in Woch.f. Mass. Philol., 1889, No. 8. 

W. HELBIG. Sopra le relazione commereiali degli Ateniesi coll' Italia 

(R. Accad. dei Lincei). Roma, 1889. 

It has been generally thought that the painted Attic vases discovered in 
the necropoli of Campania, Latium, and Etruria were introduced by the 



REVIEWS AND NOTICES OF BOOKS. 



195 



Athenians along the coast of Western Italy. Professor Helbig has proved 
this to be impossible, and that the Athenian vessels in the vi and v cen- 
turies were not in relations with Etruria, but only with Southern Italy and 
the east coast of Sicily ; the Syracusan vessels being those which trans- 
ported to Etruria the vases they received from Athens. This monopoly 
was broken up only by the Athenian invasion of 413. The author believes 
that the Syracusans were not only go-betweens, but carried articles of their 
own manufacture, and that a part of the bronzes and other objects found in 
Italic necropoli are the product of Syracusan workshops an important 
fact, if it be true. The proofs brought forward to verify the theory, that 
the Athenians knew nothing of Etruria, Campania, and part of Sicily are 
of varied character, and are presented with clearness and precision. SAL. 
KEINACH, in Revue Critique, 1889, pp. 263-4. 

H. HEYDEMANN. Pariser Antiken. xn Hallisches Winckelmanns- 
programm. 4to, pp. 90. Halle, 1887. 

A new attempt is here made to restore the Aphrodite of Melos, and before 
her is conjecturally placed a tropaion, to which she is about to add a final 
weapon or other ornament : this with the right hand, while the left, con- 
taining the apple which has given rise to so much discussion, is to be con- 
ceived as resting against the tropaion. Overbeck's restoration of the statue, 
by giving it a shield as a mirror, would seem to be but little improved upon 
by this essay of Heydemann. E. KROKER, in Berl.phil Woch., 1889, No. 10. 

RUDOLF KAISER. De inscriptionum graecarum interpunctione. 8vo, 
pp. 38. Berlin, 1887. 

The subject is explained intelligently and cautiously, but, from the nature 
of the case, no very wide generalizations are reached. The most usual mark 
of punctuation is two dots, one placed over the other : a series of three dots 
in a vertical line is also considerably used, but the two dots do not seem 
to be of older usage than the three. A single dot as a sign of punctuation 
is quite rare, and is confined to Italian and Sicilian inscriptions ; and punc- 
tuation of any sort always has an antique flavor, though it can be followed 
through a period of some 200 years. A reference to the punctuation on the 
Mesa-stone leads Kaiser to the conclusion that Greek punctuation was 
derived from the Phoenicians, along with their alphabet. The irregularity 
with which it is used on Greek inscriptions is another proof that the custom 
rested on tradition rather than on usefulness. PAUL CAUER, in Berl. phil. 
Woch., 1889, No. 7. 



1 96 AMERICAN JO URNAL OF ARCH^OLOG Y. 

H. G. LOLLING. Topographic von Athen. In J. Miiller's Handbuch 

der Mass. Altertumswissenschaft, m, pp. 291-352. 

Owing to his many years residence in Athens and his investigations there, 
Dr. Lolling is better suited than any one else to treat of this subject. The 
excellent print of Miiller's publications and the lucid division into para- 
graphs add much to the value of the work. Moderation characterizes its 
size as well as its contents. The views of opponents are not demolished, 
but the pros and cons of disputed questions are carefully weighed. Pausa- 
nias is followed as closely as possible, in the description, and the map that 
accompanies the book is plain, though on a scale almost too much reduced. 
P. WEIZSACKER, in Woch.f. Mass. PhiloL, 1889, No. 17. 

BICHTER. Topographic der Stadt Rom. Nordlingen, 1889. In 
J. Miiller's Handbuch der Mass. Attertumswissenschafl. 

This essay consists mainly of a sort of abstract from various German 
writings on the topography of Rome in which a great deal of valuable in- 
formation is given in well-arranged form. It is to be regretted that the 
author falls into errors by neglecting to make use of the works of English 
scholars and through a lack of technical and ocular knowledge. His ac- 
quaintance with the existing ruins is not as thorough as with the classical 
authors who deal with the subject. Classical Review, 1889, pp. 135-6. 

H.WINNEFELD. Hypnos. Em archdologiseher Versuch. MitSTafeln 
und 4 Abb. im Text. 8vo, pp. 37. Berlin und Stuttgart, 1886. 

The two types of Hypnos, an older with wings placed on the temples and 
a later with wings placed in the hair, are here discussed. The later type 
is considered to be probably an assimilation with Hermes' heads, carried out 
for purely technical reasons. E. KROKER, in Berl Phil. Woch., 1889, No. 10. 

CHRISTIAN ARCHAEOLOGY. 

BODE und VON TSCHUDI. Koenigliche Museen zu Berlin. Beschrei- 
bung der Bildwerke der christlichen Epoche. Berlin, 1888, Spemann. 

This catalogue of the sculptures of the Middle Ages and the Renaissance 
in the museum of Berlin is a work of serious importance. A very useful 
feature is the reproduction of almost all the objects described, even though 
this is not done on a scale large enough to allow of very detailed study. It 
is a new proof of the energy and zeal shown by Dr. Bode in enriching and 
classifying the collections placed under his care. It may be remarked that 
there are more variations than are advisable in the attribution of different 
works. E. MOLINIER, in Gazette Arch., 1888, 11-12. 



REVIEWS AND NOTICES OF BOOKS. 197 

P. GELIS-DIDOT et H. LAFFILLEE. La peinture decorative en France 

du XI e au XVI s siecle. Paris, 1889. 

The wall-paintings of the Middle Ages have been much less studied and 
used by modern artists than the contemporary works of architecture and 
sculpture. No comprehensive work on the subject had yet appeared in 
France, and many works have perished during the last half-century. It 
is fortunate that the present work, which covers the entire Middle Ages, 
should have been begun. Two numbers have been issued. The plates are 
exact and well executed. While performing a strictly archaeological piece 
of work, the writers have also the practical view of offering material to 
architects of the present day who are constructing buildings in mediaeval 
style and according to mediaeval principles. J. HELBIG, in Revue de I' Art 
Chretien, 1889, 2. 

G. LANDRIANI. La Basilica Ambrosiana fino alia transformazione in 
chiesa lombarda a volte. I resti della Basilica di Fausta. Milano, 
1889, U. Hoepli. 

While the basilica of Sant' Ambrogio at Milano is constantly being 
studied in its later developments as the best example of early Lombard 
architecture, its early history, since the foundation by St. Ambrose, has 
been comparatively neglected. This part of its history is carefully studied 
by the present writer, whose knowledge of the subject is very thorough from 
his having been present at all the recent restorations, in 1857 and since that 
date. An appendix illustrates the remains of the basilica of Fausta, orig- 
inally contiguous to Sant' Ambrogio. The volume is fully illustrated. 
Nuova Antologia, April 16, 1889. 

E. MOLINIER. Le Tresor de la Basilique de Saint-Marc a Venise. 

Gr. 8vo, pp. 106 ; 7 planches, 13 vignettes. Venezia, 1888, Organia. 

The treasury of San Marco has been lately thoroughly illustrated in the 
superb folio album of plates accompanied by a text written by Canon Pasini. 
The present small volume by M. Molinier is a condensation of the above. 
It contains a catalogue of the 171 objects reproduced in the album, of which 
a certain number are here also illustrated. It is known that this unique 
collection comes mainly from the barbarous pillage of Constantinople in 
1204 by the Crusaders. There are successively studied: (1) the ancient 
vases; (2) Oriental works, such as Sassanid or Arabic vases, Chinese porce- 
lains, Persian carpets ; (3) Byzantine works of gold and silver, enamel and 
embroidery, including thirty chalices and eleven patens. X. BARBIER DE 
MONTAULT, in Revue de I' Art Chretien, 1889, 2. 



AKCILEOLOGICAL NEWS. 
SUMMARY OF RECENT DISCOVERIES AND INVESTIGATIONS. 



Page. 

AFGHANISTAN 202 

ASIA MINOR 208 

AUSTRIA-HUNGARY, . 227 

EGYPT 197 

ENGLAND 228 

FRANCE, 226 



Page. 

GERMANY, 227 

GREECE, 212 

ITALY 217 

KYPROS, 209 

MESOPOTAMIA, . . . 202 
MEXICO 232 



Page. 

MOROCCO 202 

PALESTINE 207 

SICILY 223 

TUNISIA 200 

UNITED STATES, ... 231 



AFRICA. 
EGYPT. 

LETTER OF PROFESSOR SAYCE FROM EGYPT. " On the western bank, 
some three or four miles north of Assuan, and near the village of El- 
Uriyeh, is a lofty crag of sandstone, the sides of which have been quarried 
away. Here I found a Greek graffito and several hieroglyphic ones, one 
of which records the name of ' the interpreter in the palace.' What 
especially interested me was the fact, that the quarry-marks consisted of 
the two Phoenician letters kaph and beth ; and, as I came across similar 
quarry-marks at the southern end of the eastern quarries of Silsilis, the 
letters occurring here being zayin, nun, and resh, we may conclude that 
the quarries were at one time worked with the aid of Phoenicians. This 
will explain the existence of the Phoenician inscription discovered by 
Mr. Petrie in a wddi to the north of Silsilis. One of the hieroglyphic 
graffiti is accompanied by the picture of a sphinx seated on a pedestal and 
wearing the double crown, by the side of which is the drawing of a cube ; 
from another of the graffiti we learn that the old Egyptian name of the 
town near which the quarries were situated was the town of Ankh, or 
' Life.' North of Silsilis we visited some interesting Greek inscriptions 
first discovered by Mr. Petrie and Mr. Griffith two years ago. A little to 
the north of Silweh lies the village of Kegok ; and opposite Kegok, on the 
western bank of the Nile, are the remains of two quays of large finely-cut 
stone, which evidently belong to the Roman age. They are separated 
from one another by a distance of about a quarter of a mile ; the southern 
one being built along the line of the bank, while the other projects into the 
river like a pier. Behind each are large quarries, and by the side of the 
198 






ARCHAEOLOGICAL NEWS. 199 

northern quarry is a small natural ravine in the rocks. In the latter are 
a number of Greek inscriptions, partly incised, partly painted red. Three 
of these inform us, in slightly varying language, that the Nile had been 
admitted into the shelter of the quay on the 26th day of the month Mesore 1 
in the llth year of Antoninus (Lia Avrawvos Meo-opry o NtXos eurqXOev s 
TOV opfjiov Mevoprj /cs), one of them, further, explaining that the * anchor- 
age ' meant was that ' of the quarry,' ' at the . . . ' 775 TOV op//,ov TT/S Aaro)- 
[/ua]s, Kara TO[I;S] . . . ^atovs. Only one letter seems to be wanting at 
the beginning of the last word. From other inscriptions we learn that 
the <xpx'7^X avtKOS or ' chief-engineer ' was Apollonios, the son of Petestheus, 
under whose direction the quarry immediately behind the northern quay 
was excavated ; the quarry to the south being cut under the supervision 
of his brother Arsynis, with the help, it would appear, of a certain Pak- 
humis. The object for which the quarries were opened and the quay built 
is stated in another inscription : ETT ayaOu - Lta AVTOWVOS eKo^a^ev TOVS 
jaeyaXoDS XtOovs -TT^ODV id as rrjv irvXrjv TOV Kvpiov A-TroAAto /cai TT)<S Kvpias. ' In 
the llth year of Antoninus we cut the great stones 11 cubits in length for 
the pylon of the lord Apollo and the lady Isis.' We now know, therefore, 
the date at which the pylon of the great temple of Edfu was either restored 
or enlarged, as well as the name of the engineer under whose orders the 
work was carried on. His father bears an Egyptian name. It will be 
noticed that the number of cubits in the length of each stone was the same 
as the number of years the emperor had reigned up to the time when they 
were cut. I may add that between the two quarries are some hieroglyphic 
graffiti, one of them being the record of * the scribe Ai,' another of ' the 
scribe Hora.' Were these the native scribes who assisted Apollonios in his 
duties ? " Academy, May 4. 

EGYPT AND MYKENAI. The knowledge of the early relations of Egypt 
and Greece is continually becoming more important. At the April meet- 
ing of the Archaeological Society in Berlin, Furtwangler presented the 
work of the Swedish archaeologist, Montelius, on the bronze age in Egypt 
(Bronsaldern i Egypten, 1888), in which is published from a photograph, 
for the first time, the sword or dagger of King A'ahotep or Amenhotep 
(xvm dyn. c. 1600 B. c.). This dagger is of the same technique, with in- 
laid work, as the daggers from Mykenai, and has similar leaping lions. It 
is the best proof for the date of the contents of the Mykenaian tombs (c/. 
Furtwangler and Loeschcke, My ken. Vasen, p. xn ; Baumeister, Denk- 
maler, p. 987). In Roscher's Lexikon d. MythoL, p. 1745, Furtwangler calls 
attention to running griffins in Egyptian monuments similar to those on 
the Mykenaian blades. In the 'E^/xepis 'Apx- (1887, pi. 13) is published 
an Egyptian scarab, found at Mykenai, bearing the name of the Egyptian 
queen Ti, though it cannot be dated. Berl. phil. Woch., 1889, col. 491, 550. 
5 



200 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHEOLOGY. [EGYPT.] 

TEL-EL-AMARNA. Further information from the tablets. Dr. Hugo Winck- 
ler, whose knowledge of the tablets of Tel-el- Amarna is more intimate than 
that of any other student, gives in the Berl.phil. Wochenschrift (1889, Nos. 
18, 19) a brief account of the find and of the amount and character of the 
material, with a view to correcting certain erroneous views expressed by 
different writers on the subject. The greater part of the tablets were 
brought to Berlin, through the kindness of Theodor Graf of Vienna ; and 
a large portion of these were donated to the Imperial Museum by J. Simon. 
Two other collections were made, one in the Museum of Bulaq-Cairo, the 
other in the British Museum. There is an interesting discussion of the 
peculiarities in the use of the Assyrian language by scribes whose native 
tongue it evidently was not, and who were influenced by their own dialects. 
A foremost interest in the collection must be given to the letters from the 
Babylonian Kings. A new name is brought forward, Rish-takullima-Sin, 
and we have the following genealogy for Babylonian Kings of the xv 
century : Rish-takullima-Sin, Kurigalzu I, Burnaburiash, Kurigalzu II. 
There are interesting details regarding intrigues at the two Courts and 
exchanges of presents and warnings. 

Beside the writings of the Babylonian Kings is a letter of great interest 
from the Assyrian King Assur-uballit, who is known to be a contemporary 
of Burnaburiash. It names his father Assur-nadin-ahi, mentioned else- 
where only once, as having made a treaty with Amenophis III. Of un- 
usual interest is a large tablet containing originally about 600 lines, of 
which about 400 are preserved. Its writing is in an unknown language. 
It contains the name of the envoy who was the usual bearer of messages 
between the courts of Egypt and Mitani, according to the tablets written 
in Assyrian. The language appears to be of Shemitic construction based 
on different languages. The characters used are also different, and seem 
to be a transition from the syllabic to the alphabetic (lauisehriff). The 
syllabic signs are given, yet the corresponding vowel is added ; thus, bu-u= 
bu, bi-i= bi, etc. Ideograms are hardly ever used. This argues a long use 
and development in the country of the cuneiform characters, and this view 
is strengthened by the presence of some signs foreign to Babylonians and 
Assyrians. 

One and perhaps two other languages are for the first time found in 
these tablets. One is given on a Bulaq tablet containing a letter of King 
Tarchundaradu of Arsapi to Amenophis IV. Arsapi is the biblical Reseph. 
The first part of the name, Tarchu, is evidently that of a divinity often used 
in the composition of names of the " Hittite " Kings (land of Kummuh). 
Of this language, which differs in structure from that of Mitani, it can only 
yet with certainty be said that as a suffix mi="my" and &="thy," and 
that bibbit means " war-chariot." The method of writing and the struc- 



[EGYPT.] ARCHAEOLOGICAL NEWS. 201 

ture remind of Sumerian (proto-Babylonian). Another language, differ- 
ing from both of the former, is used on a Berlin tablet which is unfortu- 
nately of small size and very badly preserved. 

Among the many letters of Palestinian governors or vassals, there are 
30 from Rib-Addu of Dula ; but the most interesting are from the general 
Aziru to the King, to his father Dudu, a high official at the Egyptian 
court, and to his brother Chai. The principal topic is his expedition 
against the King of the Hittites ( Chatti) which were not always successful. 

The following names of divinities appear: Ja, Cham, Addu, Ashera. 
The last name is interesting. The Zeitschrift fur aegyptische Sprache and 
the Mittheilungen aus den altorientalischen Sammlungen der Kon. Museen 
will publish many of the tablets. 

TUNISIA. 

CARTHAGE. Early Phoenician Necropolis. Since publishing, in the last 
number of the Journal, the preliminary account of the discovery of the 
early necropolis of Carthage, M. de Vogue has given in the Revue Arche- 
ologique (1889, pp. 163-86) the complete report which he had read at the 
Academie des Inscriptions. The excavations were commenced on Mt. Byrsa 
at a place where a very early tomb had been found in 1880. At a depth 
of about 2.50 met. Father Delattre found a layer of burials of a peculiar 
nature. Large vases, full of human bones, were laid horizontally in par- 
allel lines. By the side of the funerary vases were smaller vases of dif- 
ferent shapes (which doubtless contained funeral offerings), then amulets, 
terracotta figurines, necklaces, the entire customary paraphernalia of Phoe- 
nician tombs, and, finally, fragments of Greek pottery, broken before being 
buried and often bearing graffiti in Phoenician letters. A unique charac- 
teristic of this necropolis is, that it contains a great quantity of burned 
remains. Up to the present it had been supposed that the practice of 
cremation was unknown to the Phoenician race. Only one tomb of the 
necropolis of Sidon, excavated by M. Gaillardot in 1861, had contained 
cremated remains. The vase from Mt. Byrsa given on pi. v-1 of the Rev. 
Arch., and containing cremated bones, is very similar to archaic vases from 
the necropoli of Kypros or Rhodes. The larger vases or amphorae (some 
nearly a meter high) containing non-cremated remains are far more num- 
erous. For adults several amphorae had to be used, usually broken in 
several pieces in order completely to encase the body. A small female 
head is of special interest (pi. vn-6) : it is of glass-paste and polychrome, 
of Egyptian type and technique, and judged by M. Maspero to be of 
Egyptian workmanship, as well as most of the necklaces. A terracotta 
figurine, reproduced on pi. vii-5, is similar to the Egyptian, and the first 
of its kind found at Carthage. It is a peculiar fact, that, while the objects 



202 



AMERICAN JO URNAL OF ARCH^OLOG Y. [TUNISIA.] 



essentially Punic are placed entire by the bodies, the many Greek pot- 
teries patera, lamps, vases, etc. were all broken and incomplete. The 
graffiti on them are in Phoenician letters of a good period, but certainly 
not earlier than the fifth century, while some of the Greek vases seem not 
older than the fourth century. 

One tomb was found which seems to go back to the foundation of the 
city, in the vin century. It was at a distance of 4.20 met. from the tomb 
found in 1880, and has the advantage of being intact. A sketch of it is 
here given (Fig. 3%}. It is built of large blocks of tufa, and is surmounted by 
slabs leaning against one another so as to form a sharp-peak roof. The five 
blocks of the ceiling are about 2.50 met. long, those of the roof 2 m. There 
are no foundations, so that the construction must always have been sur- 
rounded by earth, and be, in fact, an artifi- 
cial hypogeum. Two bodies were laid, each 
upon a slab, and each was covered in on all 
sides by slabs, while a second layer of bodies, 
in coffins of cedar-wood, was placed above. 
The mortuary chamber could be entered by 
a door on the first story, reached probably by 
a vertical passage. This tomb and that found 
in 1880 are, doubtless, tombs of early chiefs 
of the city, while the smaller tombs are those 
of the commoner sort. On this site was un- 
doubtedly placed the primitive Punic necro- 
polis, instead of at Gamart, as has been be- 
lieved since Beule. 

The Jewish Cemetery of Gamart. Beule 
first explored the large cemetery dug in the 
side of the hill called Djebel-Khawi, to the 

N. of Carthage, by the sea. He considered it to be the necropolis of Phoeni- 
cian Carthage. Father Delattre, whose first excavations on this site were 
made in 1887, undertook, last summer, a thorough excavation and examined 
a hundred and three tombs. These are of remarkable uniformity, and con- 
sist of a stairway of about ten steps cut in the rock, leading to a rectangular 
chamber, which is surrounded by very long loculi, called qoqim by the Jews, 
to the number of 15 to 17. The chambers are 6 cubits wide, 10 or 12 
cubits long, according to the number of loculi, the loculi are one by four 
cubits. These are exactly the Talmudic dimensions. The cemetery is, 
in fact, that of the Jewish colony of Carthage under the Roman domi- 
nion. The walls of many of the chambers were stuccoed, and had orna- 
ments in the Roman Imperial style. Inscriptions in Latin and Hebrew 
are scratched or painted, as is also the seven-branched^candlestick. There 




FIG. 32. Vlll-century Phoeni- 
cian Tomb in the necropolis of 
Carthage. 



ARCHAEOLOGICAL NEWS. 203 

are sometimes considerable remains of decorative frescos. M. de VOGUE 
in Revue Arch., 1889, pp. 163-86. 

MOROCCO. 

EXPLORATIONS BY M. DE LA MARTINIERE. At a recent meeting of 
the Academic des Inscriptions, M. de Villefosse gave an account of the pro- 
gress made by M. de la Martinidre in his exploration of Morocco. An 
inscription at Volubilis relating to a flamen of Tingitana proves that this 
province had its assembly, like proconsular Africa, Numidia and Maure- 
tania Caesarensis : at the same place, a dedication to the Emperor Volusi- 
anus : at Ad Mercurium, a dedication to Gordianus : at Banasa, the upper 
part of an inscription of Marcus Aurelius. Revue Critique, 1889, p. 260. 



ASIA. 
AFGHANISTAN. 

KABUL. Inscriptions. Capt. Deane has communicated to M. Senart 
copies of inscriptions on stones found in the valley of Kabul. On one he 
reads, in Indo-Arian characters, the Greek name Theodamas, preceded by 
the syllable su : a parallel case is on the Greek coins of Baktria, where 
the name of the Greek King EPMAIO^ is preceded by the still unex- 
plained letters ^Y. All the inscriptions seem to date from the beginnings 
of the Christian era. Revue Critique, 1889, p. 280; Academy, April 27. 

MESOPOTAMIA. 

BABYLONIAN EXPEDITION FROM PHILADELPHIA. We extract the fol- 
lowing from letters written to the N. Y. Nation (Nos. 1247-8) by Professor 
JOHN P. PETERS, who leads the Expedition : they are dated Niffer Mounds, 
March 15 and 16, and describe some of the ancient sites of Mesopotamia 
which he has visited : " One of the few points on the Euphrates which can 
be found on the maps, and which I shall therefore choose as the point 
of departure for the identification of my first site, is MESKENE, a Turkish 
military post, situated at the point where the present caravan-route from 
Aleppo to Bagdad enters the Euphrates valley, a little south of east from 
the former city, and just below the thirty-sixth parallel of north latitude. 
Three-quarters of an hour below this are the interesting Arabic ruins given 
by Kiepert as Kala'at Balis (I could only hear the name Old Meskene) 
and identified with Barbalissus. About nine miles below Meskene, stand 
the ruins called KALA'AT DIBSE. The ruins now visible, like almost all the 
ruins of this part of the country, are of mediseval Arabic date, of brick, 
and rather insignificant ; but the name and site are suggestive of some- 
thing more important. Sachau, in his Reise durch Mesopotamien und 



204 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY. [MESOPOTAMIA.] 

Syrien, seeks to identify El Hammara, a day and a half further eastward, 
with Tiphsah of the Bible, the Thapsacus of Greek and Roman writers, the 
most important city of this section of the Euphrates valley. The ruins of 
El Hammam are insignificant, situated on a low plateau, a couple of miles 
from the river. The name, 'the hot baths,' suggests a watering place or 
health resort. The site of Dibse, the name of which seems to perpetuate 
that of Tiphsah, is favorable for the erection of an important city. The 
fact that the visible ruins are of late date does not militate against this 
argument from the name and situation, for many of these ancient sites 
were occupied by successful possessors of the country, for the reasons which 
gave them their original importance, until a comparatively recent period. 
HALEBIYEH lies on the west bank of the Euphrates, some thirty miles north- 
west of Deir, at about 35 30' north latitude, and 40 east longitude. It 
is situated in a side valley of El Hamme, a trachite ridge, through which 
the Euphrates forces its way by a narrow gorge. As the present caravan 
route does not follow the river at this point, we were compelled to make a 
considerable detour in order to visit it. This deflection of the caravan 
route is probably the reason why it has not been more fully described 
hitherto. The walls still stand, in the form of a triangle, the shortest side 
parallel with the river, which here runs due north and south. The apex 
of the triangle is a very steep, isolated hill, separated from the ridge be- 
yond by a deep valley. The total circumference of the walls cannot be 
more than a mile and a quarter, and is probably somewhat less. They 
are still well preserved all around, although built of gypsum, which decom- 
poses very rapidly. The stone was laid in massive, rectangular, oblong 
blocks. The walls themselves average thirty to forty feet in height, and 
are strengthened by massive towers every 150 to 200 feet. Towards the 
top of the hill on the north, half within and half without the wall, on a 
bluff, was a large, fine building, perhaps once the official residence of the 
governor or commander. Two of the original three stories are still pre- 
served, domed within with brick, as were also the rooms in the gate and 
wall towers, in what may be called an early Byzantine style. Opposite 
one another in the lower part of the city, on the northern and southern 
sides, were the two main gates. There was a smaller gate in the southern 
wall at the foot of the acropolis, and two more on the river front. Be- 
tween the main gates ran a straight street paved with gypsum. To 
the west of this were troughs and columns, marking the remains of what 
seemed to have been a market place, and, hard by, two buildings with 
apses, exactly oriented, which, so far as the visible remains were concerned, 
might have been churches. In one of these Mr. Field found a small piece 
of moulding in what, for forgetfulness of the proper technical term, I shall 
venture to describe as a square dog-tooth pattern. This was the only 
ornamentation found anywhere. On the eastern side of the street, towards 



[MESOPOTAMIA.] AECH^OLOGICAL NEWS. 205 

the river wall, were found a couple of capitals, one of them Corinthian, of 
a late, transitional style. Otherwise, the space within the walls below the 
acropolis was bare of ruins or remains above the surface. At the acropolis 
the southern wall seemed to have been destroyed, and then rebuilt with 
fragments of trachite, such as are scattered everywhere about the city. 
Here there were also remains of a building with underground vaults in 
brick of a later date than the buildings described above. The valleys 
about the town were almost ravines, utterly sterile, and thickly covered 
with fragments of trachite. On all sides were tombs, some cut in the rock 
and some built upon it, the latter not unlike the Palmyrene tombs in style, 
but ruder. To the south were traces of two rough walls of trachite across 
the valley ; and a mile below, where the river rounds the last point of the 
Hamme ridge, a gypsum wall or fort, commanding both road and river, 
as though danger were especially apprehended from the south. I should 
suppose it to have been a frontier post of the Roman Empire in the fourth 
or fifth century A. D., and afterwards to have been occupied by the Arabs, 
the present acropolis dating from the latter period. It never could have 
accommodated a large population, but must have been a strong fortress, 
and well calculated to hold the line of the Euphrates against an invader, 
especially when supported by the smaller fortress of Zelebiyeh on the 
heights opposite. 

" Three and a half days beyond Halebiyeh, and two days beyond the 
present town of Deir, the most important place between Aleppo and Bag- 
dad, in north latitude 34 45' and longitude 41 east, lies another ruin of 
somewhat similar character, now called KAN KALESSI, or ' Bloody Casile.' 
It is situated on the bluffs of the gypsum plateau, close to the west bank 
of the Euphrates, and not far from the modern Turkish barracks, or post- 
khan, of Es-Salihiyeh. It was built in a rectangular shape, so far as the 
curving bluffs allowed, the citadel standing on a point of rock jutting out 
into the valley on the northeast. The southwestern wall, on the side 
towards the plateau, was about half a mile long, running from ravine to 
ravine, and supported by eleven towers. This wall was ten feet in breadth, 
and still stands to the height of fifteen feet. The central gate-towers, very 
massive structures, rise thirty or forty feet, the more northerly having the 
second story almost intact. Everything, including the foundations at least 
of the houses, was built of the same crumbling gypsum as at Halebiyeh. 
The streets which are regularly laid out at right angles with one another, 
and are easily traceable between the foundations of the houses, were some 
fifty feet broad. Outside of the walls are a few ruins, some of them quite 
massive, which may have been tombs. The whole gives the impression 
of a Roman town, designed to hold the Arabs in check, like the Turkish 
town of Deir at the present day. JABRIYEH, a day's journey beyond Kan 
Kalessi, is a city of mud-brick, in the plain, on the very bank of the 



206 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY. [MESOPOTAMIA.] 

Euphrates. It is incorrectly given by Kiepert, in his large map of the 
Ottoman Empire, as on the north bank of the Euphrates. It is on the 
south bank, about 34 20' north latitude, and 41 12' east longitude, at 
the mouth of Wadi Jaber, at about the position assigned to El Karabile. 
I may add that I was unable to find El Karabile at all ; and El Kadim, 
the next station given by Kiepert, should be El Kaim, and its position 
almost that he assigns to El Karabile. This is not an unfair specimen 
of the inaccuracy of the best maps of Turkey. At the eastern end of the 
southern wall of Jabriyeh the unburnt bricks are visible in situ, but the 
rest of the wall is merely a long narrow line of de"bris some 1,200 paces 
in length. The western wall, at right angles with this, and about 900 
paces long, ends in a large mound or series of mounds, on the edge of 
what was once the river-bed. The eastern wall also started in the same 
rectangular manner, but, after a couple of hundred paces, meeting the 
river bed, turned gradually about until it finally ended in the same large 
mounds in the northwest. Within this southern wall are two other lines 
of mounds, also bearing a perplexing resemblance to walls. The interior 
space and the surfaces of the mounds are thickly strewn with fragments 
of glazed and unglazed pottery of a greenish color, and pieces of burnt 
brick, many of which were also green, blocks of gypsum and basalt, and 
what I may call intentional pebbles (or those which were used for some 
purpose) of all sorts, including jasper and agate, both of which abound in 
this region. On the surface of the large mounds were graves, and some 
late constructions of brick and stone. It is said in the neighborhood that 
coins, presumably Sassanian or Kufic, are often found here. Jabriyeh 
was visited by Dr. Ward on his return journey in the spring of 1885, and 
pronounced by him an ancient Babylonian ruin, on the ground of its mud- 
brick walls. I think that, although Babylonian in the sense of reflecting 
the building customs of that region, it belongs in time to a much later 
period than that implied by the word namely, to the Sassanian, or even 
to the Arabic period. Another place visited by the Wolfe Expedition was 
Anbar, which Dr. Ward identified with ' the Agade, or Sippara of Anunit, 
the Accad of Genesis x, 10, the Persabora of classical geographers, and 
the Anbar of Arabic historians.' This place is given by Kiepert, in his 
Ruinenf elder, under the name Tel Aker, a name which applies in reality 
only to the highest southeastern point of the mounds. These mounds are 
of great extent, covering more ground than those of Babylon itself, and 
equalling if not exceeding in surface the immense mounds of Niifer. Anbar 
lies on the east bank of the Euphrates, just south of the point of junction 
of the Saklawiyeh Canal, about latitude 33 20' north, and east longitude 
44 3'. We were able to devote a day to the examination, but even that 
proved totally inadequate for the purpose, so large were the ruins. We 






[MESOPOTAMIA.] AECH^OLOGICAL NEWS. 207 

had a peculiar interest in this examination because, in consequence of the 
report of the Wolfe Expedition, we had applied for permission to excavate 
at Anbar an application which was refused for reasons unknown. We 
all failed to notice the depression dividing the city ' into two parts/ of 
which Dr. Ward writes, and which figured also in his proposed identifica- 
tion. Dr. Ward thought that he could ' trace the lines of the old palaces 
or temples ' in the depressions and hollows of the mound, which are indeed 
remarkable ; but our experience at Niffer has shown us that surface indi- 
cations of this sort are of small value, especially where a site was inhabited 
to a comparatively late period. The remains on the surface are all late, 
and belong to the time of Arabic occupation. There are everywhere visi- 
ble singular evidences of what seems to have been a great conflagration, 
in the shape of vitrified masses of brick and glass, and stones destroyed 
by heat. Fragments of glass were especially numerous, and one mound 
was veritably an iridescent green from the quantity upon it. The pottery 
was the same as that found upon the surface everywhere along the Eu- 
phrates and in Babylonia, the glazed fragments having a bluish or green- 
ish color. The size of the mounds points to a long period of accumula- 
tion, and consequently to a considerable antiquity. 

" The sites which I have mentioned are but a very few of the immense 
number which we have observed, beginning almost with the day on which 
we set foot in Asia. So, for example, from Hammam, ancient hot springs 
on the eastern edge of the great Antioch plain, near the point where Ze- 
nobia met with her first defeat at the hands of the Romans, I counted eigh- 
teen ruin-mounds, not identified, to the best of my knowledge, or noted 
on any map. The plain to the east of Aleppo is fairly dotted with similar 
tels yet awaiting investigation. Here, also, at two small villages, we found 
remains of stone structures, colonnades of marble and basalt, great basalt 
troughs, and in one place an ornamental door of basalt, with keyhole and 
bolt-holder complete. The ruins along the Euphrates, especially below 
Anah, are not so numerous. They are chiefly Arabic fortresses, some of 
them, like Rehaba, a day below Deir, comparatively well preserved and 
very picturesque. These probably stood on older foundations, for the most 
part unidentified. Opposite the mouth of the Khabour is a large plain on 
which are a number of mounds, and the whole plain is literally covered 
with pottery. Of the vast number of canal-beds of all ages, between the 
Euphrates and the Tigris, a large number radiate from AKERKUF. The 
latter ruin consists of a few low mounds, on one of which is a solid mass of 
sun-dried bricks, rising like a tower to the height of about 100 feet. Aker- 
kuf has never been touched by the spade, and no one has any idea what 
ancient city lies buried here. An inscribed brick, found a number a years 
since, bears the name of Kurigalzu, showing that the place, whatever it 



208 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHEOLOGY. [MESOPOTAMIA.] 

was, existed at least 1,600 years B. c. This, and the fact that it was the 
centre of a great canal system, constitute the sum of our knowledge of 
Akerkuf. Singularly enough, our first guide to Akerkuf misled us to an 
almost unknown and quite interesting Arabic ruin, called SENADIYEH. 
Here, amid pottery, bricks, and fragments of walls, we found, standing, 
part of a highly decorated building, which appeared to belong to the 
period when Bagdad flourished under the caliphs ; but all about it were 
mounds and canals, many of them going back probably to the Babylonian 
period. The way in which one age here borrows from its predecessors 
was illustrated by the finding of beautiful blue tiles from Senadiyeh built 
into ziarets, and also into a Government building several miles away. 
Similarly, at Hillah we found the Government building made, at least in 
part, of stamped bricks of Nebuchadnezzar from Babylon. 

" NIFFER, where we are at present excavating, lies in about 32 8' north 
latitude, and 44 10' east longitude, in the country of the Affek, or AfFej, 
Arabs, a powerful confederation, almost independent of Turkish rule. 
Kiepert locates it on a great marsh, but this has been somewhat reduced 
in size within the last five years by the partial change of course of the 
Euphrates. The water which once flowed in the river-bed now pours into 
the Hindiyeh canal, leaving the river more than half empty. The mounds 
of Nifler are of immense extent, covering more ground than the ruins of 
Babylon. They are divided into two, or rather three, parts, by what Arab 
tradition declares to be the Shatt-en-Nil, the same great canal which one 
finds leaving the Euphrates at Babylon. How late the city was inhabited 
we cannot yet say, but probably until considerably after the commence- 
ment of the Christian era. It was certainly still flourishing in the times 
of the Persian kings, and under the name of Nipur it is known to Assyri- 
ologists as one of the oldest, most important, and most sacred cities of 
southern Babylonia. In the Talmud it is identified with the Calneh of 
Gen. x. Our excavations were commenced early in February, and we hope 
to extend the season until the first of May. The weather is already intensely 
hot, reaching at times 102, or even 105, in our tents, in spite of high winds ; 
and the flies and dust are almost intolerable. Nevertheless, we were de- 
layed so long in Constantinople, and commenced work so late, that neces- 
sity compels us to hold on to the latest possible date, if we would have 
anything to show for this year's work, or even prepare the way properly 
for next season." 

PALESTINE. 

JERUSALEM. Recent Discoveries. Herr Schick reports the discovery of 
traces of an ancient wall and towers, made during the reconstruction of the 
carriage-road along the outside of the northern wall of the city. 

He also describes the discovery, in the Latin Patriarch's garden near 



ARCHAEOLOGICAL NEWS. 



209 



the northeast corner of the city, of a portion of the ancient city-wall, the 
stones having the Jewish draft, and being similar to those in the " Haram " 
wall. The remains of the wall were laid bare for a length of 26 feet. Its 
thickness varies, the average being 14 feet. The stones on both sides of 
the wall are drafted : they average 4 ft. in height, and vary in length from 
3 ft. 2 in. to 11 ft. Between these outer rows of stones are larger filling- 
stones, roughly dressed to a square form, of the same height as the others ; 
they average 5 ft. broad and 5J ft. long. Attached to the inside of this 
ancient wall is a wall of very smooth hewn stone, of which five courses are 
to be seen : between this later wall and the ancient large stones is a filling 
of rubble and black mortar. 

NAZARETH. Discovery of a large Cave. While digging for a cistern in 
the convent yard of the Sisters of St. Joseph, was discovered a large (ancient) 
cave with chambers, cisterns, tombs, etc. (described pp. 68-73). At a late 
period there stood on the site a mosque which, according to local tradition, 
was built out of the stones of an ancient church that had stood on the same 
site. Pal Explor. Fund, April, 1889. 

ASIA MINOR. 

The ancient history ofLykia. M. Imbert, Receveur de 1'Enregistrement 
at Tence, writes the following letter to Professor Sayce : " The history of 
Lykia would profit greatly by the solution of the chronology of the Xan- 
thian tombs which form the glory of the British Museum. I think that 
these problems can be solved by epigraphy. Among the texts on the 
Horse Tomb, or monument of the Lykian Payafa, there is one which gives 
us the name of a Persian satrap ; it is that reproduced in the 3rd plate of 
the 2nd volume of Savelsberg, Xanthos, No. 5c : 

" ' Eat\_ap]ata : Khssadrapa: Paryza.' 

" If w.e consider that n is frequently not expressed in writing before a 
dental, at all events in Persian, we shall find no difficulty in restoring the 
name as Ra(n)tapata, i. e., the 'Opovro/Sar^s of Greek authors. This Persian 
satrap, according to Strabo, succeeded his father-in-law Pixodaros, dynast 
of Karia and Lykia. The tomb accordingly must have been constructed 
in 330 B. c. at the latest. 

" The eighth tomb of Xanthos, the remains of which are in London, by 
the side of the sarcophagus just mentioned, belongs to a certain Merehi, 
an important personage at the court of Kherykhe. Here we read : Merehi: 
Kudalah Khntlah : tideimi: that is to say, ' Merehi, the son of Kodalos Kon- 
dalos.' Now, Kondalos was the agent of Mausolos, and is mentioned in 
the Oeconomics of Aristotle. On the other hand, a Merehi is referred to 
on the Obelisk of Xanthos, which belongs to an earlier date than Mausolos ; 



210 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHEOLOGY. [ASIA MINOR.] 

he is the grandfather of our hero, and we are, therefore, able to draw up 
the following genealogical tree : 

Merehi, the older (of the Obelisk) 



Kodj 



lalos, Kondalos 

Merehi, the younger. 

" The latter was a contemporary of the Payafa of the fifth tomb." 
Academy, May 11. 

NOTION (near Kolophon). An archaic Vase. Demosth. Baltazzi Effendi 
sent to M. Sal. Reinach a squeeze of an inscription on a bronze base found 
at Notion near Kolophon, and at present in the collection of Mr. Van 
Lennep at Smyrna. It is engraved from right to left, and reads : 'OXvp,- 
TTLXOV dpi rov <f>i\6<f>povo<s ; the vase itself speaking for its owner. Several 
letters have an unusual form, notably the x and s. M. Reinach conjectures 
it to belong to the vi cent. B. c. Revue Critique, 1889, p. 280. 

THEANGELA. Identification of the site at Kenier. The site of the ancient 
Karian town of Souagela, which in its Greek form was called Theangela, 
has been variously placed ; e. g., by Sir Ch. Newton at Assarlik. A site 
seen by Judeich at Kenier was judged by him to be the ancient Pedasa, 
but Mr. Paton has shown from the inscriptions found there that it is The- 
angela. The most important of these is a decree in honor of a citizen of 
Theangela which was to be engraved on two steles, one to be set up in the 
temple of Apollon Thearios at Troezen, the other in the temple of Athena 
at Theangela. This fact is confirmed by Mr. Th. Bent, who got copies of the 
inscriptions, and by Mr. Hicks. Theangela appears to have been a town 
of some standing, probably of some strategic importance, in the third cen- 
tury B. c. All that is known of the town and its history has been admirably 
summed up by Waddington-Le Bas (Voyage Archeologique, No. 599 a, b). 
C. SMITH, and E. L. HICKS in Classical Review, 1889, pp. 139-40. 

KYPROS. 

POLIS-TIS-CHRYSOCHOU=ARSINOE. Mr. Arthur R. Munro, who is carry- 
ing on the excavations here (cf. p. 91), writes to the Athenceum (of March 
30, April 6, May 4) : Mr. Williamson's vineyard, on which excavations 
were begun, proved to have been practically exhausted by the diggings of 
three years ago, and after three days spent in sinking trial-shafts, during 
which we opened only one inferior tomb, we moved to a site southeast of 
the village, where previous experience on neighboring plots of ground 
promised interesting discoveries. We opened about twenty tombs there, 
all of much the same general type a shaft varying between 6 ft. to 8 ft. 
and 9 ft. to 11 ft. in depth, with one or more roughly-circular chambers 






ARCHAEOLOGICAL NEWS. 211 

opening off it. All, with the exception of one, which had unfortunately 
been rifled, were heavily choked with earth, and in some cases the roof had 
entirely collapsed. It is curious to note that in one apparently virgin 
tomb no fewer than four layers of bones lay one above another, separated 
by only a few inches of mould. Several tombs seemed certainly to have 
been disturbed, but we found nothing either in their scheme or contents to 
raise any serious doubt of their being all about contemporary in date ; on 
the contrary, such varieties as they presented were easily to be explained 
by differences of wealth, position, and taste, between the tenants or their 
relatives. The chief classes of contents were the following : Rough un- 
painted pottery in great quantities, red, light-yellowish, or brown in color : 
Kypriote pottery, purple and dark-red patterns, concentric circles, etc., on 
light or red ground : black glazed ware, plain or with stamped patterns, 
and in one or two cases fluted, the quality very mixed often in the same 
tomb : terracotta figures, mostly of the very worst sort and in fragments, 
the commonest types being figures reclining on a couch or sitting on a 
chair : bronze and iron objects, strigils, knives, mirrors : alabastra : vases 
with figurines holding pitchers, or with bulls' heads, or both combined. 

There was also found a little jewelry, chiefly silver, a few small vases 
of red-figured technique of poor quality, and one or two instances of other 
styles, such as dark vases with red and white lines round them, and light 
red vases with patterns in purple-brown. Two tombs also yielded glass. 
Perhaps deserving of more special mention are a small terracotta head 
of better type and workmanship ; fragments of a good Kypriote capital, 
apparently thrown in to fill up the shaft of one of the tombs ; and two 
inscriptions in Kypriote characters found in graves of which they probably 
formed part of the door. There can be little doubt that this necropolis is 
of Ptolemaic date. On February 26th we moved to a rise a few hundred 
yards to the east, called Hagios Demetrios, and although we opened but 
few tombs (the site being a small one), and their general character remained 
the same, the average quality was rather better. New features were some 
little light-blue porcelain objects, an enamelled glass bottle of alabastron 
shape, and a kylix with gorgoneion much resembling those of the fifth 
century ; also a very rudely drawn black-figured lekythos lacking neck 
and foot. Work was then begun on the hill further to the south, which 
promises well, both in quantity and quality. The tombs are still of the 
Ptolemaic period, but apparently of richer persons. The most interesting 
finds so far have been a red-figured askos with four female heads, a black 
glazed askos with moulded negro's head, several black glazed saucers with 
letters scratched upon them (one bears the word TETTA), sixteen thin gold 
beads and a little gold roll, a large bronze spearhead, etc. These tombs 
were of a better class on the average than those of the previous sites, being 



212 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHEOLOGY. [KYPROS.] 

larger and better hewn, and the black glazed vases almost predominant. 
One tomb yielded some fairly good jewelry : three gold pendants from a 
necklace, a pair of bronze silver-plated bracelets with gilt rams-heads, a 
pair of bronze silver-plated anklets terminating in snake-heads, five gilt 
bronze spirals, and a gilt bronze ring with hematite scarab. Two tombs pro- 
duced well-preserved bronze objects. Of the pottery deserving of mention 
are a red-figured lekythos, of moderately good style, but in bad preserva- 
tion, representing a Bacchante; the fragments of a fine red-figured vase 
with white and gold, which we are gradually recovering by sifting the 
soil; and a considerable number of vessels and fragments, mostly black 
glazed, plain or stamped, with letters scratched on them underneath, in 
many cases Kypriote characters. If any further doubt remained whether 
the Kypriote syllabary continued in use well down into the third, if not the 
second century B. c., these graffiti ought to remove it. Vases with figurines 
and bull-heads were plentiful ; curious is one fragment on which a winged 
youthful figure is placed beside the customary woman with the pitcher. 
We had already begun to suspect, from the condition in which the finest 
vases -were found, and from other indications, that we had to do with 
tombs which had not only been largely plundered, but had been used at 
two different periods. The excavation, begun on the 9th, of the site ad- 
joining that first dug upon after the vineyard, has tended to confirm the 
suspicion. The contents of the tombs seemed to belong to the Ptolemaic, 
or in several instances even to the Roman period, a red-figured kotyle of 
late style, broken but complete, being the only noteworthy find naturally 
to have been expected. Yet in one tomb were found the fragments of a 
red-figured lekythos of early style, and in another a black-figured kylix 
with small figures on the rim, man and lion each side, after the manner 
generally dated about 500 B. c. The only other objects of importance 
found on this site so far are two inscriptions, the one in late Greek letters, 
Tpv<cov XP 7 ? " 1 "* X a W > * ne other in Kypriote charaters, incomplete, which 
we read TO o-a/xa e/w. They were found in the shaft of a tomb, together 
with a late capital of an Ionic pilaster, a drum resembling an altar, and 
several architectural fragments. 

We are now at work in the village of Poli, but have found nothing of 
note except the upper part of a marble grave-relief, representing a bearded 
man, nearly life-size, of late, but not altogether bad style. Numerous in- 
scriptions are scratched in small and scarcely legible characters in the stone. 

During the past fortnight (April 11) several sites have been worked with 
very various success. To the southeast of Poli we have finished all the 
sites on which we have been able to acquire the right to dig ; in the village 
we have continued our excavations on the small area which alone seems 
to contain tombs that can be found ; and to the north two trials have been 



[KYPROS.] 



ARCHAEOLOGICAL NEWS. 



213 



made which revealed nothing but late walls and a fragment of the foun- 
dations of a more important building. Returning once more to the east, 
we have opened a few tombs north and south of the vineyard. Those to 
the north proved of little value, being either of Roman date or earlier tombs 
used again in later times and subsequently robbed. It was with difficulty 
that we extracted permission to dig half a dozen trials to the south of the 
vineyard. The site seems a promising one, but the owner is hard to deal 
with, and has sown a valuable crop. This piece of land and another to 
the southeast of the village are, apart from the Chiftlik lands, so far as we 
have been able to discover, the only remaining tomb-sites here worth 
excavating, and it is not to be expected that the right to dig on either 
of them can be acquired until the crops are cut. We are accordingly 
anxiously awaiting the answer to our application for leave to excavate at 
Limniti, and hope to be able to start work there before Easter. 

To note the more important finds of the fortnight : with the exception 
of four Kypriote inscriptions from the tombs, and one more which has 
come to light in the village, they have been almost entirely confined to 
pottery. One tomb produced seven black-glazed kylikes with a band of 
palmette and lotus-bud pattern outside, but only two are unbroken. From 
the same tomb came a black-figured kylix with a horseman and another 
figure in the centre, and a black-figured lekythoid vase with four figures on 
the body and two smaller ones on the shoulder. Two more black-figured 
kylikes have also been found, the one with little figures on the rim, the 
other with a band of figures outside. Important is a red-figured kotyle, 
in fragments, but complete : on the one side a figure holding a thrysos, 
with an altar behind ; on the other a figure holding torch and patera, of 
the later fifth-century style, and inscribed /coAos and /caXe. Unique in our 
experience are the fragments of a large Kypriote diota with artist's signa- 
ture in Kypriote characters. Two white and black lekythoi, the one with 
palmettes, the other with ivy pattern, may also be mentioned. Minor 
variations from the ordinary types are two broken circular lamps with 
red animal-figures round them ; a late, but not inelegant red-glazed three- 
handled pot with lid ; a lamp of red and black glazed ware in the form 
of a duck ; and a glass cup bearing the word Eu^pocrvvr? in relief. 



EUROPE. 
GREECE. 

ATHENS. Theatre of Dionysos. At the second February meeting of the 
German Institute in Athens, Professor Dorpfeld gave an account of the 
latest excavations in the theatre of Dionysos. They were made in the 



214 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHEOLOGY. [GREECE.] 

upper part of the theatre and are still going on. There are traces of a road 
and buildings on the site before the time of Lykourgos. Herr Schneider 
spoke of the single objects discovered, notably, part of an oinochoe with 
a bacchic scene and a double inscription : Xo-evoKA.es eTrotecrev, and KAeoo-oc/>o9 
eypa</>crev in pre-Eukleidean letters. Berl. phil. Woch., 1889, Col. 454. 

The earliest Attic public decree. In the Arch.-Epig. Mitth. aus oester.-un- 
garn (1888, 1, 61-5), Gomperz restores this important inscription as follows : 



o-ev TOI Se'/Aot T[OS ^a]Aa/x,[iva /cAepot 
ot/ccv e<^a^>(s) 2aAa/uvi[at, />te]A(A)ev[Se \<rvv TOIS 'A0evatot- 
o-t Te[A]ev /cat o-TpaT[eu(e)o-0]ai T[OV Se Aa^ovra /cAepov p> 
e ju,io"0]oV. e<x(yn) jw,e ot/cet Ho ye]]o[jaopos avTO$t, TOV /cAepo- 
v 8e fALcrOoL, a/TTOTt^vev /cat TOV /juo~$o/>tevov /cat TOV p> 
to~06vTa, He/caTe[j)o HoAo/cAepa ra StHo/xoAoye/xeVa 
es o^eJ/jKxrtojV, f.cnrpo.T(r^v 8e TOV atet a- 
PXL v l ra ^ av E^ /*^ yeopyet, TO, Trp6(3a.T- 
a 8' e^/cT^OTTta 7r[otet, aTTOTtvev O.VTOV : T- 



v 8e TOV ap^ov^Ta atet Kat /caTa^8aA(A)- 



ev 



" The people has decreed as follows : Those to whose share land at Sa- 
lamis has fallen by lot shall become residents in the territory of Salamis, 
though they must give taxes and war-service with the Athenians, and 
must not lease the field. If the lot-owner be not himself a resident but 
rent his lot, then the lessee as well as the lessor shall each pay the total 
amount of the lease as a fine into the public treasury, and the archon for 
the time being shall collect the fine. If any one do not cultivate his lot 
of land but removes from it its cattle, he shall pay 30 Attic drachmas as 
a fine ; each time the archon for the time being shall collect and deposit 
the fine." This important archaic inscription had already been treated 
by Kohler, Kirchhoff, and Foucart. Berl phil. Woch., 1889, Col. 362-3. 

EXCAVATIONS ON THE AKROPOLIS. The excavations have now been 
advanced to within a short distance of the Propylaia. The soil examined 
in the temenos of Artemis Brauronia was rather thin, and since the Persian 
wars it had not lain undisturbed. A curious bronze ring, 0.77 m. in its outer 
diameter and with an interior diameter of 0.66, was brought to light : at- 
tached to the inner edge by its feet and standing upright in the middle of 
the ring was an image of the Gorgon cut out of a thin metal-plate. The 
Athena represented in the 'Ap^. 'Ec/>r;/>i. (1887, No. 4) is a somewhat similar 
figure. The whole seems to have formed the metal part of a leather shield, 
but it has not yet been cleaned suificiently to make this certain. A marble 



[GREECE.] ARCHAEOLOGICAL NEWS. . 215 

torso of a seated youth wearing a chlamys was the chief piece of statuary 
discovered. It is about half life-size and of third-century workmanship. 
Besides this, there was found an archaic marble head of Medousa. It is of 
more than life-size, and the back part is broken off, so that it may possibly 
have come from a relief or metope. In these excavations were also found 
several important inscriptions. A piece of one of the annual inventories 
of the treasure of Athena Parthenos belongs just before the year 398/7, as 
it mentions a gold crown dedicated by the Spartan Lysandros as being un- 
weighed, while the inventory of 398/7 gives its exact weight. Another 
crown dedicated by a certain Lamptreus is mentioned in this new inven- 
tory along with other offerings of his, but in the inventory of 398/7 this 
is missing from the list of his gifts, thus leaving the presumption that it had 
in the meantime become so damaged that it was melted down. Two de- 
crees of the second half of the fourth century and one of the early part of 
the third century were also found. This last gives us the name of a hitherto 
unknown archon, Ourios ; and belongs to the time when a committee on 
finance termed ol CTTI TY, Sioi/c^oei is just coming into notice in the Athenian 
decrees. Two archaic inscriptions on bases that supported votive offerings 
to Athena conclude the list of epigraphic finds. One of them belongs to a 
certain Euangelos, who seems to have been a member of a rich Athenian 
family, and whose son erected on the Akropolis the wooden horse of which 
Pausanias speaks. Part of a fluted column bearing the name of the artist 
Endoios concludes the list of recently-found inscriptions. Another piece 
of the same column has been already published ( C. I. A., iv. 2, No. 373) and 
contains the name of Philermos. The letters still retain traces of red color. 
The name of Endoios thus occurs for the second time in an inscription. 
The conjecture of Loeschcke, that Endoios comes from Ionia, seems also to 
receive confirmation, because the inscription is written in Ionic characters 
and is joined with a name ending in -ep/xos, such as seems to have been quite 
common in Ionia. 

The destruction of the mediaeval walls at the entrance of the Akropolis 
is still going on, and the pieces of ancient architecture and cut-stone strewn 
over the Akropolis itself are being put into better order. 'Apx AeXrtov, 
December, 1888. 

CENTRAL MUSEUM. Additions during December, 1888. The National 
Museum has been increased by the addition of some 100 very interesting 
terracottas from TAN AGRA. Notable among these terracottas are, (1) a 
woman seated on a rock and wearing a veil and chiton reaching nearly to 
her feet ; the chiton still retains traces of blue coloring : (2) a group of two 
girls playing the game e^eSpioyAos, in which one carries the other on her 
back ; the one who carries the other still retains vivid traces of blue upon 
her chiton : (3) an infant rolled up in a himation : (4) a youth with a cock 



216 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY. [GREECE.] 

under his arm. (5) One very peculiar statuette is formed after the xoanon 
type : the body is a simple four-sided block, and is adorned with maeander 
and anthemion ornaments in black color ; the face and the high polos are 
both touched up with black, and, on both sides of the head, locks hang down 
on the chest : the whole is in fine state of preservation and one of the best 
examples of its kind. (6) Another statuette of similar form but not so well 
preserved has the shagginess of the hair on the chest represented in a plastic 
form, and the polos has a circlet and a star also represented in clay. (7) A 
statuette of a woman shows her drawing a fillet from a box : her hair still 
shows traces of reddish paint, and her raiment various other colors. (8) Sta- 
tuette of a partly draped youth, holding a $iaXf] and a lyre. (9) Another 
statuette shows a girl resting chiefly on the left foot, and with the right hand 
holding her long chiton gracefully up to her throat. (10) Several statu- 
ettes of satyrs reclining, and others dancing, form the more grotesque side 
of this collection. (11) A statuette of an old woman and a child is one 
of the most attractive and best executed pieces. Two of the statuettes 
have movable arms. There are several figures of horsemen with and 
without shields, and the usual Greek animals are also represented, e. g., 
horses, goats, bulls, lions, cocks, ducks, and various birds whose species 
it is impossible to identify: one of the birds carries two of its young 
under its wings. Tragic masks and mythological subjects are also spar- 
ingly represented. In this group of figurines from Tanagra there are an 
unusual number of men, perhaps about one-fifth of all the statuettes ; and 
so, too, the number of animals is strikingly large. 

A beardless marble head of a Roman emperor found near the OLYMPIEION 
and ten sepulchral reliefs from the PEIRAIEUS, also, were brought in ; also, 
gifts of some coins of ASIA MINOR and of terracotta statuettes were received. 
The objects found in the excavation of the ASKLEPIEION which have been 
hitherto stored on the south side of the Akropolis were transferred to the 
Central Museum. The remains of Byzantine sculpture from the AKROPOLIS 
have been also carried thither, and will form the nucleus of a collection of 
Byzantine antiquities. Duplicates of architectural remains found in OLYM- 
PIA have been recently turned over to the German School for shipment to 
Berlin. 'Apx- AeAribv, December, 1888. 

PRESERVATION OF THE COLORS OF PAINTED STATUARY. At the re- 
quest of the General Ephor, P. Kabbadias, a committee consisting of 
Professor G. Krinos of the University and Privatdocent O. Rousopoulos 
have made investigations in regard to preserving the colors of painted 
statuary, and to cleaning statuary and bronzes. A solution of one part 
of caustic soda in two parts of water was found to fasten the color more 
firmly to the stone, and, in the case of poros stone, to make the stone itself 
harder. This solution made the red color rather deeper but not so much 



[GREECE.] ARCHAEOLOGICAL NEWS. 217 

as to militate against its use. The red color was found to be usually oxide 
of iron, but sometimes cinnabar was used instead, and this, if not treated, 
became dim under the influence of light. The blue color of statuary 
usually consists of carbonate of copper, and green bihydrated oxide of 
copper, along with a trace of oxide of iron. For removing hard accre- 
tions from such statuary, careful rubbing with a stick of wood was recom- 
mended. Bronze objects, if only slightly corroded, could be cleaned by a 
solution of soap or of weak potash, and then, after brushing and drying, 
they should be varnished with some resinous solution. If they are deeply 
covered with red oxide of copper, they must be treated with a weak solu- 
tion of hydrochloric acid. By applying these processes to some of the 
bronzes from the Akropolis, they uncovered several inscriptions on votive 
offerings to Athena and Hekate. 'Apx- AeArtw, December, 1888. 

REMAINS OF A CHRISTIAN CHURCH. The excavations under the Par- 
thenon have led to the discovery of a subterranean vault forming part of 
an early Christian church : some tombs have been found. Chron. des Arts, 
1889, p. 132. 

DAPHNION (road to Eleusis). The walls of the Byzantine church have 
been recently buttressed, and the tiling of the roof mended. An artist has 
been sent for from Italy to repair the mosaic-work of the church, which 
chiefly consists of the famous Christos Pantokrator. An earthquake oc- 
curred shortly after the walls had been strengthened, but did no damage ; 
though, had it happened while they were in their previous condition, it 
would have wrought serious harm. 'Apx- AeAn'ov, Dec. 1888. 

MANTINEIA. Just before the conclusion of the excavations here by the 
French school, a marble statuette was found which is reported to be an 
image of Telesphoros. 

TEGEA. Excavations tried on this site by the French School brought 
to light two headless draped statues and other antiquities. 'Ap^. AcA/nov, 
December, 1888. 

DELOS. In excavating at Delos, MM. Doublet and Legrand, of the 
French School, have discovered two statues of women and the bronze foot 
of a Roman statue, with several inscriptions, amongst them being one of 
more than a hundred lines, containing the account of expenses relating to 
the temple. Athenceum, May 18. 

OLYMPIA. The Norddeutsche Zeitung of March 10 announces that the 
Federal Council has had brought before it a project of law- approving an 
arrangement regarding the excavations of Olympia which has been con- 
cluded between Germany and Greece. It has been referred to a commit- 
tee. Chron. des Arts, 1889, p. 83. 



218 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHEOLOGY. 

ITALY. 

AN ARCH^OLOGICAL SOCIETY. The project for the constitution of an 
Italian Archaeological Society has been published. Its seat is to be at 
Rome : it will publish a monthly bulletin and an annual volume of me- 
moirs with plates. The Society will be composed of patrons and ordinary 
members, the latter paying an annual fee of 40 francs. Cour. de I' Art, 
1889, p. 109. 

ALATRI. A Latin Temple. In order to second the desire of the German 
Institute, that topographic and architectural studies should be finished 
among the ruins of the ancient temple regarding which the Berlin archi- 
tect Bassel wrote in the Centralblatt der Bauverwaltung (1886, p. 197, 207), 
the Government has given orders to undertake new researches. The site 
explored is N. of the city, in the property of Count Stampa called La 
Stanza or Torretta. The result has been the uncovering of the entire area 
of the temple and the collecting of elements belonging to the terracotta 
cornice. It has been ascertained that this temple in its ornamental mem- 
bers is entirely similar to the temple of Lo Scasato (temple of Juno), dis- 
covered on the site of the ancient Falerii (see JOURNAL, vols. in, pp. 460-7, 
iv, p. 503). Not. d. Scavi, 1889,. p. 22. 

BRACCIANO. Discoveries on the site of Forum Clodii. On the small table- 
land rising about three kilom. from Bracciano, called S. Liberate, many 
remains of ancient buildings have come to light. Bracciano and S. Lib- 
erato are on one of the branches of the Via Clodia. At S. Liberate it is 
crossed by another important ancient road. On the site are large blocks 
of peperino and marble, revetments, bases, columns, and fragments of mar- 
ble friezes and architraves. To be noticed are a headless female statue, 
like the so-called Pudicitia of the Vatican ; a bearded head, over life-size. 
Some inscriptions certify the conjecture, that this is the site of Forum 
Clodii. Not. d. Scavi, 1889, pp. 5-9. 

BOLOGNA. Count Gozzadini's gift. This eminent archaeologist, who re- 
cently died, left to the city of Bologna his fine library, his family archives 
and his collection of arms. Cour. de I' Art, 1889, p. 109. 

CAPUA. New Oscan Inscriptions. On the site of the famous sanctuary 
of Capua Vetus, there have been found a number of new Oscan inscrip- 
tions. Two of these are given a preliminary publication by Franz Biicheler 
in the Berl. phil. Woch., 1889, col. 458-9, with a Latin equivalent. 
i 



ek. iuhil. Sp. Kaluvieis 
inim fratrum muinik. est 
fiisiais pumperiais prai 
mamerttiais pas set kerssi- 
asias L. Pettieis meddikiai fufens. 



Hoc donarium Sp. Calvii 
et fratrum commune est 
Fisiis decuriis, ante 
Martias quae sunt, epulares 
L. Pettii magistratu fuerunt. 



ARCHAEOLOGICAL NEWS. 219 



ii 



Diuvilam Tirentium Magiium 
sulum muinikam fisiais 
eiduis luisarifs sakrvist 
iiuk destrst. 



Donarium Terentiorum 
Magiorum omnium commune 
Fisiis idis loesaribus sacra- 
bit (hostia) : id dextrum est. 



NEMI. Temple of Diana. In December, two new constructions were 
discovered east of the sacred area. The first is rectangular, 5 met. long 
and 4.10 wide. The walls are of opus reticulatum with pilaster strips of 
opus quadratum. It is contiguous to the long east side of the area, and 
seems to have been originally a portico with peperino pilasters or even a 
piscina. Subsequently it was divided up by building walls between the 
pilasters. In the debris which filled the hall to the height of six meters 
were found slabs of marble and pieces of painting fallen from walls and 
ceiling. The second construction has the characteristics of a calidarium 
or sudatorium ; the pavement being suspended over the hypocaust by small 
pilasters a half-foot high, and having arrangements for the circulation of 
warm air. The bricks found here have names that seem to be of the time 
of M. Aurelius and Commodus.- Not. d. Scam, 1889, pp. 20-22. 

OSTIA. The work of joining the excavations of 1881-86 with those of 
1888 by the uncovering of the intervening space was carried on. The wall 
that enclosed in the east the large square of the theatre was adorned with 
a portico of brick columns under which were the offices of the principal 
corporations of arts and trades. Following this along a further length of 
51.32 met. has led to the discovery of a spacious straight street which evi- 
dently joined the quarter of the theatre with that of the Porta Romana. 
To the west of this are edifices that have the character of public buildings. 
One of these is the Stazio Vigilum or police station. The statio vigilum 
measures 41.55 by 69.48 met. There are two entrances on each side, cor- 
responding to the height of the peristyle. They are elegantly decorated, 
in the Severian style, with cornice, tympanum, pilasters, capitals and bases 
cut in red and yellow brick, and well preserved up to the imposts of the 
arches. The members of the tympanum had fallen, but have been recovered. 
The exploration of the interior has just commenced, and has already led to 
the discovery of a lower cell, like a prison. The site has evidently never 
been excavated and is full of important historical documents. The plan 
and general arrangement recall those of the atrium of Vesta, especially on 
account of the great space given to the central peristyle, which occupies 
27.40 met. out of a total width of 41.46. The s. door leads, through a ves- 
tibule, 5.65 by 3.40 met., into the peristyle composed of piers 1.20 by 0.72 m., 
with a spacing of 3.10 m., and a covered space 4.30 m. wide. Against each 
pier is a marble pedestal. The two already discovered bear fine inscrip- 
tions : one, dated Apr. 4, 211 A. D. under the consuls Gentianus and Bassus, 



220 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHEOLOGY. [ITALY.] 

is dedicated to Antoninus Pius ; the other, dated Feb. 4, 239 A. D., is dedi- 
cated to Gordianus. The points ascertained from these inscriptions are as 
follows : (1) the company of the Vigili sent from Rome to do police service 
in Ostia formed a special vexillatio ; (2) the title assumed by the local com- 
mander was praepositus vexillationis ; (3) this local command was usually 
given to the tribune of the cohort that furnished the detachment ; (4) the 
Ostia detachment formed the majority (7) of the entire cohort ; (5) in the 
third century, the detachment was taken from the vi cohort ; (6) the casern 
at Ostia could lodge four companies, or six hundred men. The smaller 
w. side of the atrium has a portico partly of brick pilasters, partly of col- 
umns of portasanta ; before the central columns are two marble pedestals, 
one of which bore a statue of Septimius Severus, the other that of Caracalla. 
At the corner opposite to that of Gordian already described, was another 
base with an inscription to his wife, the Empress Furia Sabinia Tranquil- 
lmsi.Not. d. Scavi, 1889, pp. 18-19, 37-43. 

PIACENZA. A municipal Museum attached to the Passerini-Landi library 
is being organized in the ex-convent of the Jesuits of San Pietro. It con- 
tains, among other things, a collection of about six thousand coins and medals, 
including the complete series of the coins of Placentia. The library pos- 
sesses a fine series of illuminated choral books and antiphonaria and the 
psaltery of Queen Angilberga. Cour. de I' Art, 1889, p. 109. 

POMPEII. Excavations have been carried on with activity to the s. of 
the public forum behind the Curiae. The most important discovery is that 
of an elegant small bathing-establishment, remarkable for its beautiful de- 
coration of marble slabs. The palaestra is of graceful architecture, and is 
decorated with fine figures of athletes. On the main wall is represented a 
contest, and on each of the side pavillions a single athlete, the one on the 
left scraping his forehead with a strigil. In the centre of the fa9ade is an 
athlete crowned by Victory, with another on each of the sides ; that on the 
right, which alone is preserved, is scraping his side. The socle of this 
beautiful work has a marble base with white ground like the walls, to which 
are addorsed figurines imitating bronze statues. Some of these are especi- 
ally interesting, e.g., a graceful Mercury, a discobolus and a seated figure 
(judge of the palaestra?). Near the furnaces were found some beautiful 
silver cups, and tablets containing a contract by which Poppaea Notae sold 
two young slaves to Dicidia Morgaridis. Cour. de I' Art, 1889, pp. 110-11. 

POZZUOLI. On the road from Pozzuoli to Baiae, came to light part of a 
large room constructed of alternate layers of tufa and bricks. It is rect- 
angular in shape, and has, on one of the wider sides, an apse which still 
preserves part of its semi-spherical vault. The walls are covered with white 
stucco decorated in Pompeian style with colonnettes, festoons, lines, etc. 
On the r. of the apse is a standing female figure with a basket of fruit and 



[ITALY.] ARCHAEOLOGICAL NEWS. 221 

flowers, and further on a beardless man seated and holding a lance in his 
right hand, and a cap in his left. Under the cornice is a frieze in which 
griffins, sea-horses, fishes and human figures are given in relief. Under 
this is another zone containing only a landscape. Not. d. Scavi, 1889, p. 43. 

ROMA. Forum of Augustus. The continuation of the excavations on the 
right of the Arco del Pantani led to finding remains of decorative sculpture 
which include all the decorative members of the building and are carved 
with perfect artistic skill and taste. There are columns of giallo antico ; 
sections of columns of Greek marble from the peristyle of the temple of Mars 
Ultor ; two Corinthian capitals ; friezes, cornices, corbels, lacunaria, etc. 
Several fragments of the inscriptions placed on the bases of the statues 
erected by Augustus have come to light. On account of their fragmentary 
condition, only one of these could be reconstituted. It was recognized by 
Lanciani to be the Elogium of Appius Claudius Caecus, a copy of which 
had been found at Arezzo. A beginning has been made in uncovering the 
portico which shut in the left hemicycle across its diameter, and whose 
bases are still in place. The pavement of imported marble continues to 
be found in the whole area. Not. d. Scavi, 1889, pp. 33-4. 

Arenaria and tombs at the Tre Fontane. In the pozzolana excavations 
at Ponte Buttero, near the Tre Fontane, an ancient sand-pit or arenarium 
was found, with the lamps still in place. Various tombs were found, some 
built a cassettone, some cut in the rock ; in the former were found ten im- 
perial coins. More important was the finding of a well-tomb for inhuma- 
tion, like those on the Piazza Vittorio Emanuele. Among its archaic con- 
tents, three pieces were of especial interest. One is a kind of flask in the 
form of a truncated cone with a mouth like that of an oinochoe. The 
second is almost a semi-spherical two-handled cup on a broad cylindrical 
base, perhaps imitation archaic. The third is decidedly archaic a cup 
ornamented with rude channels made with the finger in the soft clay. 
Not. d. Scam, 1889, p. 36. 

Statue of a Muse. In the new Via Arenula, at a depth of 3.50 met., 
there was found a beautiful colossal female statue, placed on an ancient 
pavement of large marble slabs. The figure is seated on a rock : her 
right arm, left hand and head (which was of a separate piece) are gone. 
The close-fitting tunic with half-sleeves is covered with a himation whose 
folds are treated with breadth and at the same time with grace. The 
limbs are crossed, and there are sandals on the feet. It evidently repre- 
sents one of the Muses. 

A Frieze. In the Vigna Palomba, in Reglo xiv y two pieces of an an- 
cient marble frieze, 0.20 met. high, were recovered from a wall. On one 
piece are two centaurs, one playing on the double tibia and one on the 
lyre. On the back of the latter stands an Eros with an arrow in his hand. 



222 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY. [ITALY.] 

In front of the centaurs is a lion ridden by an Eros. On the second frag- 
ment are two genii between whom is a large vase full of flowers and fruit. 
They are semi-reclining, and each bears a basket of fruit resting on his 
knee. Not. d. Scam, 1889, pp. 34-6. 

Industrial Exhibition of Keramics and glass. The series of exhibitions 
organized yearly in Rome under the auspices of the Artistico-Industrial 
Museum, since 1885, have been very useful and successful. The first ex- 
hibition, in 1885, was of works of carved and inlaid woods, retrospective 
and contemporary : the second, in 1886, was of works in metal : the third, 
in 1887, of textiles each more successful than the previous. The present 
and fourth exhibition is of keramics and glass. The object is to give as 
complete as possible a survey of the products of these branches of art from 
the very beginnings, developing especially the most flourishing periods of 
Etruria, Greece, Rome and the Renaissance. The director of the Asso- 
ciation, Professor Erculei, has published a paper in the Nuova Antologia 
of April 16, entitled L'Arte Antica della Ceramica e I'Attuale Esposizione 
di Roma, in which he calls attention to the most important features of the 
exhibition. Cf. letter of G. Raimondi in Courrier de VArt of April 26. 

SUSA (near). Coins found at Mompantero. A lot of Roman coins of 
the second century of the Empire, about 450 in number, were found near 
Susa. They are not gold, silver or bronze, but of that tinned brass or 
pseudo-bronze composition which had forced currency for some time, and 
led to the reform of Diocletian. They include the years 247-268, and 
belong in great part to the Emperors M. Julius Philippus jr, Treboni- 
anus Gallus, and Gallienus. It is peculiar, that, while the obverses usually 
present the ordinary type, the reverses have every variety of emblems and 
legends heretofore known. There is nothing later than Gallienus. Riv. 
Numis. Ital, 1889, p. 130. 

TORINO. The Art of Piedmont. The Piedmontese Society of Archaeology 
and Fine Arts in Turin has decided to establish an affiliated society for the 
purpose of making and publishing drawings of the early fresco-paintings 
preserved in many .parts of the province. This is expected to show that 
Piedmont had an original and meritorious art. This is also the case for 
architecture and sculpture, as has been shown by some recent publications. 
Cour. de I' Art, 1889, pp. 109-10. 

VEIL Excavations in the city and necropolis. The Empress of Brazil has 
been undertaking excavations in search of monuments, both Etruscan and 
Roman. The men were thus divided into two squads, one exploring the 
area of the city, the other the hills of Picazzano, containing the Etruscan 
necropolis. Within the city no important result was reached. The fact 
that large tracts are without signs of building would show, (1) that a large 
part of the Etruscan inhabitants lived in cabins, as at Antemnae, Fidenae, 



[ITALY.] ARCHAEOLOGICAL NEWS. 223 

etc. ; (2) that the Roman Veil occupied about one-tenth the area of the 
Etruscan city, being situated at the easternmost point. An Etruscan 
building of irregular blocks of tufa was found perhaps a private house. 

The excavations in the necropolis were more successful, though all but 
one of the tombs examined had been violated in recent times. The one 
found intact was closed by the usual macigno, and entered through a vesti- 
bule. The chamber measures 3.05 by 3.45 met., and is covered by a low- 
arched vault and surrounded on three sides by a wide bench for the two 
bodies found, while others were not buried but burned, and the ashes placed 
in urns. 19 vases were in position. Not. d. Scavi, 1889, pp. 10-12. 

The continuation of the excavations is described in the Feb. number of 
the Scavi. Seven tombs were uncovered, none of them intact. No. in is 
a superb unfinished tomb, preceded by a vestibule, covered by a low cylin- 
drical vault supported by two Doric piers. JSTos. iv and v had fallen in, 
and contained only common objects. In the interior of the city, a notable 
discovery has been made on the isthmus that led from the city proper to 
the acropolis. Here was found a vein of votive terracottas, carelessly 
strewn over the slope of the isthmus that descends towards the Cremera. 
They were placed on the bare rock, but afterwards covered up with a layer 
of earth about 1.25 met. high. As the discovery was hardly begun when 
the report was written, only a summary notice could be given. During 
the first three days, however, not counting numerous fragments, there were 
found : 40 veiled female heads of life-size ; 10 similar heads in profile; 4 
unveiled male heads; 11 hands; 4 double feet (fragments of statues) ; 18 
feet ; 1 female statue of life-size, the left hand and arm being veiled in the 
peplum, and the right hand extended ; 8 parts of statues similar to the 
above, modelled expressly so as to be joined together, each statue being 
formed of three pieces ; the upper half of a fine male statue ; three torsi 
modelled expressly without head or arms; 12 figurines of oxen; 1 of a 
sheep ; 1 of a pig ; 3 human legs ; etc., etc. Among the terracottas were 
found also : a quadrans with the type of the hand and the two semi, an 
uncia with the type of the he! meted Minerva and the beak and the legend 
Roma, an uncial coin of Southern Italy, and a piece of aes rude. Exca- 
vations made on another site inside the city resulted in the discovery of 
remains of a Roman building in which several pieces of sculpture, archi- 
tectural decoration, and other objects, came to light. Not. d. Scavi, 1889, 
pp. 29-31. 

VETULONIA. From the province of Grosseto comes news of a rich dis- 
covery of gold ornaments at Vetulonia, in one of the circle-tombs peculiar 
to the necropolis of that place (so called because surrounded by a circle 
of stones), and dating from the vn cent. Between two layers of cork- 
wood, were found four bracelets of gold-band exquisitely worked in fili- 



224 AMERICAN JO URNAL OF ARCHJEOLOG Y. 

gree, three gold brooches, an amber necklace consisting of figures of nude 
women and of crouching Egyptian dog-headed animals, two bronze chain- 
necklaces, several amber brooches, others of bronze and iron, a very ori- 
ginal earring in bronze and many fragments of bronze vessels, 27 double- 
faced earthenware cylinders, with vases of fine red clay. Amongst the 
stones with which the trench was filled were found two bronze bits for 
horses, ornamented with the human figure of very primitive design ; four 
bronze rings for traces, and two bells belonging to the trappings all 
things appertaining to the biga, and not commonly found in a tomb where 
female ornaments abound. Within one of the bracelets some human teeth 
were found, though there were no remains in the tomb of the burnt bones 
of a corpse. Athenceum, May 4. 

SICILY. 

SICILY UNDER THE ROMANS. In the Archivio Storico Siciliano (xm, 
2-3), Professor E. Pais gives a voluminous treatise on the history and ad- 
ministration of Sicily under the Roman dominion. In it the greater part of 
the cities and towns of the island are studied in regular order, with a view 
to determine whether their existence continued at this time. The evidence 
adduced is mostly of an archaeological character, and in many cases quite 
new. It is a very important work, though but preliminary to a large work 
on the history of Sicily promised by the writer. 

AUGUSTA. The necropolis of Megara Hyblaia. Certain clandestine ex- 
cavations in the commune of Augusta have led to the discovery of some 
ancient tombs of the vast necropolis of Megara Hyblaia. They are almost 
all monolith sarcophagi, lying near the surface, thus explaining the ease 
with which they were devastated. Exceptions were two tombs of unusual 
size, built of square masses of calcareous tufa, of great size and well joined 
together. A portion of the contents was stolen. Professor Orsi saw, at a 
jeweller's in Syracuse, the following objects from these excavations : two 
silver fibulae ; two simple silver earrings ; a silver ring with an imitation 
scarab ; fragments of silver hair-pins, of a silver necklace ; and two figur- 
ines of nude Seilenoi, one stooping and the other reclining. The museum 
of Syracuse has recovered, mainly, unvarnished vases of local workman- 
ship ; small aryballoi and bombilioi of Corinthian style ; a Phoenician 
aryballos ; a large vase like an Attic amphora of the advanced black-figured 
style. This vase is 37 cent, high, and has a rich decoration on the neck 
and two subjects on the body one, of two armed figures accompanied by two 
attendants ; the other, a scene of combat. Period c. 500 B. c. Megara was 
destroyed in 482. Three small lekythoi have black figures on a red ground : 
(1) an agonistic scene with two armed combatants and two agonothetai ; (2) 
a bacchic scene of a female dancing with the thyrsos between two Satyrs. 



ARCHAEOLOGICAL NEWS. 225 

Finally, there was a cylindrical ossuary of bronze plate with hemispherical 
cover, like others found at Megara and at Fusco near Syracuse. 

On the site of the discovery there were found, besides the tomb, some 
octagonal piers, three of which still remain in position on three bases. 
They are of uncertain character and use and should be carefully studied. 
Not. d. Scam, 1889, pp. 45-6. 

CHRISTIAN ANTIQUITIES OF ITALY. 

FRENCH ARTISTS IN ITALY. In the Amides Monuments (1888, 2), M. 
Eug. Miintz publishes a memoir on the French artists of the xiv cent, and 
the propaganda of Gothic style in Italy. Among the French architects who 
worked in Italy are : Jean Deynardeau, Jean de Reims, Hugolin de Flandre, 
Veranus de Brioude, Guillaume Colombier, Nicolas de Bonaventure, Pierre 
Loisart, Jean Compomosy, Jean Mignot. Among the sculptors are : Jean 
de France, Roland Raniglia, Guillaume de Ve"ry, Anex Marchestem. The 
painters are : Jeaninus de Franzina, Frederic Tedesco. The metal-workers, 
several of whom worked at the court of the King of Naples, are : Etienne 
Doscerre, Guillaume de Verdelet, Richelet de Ausuris, Jean de Saint-Omer. 

PAVIA. Certosa: Discovery of the body of Jan Galeazzo Visconti. The 
tomb of Jan Galeazzo Visconti and Isabelle de Valois has been found in 
the Certosa of Pavia, and opened. The skulls, covered with crimson velvet, 
are well preserved, and the garments are of gold tissue. There were found 
with the bodies : a sword, a poniard, gilt-bronze spurs, and a majolica vase 
with the arms of the Visconti. Cour. de I' Art, 1889, p. 120; Academy, 
May 4. 

ROMA. Drawings of early Mosaics. Herr Ficker presented at recent 
meetings of the German Institute (Dec. 21 and Jan. 4) photographs of 
drawings in Codex Escorialensis ~ -n-7, which reproduce, by the hand of 
a draughtsman of the last years of the xv century, many of the monuments 
of Rome. Interesting for Christian archseology are two drawings of early 
mosaics on the recto and verso of fol. iv. The first, called merely musaicho, 
represents a shepherd in chlamys and paenula, with crossed legs, among 
oxen ; in the second zone, an aviarium or opviQarpo^tiov ; and finally a 
shepherd caressing two sheep : these are the principal motives of the decora- 
tion of the left apse of SS. Rufina and Secunda, repeated in that of San 
Clemente (De Rossi, Mus. Cr., v-vi, f. 1-2). The drawing confirms De 
Rossi's conjecture regarding the drawings of Cod. Vat. 5407, and, with 
Panvinio's notice (De praec. Urbis basil., p. 158), gives material for a re- 
construction of the mosaic. The other drawing is marked tutto musaicho 
in santa ghostanca, and throws full light on the famous cycle of mosaics at 
S. Costanza : there were three zones, two of them with historical scenes, 
the lower of the Old and the upper of the New Testament. By this means, 



226 AMERICAN JO URNAL OF ARCH^OLOG Y. 

comparing the drawings of Francesco d'Olanda, Sangallo, and others, the 
mosaics may be restored (De Rossi, Mus. Cr., xvii-xxm, f. 5 sqq.}. The 
attempt at reconstituting the entire cycle has been made by De Rossi, who 
presented his drawings at a subsequent meeting of the Institute (Feb. 1). 
Bull. 1st. Germ., 1888, iv ; 1889, i. 

Palace of the Senators, Capitol. A part of the ancient decorations of the 
xv cent, have come to light on the fa9ade of the palace of the Senators on 
the Capitol. These decorations were simply covered up, in the xvi cent., 
with a coating of mortar and one of painting. Even the shields of the 
senators have been found, a Roman coat of arms with the crown of Anjou, 
which is thus dated as a work of the xiu cent. : some reliefs preserve their 
original painting. Chron. des Arts, 1889, p. 116. 

Discovery of a xm-centwry Fresco. In removing part of Michael An- 
gelo's fa9ade on the Roman Campidoglio, a fresco of the thirteenth century 
has been found, representing the Madonna and Child admirably executed, it 
is said. It will be placed in the Capitoline Museum. Athenaeum, May 18. 

TARANTO. The gold cross of St. Cataldus. Professor Mahaffy writes: 
" Here is a rediscovery of a precious Irish relic in Southern Italy. Search- 
ing Taranto lately for traces of the books and other remains of St. Cataldus, 
who founded the church there, I was shown an ancient simple gold cross 
(set in a large gaudy one), which was taken from the breast of the saint 
when his body was raised and turned into relics in the eleventh century. 
Johannes Juvenis tells of this discovery, and says the saint's name was on 
the cross in the letters c. T. This I found inaccurate. The characters 
were quite plain, CAALDUS RA : and, on the downward limb of the cross, a 
combination of letters with a line drawn over them reading apparently 
CHAV, but all so brought together that I was at first taken in by the read- 
ing CHRISTI adopted by the clergy in the church. Having drawn the thing 
carefully, I found, by consulting the ' Lives of the Saints,' that Cataldus 
before he went abroad had been made Archbishop of Rachau in Ireland, 
and was known as Rachaensis. Here, then, was the solution ! But the 
odd thing is that Colgan and other authorities, being unable to find any 
such diocese in Ireland, have been enfending the text of Johannes, and 
reading Rohan or some such word. The letters on the cross confirm the 
old author, and leave us a record of an ecclesiastical foundation apparently 
not otherwise known. The saint cannot date later than the seventh cen- 
tury ; tradition at Taranto says the fourth : further research disclosed 
to me that Ussher (' Works,' vol. vi. p. 306) had learnt the truth about 
the cross from the epic poem of Bonaventura Moronus called Cataldias, 
or rather from the notes on this poem in the edition of Bartholomseus 
Moronus (Rome, 1614). The poet says the cross was jewelled, which is 
false. The commentator describes the cross as plain gold ; he does not 



ARCHAEOLOGICAL NEWS. 227 

notice the line of abbreviation over the last syllable, but adds that the 
present larger cross, in which it is now set, was made for it in the year 
1600 by Joannes de Castro, a famous Spanish archbishop of Taranto." 
Athenceum, May 25. 

FRANCE. 

GRANTS FOR ARCHAEOLOGY. The Minister of Fine Arts has asked the 
Chamber for a supplementary credit of three millions and a half for different 
expenses in the museums. 15,000 fr. are for the creation of a third Dieu- 
lafoy Hall in the Louvre for the smaller antiquities from Susa basreliefs, 
architectural fragments, keramics, bronzes, arms, and statuettes. 15,000 
fr. are for the cleaning of the works of art decorating the public gardens 
and parks. 10.000 fr. are for a new Egyptian gallery in the Louvre. 
Chron. des Arts, 1889, p. 84. 

MONTEVILLIERS (Seine-inf.). Injury to the church. This church is men- 
tioned in a chart of 1241. In the xv cent., the nave was enlarged, the six 
N. chapels and the new portal constructed. The roof of both Romanesque 
and Gothic naves has been destroyed, and also part of the fine Romanesque 
tower on the fayade. Rev. Art. Chretien, 1889, p. 274. 

PARIS.- LOUVRE. M. Courajod calls attention, in the Chronique des 
Arts (1889, p. 93) to a very important work of Spanish art of the Renais- 
sance recently acquired by the Louvre. It is a crucifixion in which the 
figure is 33 cent, long and modelled in terracotta with extraordinary deli- 
cacy and perfect anatomical knowledge, while the head is extremely noble. 
The cross is of wood. The well-studied drapery is in the Flemish style. 
The entire figure is painted. This work belongs to the School of Seville, 
and probably is by the hand of its famous artist, Martinez Montanez. 

MUSEUM OF SEVRES. The President of the Republic has received from 
the King of Corea a box containing two porcelain bowls of Corean manu- 
facture dating from the xni century. These invaluable works have been 
placed in the Sevres museum. 

MEDIAEVAL ART AT THE EXPOSITION. An exhibition of church-treas- 
ures will take place at the Trocadero during the entire period of the Ex- 
position. The greater part of th% prelates have adhered to the project. 
Among the principal treasures promised are those of Reims, Sens, Limoges, 
Obazine and Cinques, which contain pieces of extraordinary historic and 
artistic value. The walls of the exhibition galleries will be covered with 
ancient tapestries. Chron. des Arts, 1889, pp. 83, 98. 

SALIGNY (Allier). Numismatic discoveries. An important discovery has 
been made here of a lot of more than 300 Roman Imperial denarii in fine 
preservation. There are some rare reverses, some pieces of Balbinus, 
Pupienus, Geta, some types of empresses, especially of Salonina, and a 
certain quantity of coins of Saloninus with the goat Amaltheia and the 



228 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHEOLOGY. 

legend IOVICRESCENTI. In the same department were found two 
military strong-boxes, hidden under ground in the time of Diocletian. One 
contained more than 80 kilogr. of small bronzes, in superb preservation, of 
Aurelian, Claudius Gothicus, Quintillus, Constantius, etc. The finest were 
added to the collection of M. Perot of Moulins. Among the rarities were 
coins of Allectus, Quietus, Carausius, Magnia Urbica, Carus and Carinus, 
some rare reverses, and many coins struck in Gaul. Riv. Numis. Ital., 
1889, p. 131. 

GERMANY. 

BERLIN. New Museums. Two new museums are to be erected at Berlin, 
says the Chronique des Arts, near the existing museums, and to be sever- 
ally appropriated (1) to pictures and sculptures of the Renaissance, and (2) 
to the sculptures brought from Pergamon and to other antique sculptures. 
Athenaeum, May 18. 

BONN. In the church of the Franciscans, the removal of whitewash has 
disclosed the existence of a number of scenes painted in fresco and dating 
from the middle of the xiv cent. Chron. des Arts, 1889, p. 93. 

AUSTRIA-HUNGARY. 

SZILAGY-SOMIYO (Hungary). Treasure. There have recently been 
placed on exhibition in the National Museum of Buda-Pesth, the precious 
objects found by a peasant and designated under the name of the treasure 
of Szilagy-Somiyo. There are 29 pieces. Among them is a princely set 
of jewelry, of the end of the iv cent. ; three massive gold goblets, decorated 
with enamels ; a man's gold bracelet ; clasps with precious stones, and two 
gold shoulder-ornaments. Cour. de I' Art, 1889, pp. 145-6. 

VIENNA=VINDOBONA. The Roman city. Various interesting discoveries 
have been made among the remains of the Roman city. In the centre of 
the city, near the cathedral, remnants of a wall probably built by Claudius 
to defend the colony on the west : another similar wall was found to the east. 
The existence of a forum was ascertained s. of the Hohenmarkt square, 
also of a via principalis and a via quintana. The praetorium existed where 
the Berghof now is, and the via praetoma divided the Roman camp into 
two nearly equal parts. The quaestorium rose near the present Wildpret- 
markt, when in 70 A. D. an entire legion was transferred to Vindobona, 
the encampment was extended southward and westward as the Danube and 
topographic reasons prevented extension in other directions. Proofs of 
this are found in an acqueduct, in the continuation of the via praetoria, of 
a bath surrounded by four columns, etc. To the w. of the camp was the 
city, which has been proved by an inscription ( Cello. lanuari. Collegia. DU) 
to be a municipium. Many signs have been found of the fact that Vindo- 
bona was a flourishing colony. The coins date between Claudius (41-56 



ARCHAEOLOGICAL NEWS. 229 

A. D.) and Theodosios (379-95 A. n^.Nuova Antologia, 1889, Apr. 16, 
from Deutsche Zeitung. 

ENGLAND. 

HAMMER (Flintshire). Destruction of the church. The fine Gothic church 
of Hammer, famous for the beauty of its chaire de verite (1465) and its 
painted glass, has been entirely destroyed by fire. Revue de CArt Chretien, 
1889, p. 274. 

LONDON. The South-Kensington Museum has just purchased a great tap- 
estry representing the Adoration of the Infant Jesus. This tapestry, destined 
originally for a private oratory, contains figures of natural size executed 
with the needle on a woollen background with silk thread, including a 
great deal of gold and silver thread. The figures, composition, color and 
technique remind of Gerard David. It is considered that the tapestry was 
executed at Bruges between 1510 and 1528. It comes from the Castellani 
collection. Chron. des Arts, 1889, p. 131. 

The Yates chair of Archaeology at University College. Mr. R. Stuart 
Poole, the occupant of this chair, gave his inaugural lecture in the Botan- 
ical Theatre on May 8. He has engaged the services of Prof. Boyd Daw- 
kins for prehistoric archeology and those of Mr. Henry Balfour, of the 
Pitt Rivers Museum, Oxford, for savage art, reserving for himself only 
Egyptian and Assyrian archaeology. Thus, instead of confining the study 
of archaeology to those branches which he himself is competent to teach, 
he sets a striking example to his brother professors at other universities 
by calling in the aid of distinguished specialists, and inviting such as are 
interested in the arts, crafts, and customs of ancient races to study the 
subject as a whole. Up to the present time, nearly every chair of archae- 
ology in the United Kingdom has been treated as a chair of classical 
archaeology pure and simple, to the exclusion of all other branches a course 
eminently unsatisfactory, inasmuch as it omits the parentage of classical 
archaeology in the ancient East, and its mediaeval development in the 
Gothic and Byzantine schools. 

Prof. Boyd Dawkins was to lecture (May 15) on The Arrival of Man in 
Europe, and his Advance in Culture : Mr. H. Balfour (May 22) on The 
Origin of Decorative Art as illustrated by the Art of Modern Savages : on 
May 29, Prof. Stuart Poole gave his introductory lecture on Egyptian 
Archceology ; on June 5, his introductory lecture on Assyrian Archceology ; 
and, on June 12, his introductory lecture on The place of Archceology in 
School and University Education. Each lecture will be followed by demon- 
stations at the British Museum. We understand that Prof. Stuart Poole 
also proposes to hold classes of an educational character during the vacation, 
these classes to be especially designed for the benefit of students in archae- 
ology in the final schools at Oxford and Cambridge. Academy, May 4. 



230 AMERICAN JO URNAL OF ARCHEOLOGY. [ENGLAND.] 

ANNUAL MEETING OF THE EGYPT EXPLORATION FUND. The second 
ordinary general meeting of the Fund since its incorporation as a society 
(the sixth since its foundation in 1883) was held in London on April 12. 
The total expenditure for the year 1887-88 had been 2341, 19s. lid., 
which included the following items : (1) excavations on the sites of Bou- 
bastis and the city of Onias, and part of the expenses of transport of anti- 
quities to Alexandria, 1564, 13s. Id. ; (2) publications including illus- 
trating and packing Tanis I, and Naukratis I, printing Goshen and the 
third edition of Pithom, 295, 18s. 2d. The total receipts for the corres- 
ponding period were 2563, 4s. lid., the chief items being: (1) Subscrip- 
tions, 2500, Is. 2d., which might be subdivided into European subscrip- 
tions, 1300, Is. 2d. (which sum includes the Special Transport Fund, 
amounting to 390, 2s. 6d.) ; and American subscriptions amounting to 
1200. In 1886-7 the gross expenditure was 1516, 6s. 10d., as against 
2341, 19s. lid. for 1887-88 ; and the gross receipts for 1886-87 were 
1718, 13s. lid., as against 2563, 4s. lid. in 1887-88. 

Miss Amelia B. Edwards, hon. sec., reported on the work of the past 
year. Miss Edwards said that she had been requested by the committee 
to inspect and report upon the monuments from Boubastis which had been 
ceded to the society by the Egyptian Government, and that she accord- 
ingly went to Liverpool on March 13, /where the monuments had just been 
disembarked from the hold of the steamship Mareotis, from Alexandria. 
On arriving at the docks, Miss Edwards found twenty-seven large packing- 
cases, and ten colossal objects, without cases namely, part of the shaft of 
a red-granite column, polished, and inscribed with large and deeply cut 
hieroglyphs ; a magnificent " lotus-bud " capital in two pieces, each from 
12 ft. to 14 ft. in length, and about 5 ft. in diameter ; a colossal torso of a 
king in red granite, of archaic style ; three large fragments of a red-granite 
shrine, exquisitely sculptured in very low relief, and bearing the cartouches 
of Nectanebo I ; while, towering above all the rest, rose the enormous 
black-granite trunk, legs, and throne of the colossal statue of Apepi, last 
and greatest of the Hyksos kings. In an enormous case, also on the open 
quay, was a great Hathor-head capital in red granite from the hypostyle 
hall of the temple. This beautiful face measured some six feet from chin 
to brow, and was, literally, without flaw or scratch. Very fine, also, was 
a large red-granite slab, carved in low relief with full-length portraits of 
Osorkon II and his wife Karoama. The contents of the cases represented, 
not a selection, but a museum of ancient Egyptian sculpture. Here were 
four more pieces of the hieroglyphed column on the quay, which when 
erected will have palm-capital, shaft, and base complete ; another fine slab 
from the festival hall of Osorkon II ; another archaic torso in red granite, 
the counterpart of the one on the quay these were evidently the upper 



[ENGLAND.] A&CBJEOLOQ1CAL NEWS. 231 

halves of two statues which originally had been placed on either side of a 
doorway ; a fine black-granite statue of heroic size, in two pieces, repre- 
senting Rameses II, enthroned ; another block of the shrine of Nectanebo 
I ; a black-granite statue of Bast, the tutelary goddess of the temple ; 
seven cases of limestone blocks carved in basrelief, from a temple dedicated 
to Hathor by Ptolemy Soter, at Terraneh, in the Western Delta ; and, 
most valuable and important of all, a case containing the black-granite 
head of the colossal statue of Apepi. Miss Edwards described this head 
as a masterpiece of ancient art, instinct with individuality, and displaying 
in a marked degree the ethnical characteristics of the Mongolian race. 
The date of Apepi might be approximately stated at 1700 B. c. The two 
archaic torsos were, apparently, the most ancient pieces of sculpture dis- 
covered in the ruins ; and Miss Edwards mentioned that it was Prof. Stuart 
Poole's opinion that they represented Khufu, the builder of the Great 
Pyramid (iv dynasty), whose "banner-name " occurs in the oldest historical 
inscription discovered in the course of the excavations. Miss Edwards 
then went on to say that, in consequence of the enormous expenses already 
incurred, it had been deemed advisable to despatch direct from Liverpool 
such objects as were destined for re-shipment, in order to avoid the cost of 
sending them to London. It had therefore devolved upon her to make the 
selections for America, Australia, Liverpool, and Manchester. This was 
a very anxious task, which she had discharged to the best of her judgment 
by sending to the United States monuments especially representative of the 
fine-arts of ancient Egypt, and by reserving for the British Museum those 
of a more strictly historical character. Knowing that many of the sub- 
scribers had wished to see the great " lotus-bud " capital in the British 
Museum, Miss Edwards felt somewhat alarmed at having to tell them that 
she had ventured to send that piece to the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, 
and had reserved instead for the British Museum the inscribed column 
with the palm capital. The British Museum, moreover, had long possessed 
a small, but very perfect " lotus-bud " column complete in black granite, 
whereas the national collection possessed no specimen of the " palm " order. 
The great Hathor-capital had long since been promised to the American 
subscribers ; and, as these Hathor-capitals had been added by Osorkon II 
to the " lotus-bud " columns of the hypostyle hall, the one was historically 
the complement of the other. It was therefore necessary to send both to- 
gether. The Society voted to present to the city of Geneva a statue of 
Rameses II, enthroned, of heroic size, in polished black granite ; to the 
University of Sidney, N. South Wales, the capital of a red-granite column, 
sculptured on two sides with a colossal head of the goddess Hathor ; and 
also voted donations to Manchester, Liverpool, Bristol, and other provin- 
cial museums. 
7 



232 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHEOLOGY. [ENGLAND.] 

Miss Edwards, in proposing the donation to the Museum of Fine Arts, 
Boston, U. S. A., observed that this was one of the pleasantest duties she 
had annually to perform in connection with the Egypt Exploration Fund. 
The gratitude of the society to their American supporters found its ex- 
pression in these donations ; and she might say with truth that they had 
never before given utterance to their goodwill in terms so weighty and so 
colossal. The objects to be presented from Boubastis were (1) the colossal 
Hathor-head capital in red granite ; (2) the upper half of a colossal statue 
of a king in red granite, the companion to which had just been voted to 
the British Museum ; (3) a colossal lotus-bud capital in two pieces, from 
the hypostyle hall of the temple ; (4) a red granite slab in basrelief from 
the festival hall of Osorkon II. Also, from the site of a temple to Hathor 
founded by Ptolemy Soter at Terraneh (the ancient Termuthis), two very 
interesting basrelief slabs in limestone. The remains of this temple were dis- 
covered and excavated by Mr. F. Llewellyn Griffith in 1888. The Fund 
was thus offering to America specimens of the art of the Great Temple 
of Boubastis, dating from the time of the iv dynasty, 4000 B. c., down to 
the time of the xxn dynasty, circa B. c. 960, including a noble example 
of xn dynasty work in the monster lotus-bud capital. The sculptures 
from Terraneh, on the other hand, represented the art of the Ptolemaic 
period under its most engaging aspect, and were especially interesting from 
the fact that very few works of the reign of Ptolemy Soter were known. 
The finest historical object (i. e., the statue of Apepi) had been voted to 
the British Museum, and the finest artistic object (i. e., the great Hathor- 
head) to the Museum of Fine Arts at Boston. Academy, April 27. 



AMERICA. 
UNITED STATES. 

Remains of the Mound-builders. Important discoveries have been made 
near Floyd, Iowa, of remains of the ancient mound-builders. A circular 
mound thirty feet in diameter and about two feet high has been opened 
and five skeletons were found. They were exceedingly well preserved, the 
earth having been very closely packed around them. Three of them were 
males, one a female, and a fifth a babe. The skull of the female is in a 
good state of preservation, and those who have made careful measurements 
of it say that it shows that the person belonged to the very lowest type of 
humanity. Archaeologists claim that the measurements show inferiority 
even to the celebrated Neanderthal skull. These bones are claimed to be 
the most perfect of any remains of the mound-builders yet discovered. 



ARCHAEOLOGICAL NEWS. 



233 



There are several other mounds near this one, and they will be examined 
in a few days. N. Y. Evening Post, May 2. 

MEXICO. 

Preservation of Monuments. The Mexican Government has passed a 
law for the preservation of national monuments and antiquities. This law 
embraces Yucatan. Athenceum, May 4. 

A. L. FROTHINGHAM, JR. 



SUMMARIES OF PERIODICALS. ' 



BULLETIN DE CORRESPONDANCE HELLENIQUE. 1888. March- 
December. P. FOUCART, Athenian decrees of the iv century (pp. 153-79). 
The first of the decrees studied was found at Karpathos. It is placed a 
little after 395 B. c. The Athenians decree the title of benefactors to an 
inhabitant of Karpathos and his children and to the community of the 
Heteokarpathians in consequence, apparently, of the gift of a cypress-tree 
for the temple of Athena : it places them under the protection of the allies 
and assures their autonomy. The second decree is of 399/8 B. c. under 
the archonship of Aristokrates : it confers the title of proxenos and bene- 
factor on an Achaian of Aigion and his son. The third belongs to the 
first half of the fourth century. Demosthenes contra LepL, arguing against 
the suppression of immunities accorded to strangers for services rendered 
to the republic, cites earlier decrees in favor of the Thasiotes and Byzantines. 
The revolt of Thasos against Lakedaimon was in 409 B. c., and a part of 
this decree is restored by Kohler. In 390 Archebios and Herakleides de- 
livered Byzantion to the Athenians. A fragment recently found on the 
Akropolis seems to belong to the decree in honor of Herakleides : the date 
is about that of the archonship of Theodotos (387/6). Herakleides receives 
not only the titles of proxenos and benefactor but other privileges and im- 
munities. The fourth decree is in favor of another declared partisan of 
Athens, Archonides, and dates from the first third of the fourth century. 
The following two fragments, compared with others, show that the addi- 
tion in the decrees, to the name of the orator, of the paternal name and the 
demotikon took place in 353 A. D. No. 7 is of 343/2. No. 8 is of 373/2 
under the archon Asteios, and contains merely the title of the decree con- 
ferring a crown on the Syracusan Alketas son of Septines. It is suggested 
that he is the son of the Septines, brother of Dionysios the elder, who was 
honored by a decree in 393. G. FOUGERES, Thessalian basreliefs (pp. 
179-87 ; pis. v, vi). A summary of this paper was given in News under 
titles Larissa and Pharsala in the JOURNAL, vol. iv, pp. 205-6. H. LECHAT 
and G. RADET, Inscriptions of Asia Minor (pp. 187-204). These inscrip- 
tions were found on a trip made in May and June 1887. A summary has 
been already given in News on p. 196 of vol. iv, under Asia Minor. G. 
COUSIN and G. DESCHAMPS, Inscription of Magnesia on the Maiandros (pp. 
204-23). This inscription is engraved on two long superposed drums 
of columns. The upper one had disappeared, and its part of the inscrip- 
234 



SUMMARIES OF PERIODICALS. 235 

tion is published from two copies previously made by natives. The text 
consists of two parts : (1) the decree proper ; (2) additional information. 
The phraseology is somewhat comical : "Considering the fact that, under 
the happy reign of the Emperor Trajan Hadrian Caesar Augustus, it is 
suitable to ameliorate and add to those things that are useful to men ; (con- 
sidering) that the use of oil is most appropriate and necessary to the body of 
man, especially of old men ; that the amount of six xoes of oil furnished daily 
by the city, though certainly amounting to something, is still insufficient: 
it would be well to add to it from the revenues of the gerousia as much as 
possible, and to embellish the gift of the city and make it so large that 
every one can, if possible, have a share in it. To good Fortune : It has 
been decided, etc. . ." The amount of oil added is a daily gift of three 
Xoes. The three functionaries mentioned are the Aeiroupyos or religious 
director; the dvrtypa^evs or comptroller of finance, and the 7rpay//,aTi/cos or 
intendant. The sums necessary for the purchase of the oil are to be taken 
from certain revenues appropriated to these officers, enumerated below in 
the inscription. G. RADET, Inscriptions of Amorgos. The discoveries of 
the French School in Amorgos are described in the JOURNAL, vol. iv, pp. 
201-2, 350-1. No. 1, found at Kastri, is a decree of Arkesine in honor 
of Androtion son of Andron, the Athenian, evidently the statesman known 
by his book on Athenian Annals and by Demosthenes' address against him. 
As little was known of his life, this inscription is interesting. He was gov- 
ernor of Arkesine*, and lent it money without interest : this was probably 
at the time of the Social War (357-5). No. 3 is a decree of the early iv 
cent, whose object is to diminish the number of lawsuits by assuring arbi- 
tration and imposing heavy fines. H. LECHAT, Excavations of the Akro- 
polis. 'V. BERARD, Inscription of Laurion. See JOURNAL, vol. iv, p. 205. 
G. DESCHAMPS and G. COUSIN, Inscriptions of the Temple of ZeusPana- 
maros (pp. 249-73). [See, for a notice of these excavations at Stratonikeia 
in Lykia, vol. iv, p. 222.] The sacred precincts of the Panamara contained 
several temples. The most important was that of Zeus : the second that of 
Hera: the third, more difficult to assign, called the Ko/^uptov, probably the 
special temple of Zeus K(o//,vpos anciently worshipped at Halikarnassos. 
Therefore, most of the inscriptions found atBaiaca bear mainly the names 
of Zeus and Hera. On the fetes ofihQKomyria,Heraia smdPanamareia, 
people came from all parts ; consequently, many neighboring divinities 
received hospitality. The inscriptions here published are divided into two 
classes, (1) a series of dedications to Zeus and Hera ; (2) a number of ex- 
votos consecrated to other divinities. Some of the early inscriptions give 
Kaptos, the true epithet of the god, while nava//,apos is a posterior surname. 
Five of the stelai name a group of persons, Flavius Aristolaos, " friend 
of Caesar and friend of the city," father of Leontis who was priestess 



236 AMERICAN JO URN A L OF ARCHMOL OGY. 

with Flavius Aeneas, whose son, Titus Flavius Leon, afterwards had the 
priestly office. There follow two dedications to Zeus Kannokos (KawtoKos), 
to Hera, and to Nike. The Karian idea of the direct intervention and 
real presence of the gods is evident in these votive stelai. Other divinities 
mentioned are Apollon and Artemis (whose worship was very popular in 
Karia), Demeter, Aphrodite", Hekate 1 , etc. G. FOUGERES, Archaic basrelief 
of Tyrnavo (Phalanna) (pp. 273-6 ; pi. xvi). This sculpture is on the 
upper part of a small sepulchral stele of white marble : the subject is a 
youthful female figure spinning : she must have been standing, holding 
the spindle high with her left hand : only the head and neck and the hand 
holding the spindle are left. The style is extremely interesting and reminds 
of that of the two girls on the stele of Pharsala found by M. Heuzey, 
though the face lacks their vivacity of expression. Nevertheless, they 
are of the same time, i. e., the close of the vi cent., and almost by the same 
hand. W. R. PATON, Inscriptions of Myndos (pp. 277-83). Nos. 1 and 
2 are fragments of a list of priestesses of Artemis. No. 6 gives the exact 
name of the island, not before known : it is Pserymos. P. FOUCART, The 
gold figures of Nike of the Akropolis (pp. 283-93). Thoukydides reports 
an address byPerikles enumerating the pecuniary resources of Athens for 
the war, in which the gold statutes of Nik6 are probably included in the 
term iepa a-Kevr). He it doubtless was who had the idea of transforming 
into works of art the mass of precious metals which constituted the treasure 
of the gods and the reserve of the republic. At all events, the gold Nikes 
existed before the beginning of the Peloponnesian war. They are men- 
tioned in a decree probably of the year 435. An inscription found in 1887 
is the first one to mention these statues. It is at the close of an inventory 
of the treasures of the goddess different from any already known. Its 
date is slightly anterior to the Persian war. One statue is mentioned as 
already existing. The two next mentioned were made that year by the 
artists . . . chides and Timodemos with the gold given them by the com- 
mittee of eTrto-rarat. All the Nikes were not cast in the same mould, but 
differed in some details. In 407, the Athenians were forced to melt the 
statues into money : at the close of the Peloponnesian war, part of these 
statues were restored. A second fragment, dating from about the archon- 
ship of Eukleides, inventories one Nike 1 , giving the weight of each part. 
The second one weighs one talent 5987 drachmas ; the weight of a third is not 
given. The date of the second Nike; is very early : it existed before the date 
of inscr. No. 1, and is the same as that mentioned in it : it differs in details 
from the two new statues of the fifth cent, and that of the fourth, which 
do not hold crowns. This is a proof that one and perhaps more of the 
statues were not cast in 407. It is supposed that these early figures were 
not placed in the Hekatompedon but in another building. There were 



SUMMARIES OF PERIODICALS. 237 

originally ten statuettes weighing on the average two talents of gold each, 
or a total of 524 kilograms, and of a total value of over 200 talents, thus 
forming the major part of the reserve fund. Only three were in existence 
two old and one new shortly after the end of the Peloponnesian war, 
and it was not until long after that the orator Lykourgos procured for the 
republic the means necessary for the manufacture of the other seven. All, 
however, were taken by the tyrant Leochares. A. L. DELATTRE, Impre- 
catory inscriptions found at Carthage (pp. 294-302). In the second pagan 
cemetery of Bir-el-Djebbana were found seven leaden tablets covered with 
inscriptions written with the stylus and containing imprecatory formulas. 
They are the Gnostic amulets called abraxas, and were found in sepulchral 
cippi. No. 1 contains a list of thirty horses to be cursed : No. 2, a list of 
drivers against whom the charm was to work. The following texts are 
almost illegible from the minuteness of the letters. The celestial and in- 
fernal powers are adjured to bind the members and muscles of the opposing 
drivers and their horses, to bind their limbs and stop their course, to tor- 
ture their soul and prevent them from gaining the victory. R. DARESTE, 
Note on a mortgage inscription (pp. 302-5). M. HOLLEAUX, Inscription 
of Alcraiphiai (pp. 305-15). This inscription was discovered by Leake, 
and published first by Ulrichs, and then by Keil. Many phrases badly 
mutilated in their copies are made plain by this further publication. TH. 
HOMOLLE, Two basreliefs found at Delos (pp. 315-23 ; pi. xiv). The first 
relief, illustrated on pi. xiv 1, is mutilated on all sides: it represents a 
female figure seated, in a graceful position, on a stone bench, resting lightly 
on her right arm. The forms are supple, the drapery is masterly, and its 
style is that of the masters of the close of the fifth or the beginning of the 
fourth cent. The second fragment (xiv 2) is only the upper right-hand 
corner of a relief of Paros marble on which is part of a female figure, 
probably Artemis. Both these works attest the Athenian influence at 
Delos. G. DESCHAMPS, Excavations in the island of Amorgos (pp. 3247). 
See JOURNAL, iv, 201-2, 350-1. P. F(OUCART), A decree of Magnesia on 
the Maiandros (pp. 328-30). The preamble of the inscription gives new in- 
formation on the little-known constitution of Magnesia on the Maiandros 
and on its calendar. It also makes known the college of strategoi and the 
importance of the secretary of the people. An Athenian decree (p. 331). 
This is the fragment of a decree of the tribe Erechtheis ordering an annual 
sacrifice to Poseidon and Erechtheus : it belongs to the middle of the iv 
cent. H. LECHAT, Excavations on the Alcropolis (pp. 332-6). 

H. LECHAT, Excavations at the Peiraieus. The ancient fortifications (pp. 
337-54 ; pi. xv). This account of the excavations on the site of the ancient 
walls of Eetioneia is summarized in the JOURNAL, vol. iv, p. 361 : cf. pp. 57, 
98. DEM. BALTAZZI, Inscriptions of the Aiolis (pp. 358-76). With the 



238 . AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY. 

exception of Lesbos, the Aiolis has given but few epigraphical texts. Those 
here published are partly edited, partly inedited. No. 17 makes known to 
us one Menekles, a Pyrrhonian philosopher, who prides himself on having 
realized the pyrrhonian ideal of ataraxia, i. e., of an existence serene and 
free from passions. No. 30 shows that the road from Ephesos to Pergamon, 
built in 129 B. c., was repaired under Vespasian in 75 A. D. No. 22 men- 
tions several times the city of Grynion, which has been met with only in 
one other epigraphic text. G. FouGERES,$fe/e of Mantin&ia (pp. 376-80; 
pi. iv). A description of this stele, a Dorian work of the close of the fifth 
century, is given in vol. iv, p. 360. M. HOLLEAUX, The Excavations of the 
temple of Apollon Ptoos (pp. 380-404 ; pis. xi, xn). The two handles of a 
large bronze basin, found in the excavations in 1885, consist of two figur- 
ines formed by the combination of a human body and the body of a bird : 
the head, bust, and arms are those of a man ; the wings and tail are of a 
bird : the wings are full-spread. Similar works have been found at Van in 
Armenia, at Palestrina, Olympia, and Athens twelve in all. The motive 
is certainly Oriental. According to Furtwangler (Arch. Ztg., 1879, p. 181 ; 
Bronzef. a. 01., p. 63) its origin is Assyrian, from the emblem of the god 
Assur. The writer opposes this theory and supports an Egyptian origin, 
bringing forward examples of Egyptian winged divinities, part human part 
bird. The actual execution of the figurines may be Phoenician. PI. xi 
reproduces a bronze statuette of a standing female, in which a very primi- 
tive archaism is combined with an art already learned, delicate, and almost 
graceful : it is a transitional work. The head has hardly any traces of 
archaism. J. N. SVORONOS, On the A EBHTE^ (a kind of coinage) ofKrete 
and the date of the great inscription containing the laws of Gortyn (pp. 405 
18). In supporting his view of the sixth-century date for the text of the 
Gortyn code, especially as against KirchhofFs date, posterior to 450, Pro- 
fessor Comparetti recently brought forward a discovery made by Dr. Halb- 
herr. In one of the archaic inscriptions of Gortyn, the fines were to be paid, 
not in staters, drachmas, triobols or obols, but in tripods (rptVoSa) and cal- 
drons (XcyS^res). Not finding any Gortynian coins with either of these 
objects, Comparetti concluded that the inscriptions dated from the time 
previous to the introduction of coined money, i. e., anterior to about 650 
B. c. These archaic inscriptions are somewhat older than the code-inscrip- 
tion, which would thus appear to belong to the sixth century. The writer 
here seeks to overthrow Comparetti's argument by proving that a well- 
known countermark on the coins of many Kretan cities, including Gortyn 
and Knossos, is nothing else than a lebes or caldron ; that all the coins thus 
countermarked are staters ; and that the lebetes of the archaic inscriptions 
correspond, as Comparetti recognizes, with the staters of the great code- 
inscription. The earliest staters with the countermark of the \efir)<; belong 



SUMMARIES OF PERIODICALS. . 239 

to the very period to which Kirchhoff assigns the great inscription. It is 
explained, that this countermark was invented to establish, for purposes of 
convenience, a coinage common to the tribunals of the different cities of the 
island. TH. HOMOLLE, A new name of a Greek artist (pp. 419-24). This 
artist is Teletimos. He is requested by the Delians to execute statues of 
Asklepios and of queen Stratonike, who is probably the daughter of Deme- 
trios Poliorketes and wife of Seleukos I. The date may be c. 300 B. c. 
P. FOUCART, A Latin inscription of Macedonia (pp. 424-7). G. DOUBLET, 
An inscription of Pompeiopolis (pp. 428-9). The date assigned to this in- 
scription fixes that of the foundation of Pompeiopolis by Pompey, on the site 
of Soloi, after Pompey's third imperium, i. e., after 67 B. c. Pompeiopolis 
is the only Greek city which struck coins with the effigy of Pompey. H. 
LECHAT, Excavations on theAkropolis (pp. 430-40). 

CH. DIEHL, Byzantine Paintings of Southern Italy (pp. 441-59 ; pis. vii, 
vin, ix, x). This paper is entitled "The hermit grottos in the neighbor- 
hood of Brindisi." The Terra d 1 Otranto, by its geographical position, was 
a great centre of Byzantine influence, and a home for Greek colonists. It 
contained a very large number of flourishing monasteries of the Basilian 
order. The great undulating plain is cut up at every step by numerous 
crevasses called gravine, sometimes several kilometers long, with rugged 
sides and full of rocks and boulders. In their slopes are thousands of natural 
grottos, which early served as a refuge in times of danger. Here the Greek 
monks established themselves and founded chapels and sanctuaries that were 
much frequented. A number of early paintings in the sanctuaries of the 
region of Brindisi are here described. (1) The crypt of S. Giovanni near 
S. Vito, where are paintings of the native art of the xm and xiv centuries, 
and fine Byzantine paintings of a much earlier date. Here, as often else- 
where, the decoration has been periodically renewed. (2) Near it is the 
crypt of S. Biagio with pictures of the greatest importance. The date of 
some of these paintings is 1197 ; they were executed by master Daniel under 
the hegoumenos Benedict. The chapel was partly re-decorated in the xiv 
century. B. LATYSCHEW, The priestly regulations of Mykonos (pp. 459-63). 
The inscription here republished contains the regulations for sacrifices in 
this island. Some better readings are proposed. TH. HOMOLLE, On the 
base of a statue (from Delos) bearing the signature of an artist and decorated 
with reliefs (pp. 463-79 ; pi. xm). This triangular marble base has remains 
of the feet of a nude standing male figure slightly advancing his left leg. 
On it is a very archaic inscription which reads : Fi[<]iKa/3Ti'8?7s \ |ju,'d | rc&eicc \ 
ho | Naho-tos >o|iras: " Iphikartides of Naxos made and dedicated me." 
The statue is probably that of Apollon. The base has two gorgoneia and 
a ram-head at the corners, of an extremely rude and summary archaic style 
of the close of the vn or the beginning of the vi cent. The study of the 



240 . AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY. 

Naxian alphabet also indicates the possibility of as early a date as the vn 
cent. Another early sign is that the boustrophedon inscription begins on 
the right according to Phoenician traditions. It is interesting to compare 
with it the Artemis of Nikandra. This base of Delos gives the earliest 
known artist's signature, anterior to that of Mikkiades and Archermos. 
G. DESCHAMPS and G. COUSIN, Inscriptions of the temple of ZeusPanamaros 
(contin. ; pp. 479-90). Among the inscriptions are many dedications of 
hair to the god. It was the custom to place in the temple or in the sacred 
enclosure a small stone-coffer in the shape of a stele, and to place the hair 
consecrated in a cavity cut in one side, often closed up by a thin piece of 
marble : the dedicatory inscription was engraved on a rectangular cartouche 
between two cornices. Sometimes the same stele is used for the ex-votos 
of several persons. Traces of a similar custom of offering hair are found 
at Athens, Argos, Delphoi, Delos, Megara, Troizen, Titand (Sikyonia), 
Paros, Thebes, Phigaleia, Hierapolis (Syria), Alexandreia and Prousa. In 
almost all worships the sacrifice of the hair was considered meritorious and 
agreeable to the divinity. This custom is found in Egypt, and also, in a 
marked way, among the ancient Arabs. But there has never been found 
so large and precise a series of dedications as at this Karian temple. It is 
suggested that there was some connection between hair-offering and the fetes 
of theKomyria. Sixty-one inscriptions are given. E. POTTIER, The archaic 
vases with reliefs in Greek countries (pp. 491-509). On archaic Etruscan 
black and red ware are two kinds of decoration in relief: (1) the earliest 
kind was made by rolling a cylindrical mould or stamp over the soft clay, 
producing a narrow band of figures or animals repeated ad lib.; (2) the 
later kind, made by means of isolated moulds, represented single heads or 
figures, thus ensuring greater variety. Two questions arise : (1) Did the 
Etruscans invent archaic vases with reliefs ? (2) Admitting even the imi- 
tation of foreign models, Are the works found in Etruscan necropoli of 
native manufacture? The second subject has recently been discussed be- 
tween MM. Loeschcke and Kekule, and is here set aside. In accord with 
Loeschcke, the writer not only takes away from the Etruscans the inven- 
tion of the technique, but also denies that they manufactured the great mass 
of these vases ; affirming, on the contrary, their Sicilian provenance, per- 
haps from Syracuse, where they were derived from Greece itself. This view 
is supported by the publication of a large archaic vase with reliefs, found 
on the Akropolis in 1887, and by an enumeration of other examples from 
different parts of Greece, one of the most important being from Tanagra, 
now in the Louvre. Many more of an extremely early date come from the 
islands : Kythnos, Tenos, Krete, Rhodos, Kypros. Notes are added on finds 
in Karia and the Troad. The conclusions are, (1) that the Italian manu- 
facturers, Etruscans and Sicilians, had Greek models and invented nothing; 



SUMMARIES OF PERIODICALS. 



241 



(2) that, in the history of Greek keramics from the beginning down to the 
fifth cent., a large share belongs to the technique in relief. M. HOLLEAUX, 
Address of Nero at Corinth, giving the Greeks their liberty (pp. 51028). A 
note on this address is given in vol. iv, p. 491. Lines 1-6 contain the cir- 
cular addressed by the Emperor Nero to the Greeks, ordering them to 
assemble on Nov. 28, 67 (?) A. D. at Corinth. Lines 7-26 have the official 
text of the Emperor's address delivered at that date; lines 27-58, the de- 
cree in honor of Nero, voted by the city of Akraiphia on the proposition of 
Epaminondas, high-priest for life of the Augusti and of Nero. It would 
seem as if the cause for this was the enthusiastic reception which the Greeks 
had given him on his Achaian visit, when they humored all his follies and 
tickled his vanity. This address is the only record of the style and eloquence 
of the emperor. A. L. F., JR. 

BULLETTINO DELL' IMP. ISTITUTO ARCHEOLOG1CO GERMAN- 
ICO. SEZIONE ROMANA. Vol. III. No. 2. H. HEYDEMANN, Obser- 
vations on the death of Priam andAstyanax (pp. 101-12 ; pi. in). In the 
Museum at Florence is a small slab in relief, coming originally from Greece 
and known to collectors as early as the xvn cent. It is singular as be-' 
ing the only example of a Greek relief used in the Roman period as a sepul- 
chral relief. On the altar where Priam is being killed, the following Latin 
inscription was added towards 200 A. D. : Aurelia Secunda\se viva fecit sibi 
et suis. The relief represents Priam seated on the altar of Zeus Herkeios 
defending himself against Neoptolemos, who seizes him by the head and 
grasps his sword, while further on the altar kneels Hecuba with both arms 
extended. The conception and composition full of pathos and dramatic 
action reminds of the frieze of Phigaleia, and the original composition, of 
which this appears to be a copy, may be assigned to the close of the fifth 
cent. B. c. Vase-paintings represent Priam in the act of fleeing toward the 
altar, or seated upon it waiting quietly the approach of Neoptolemos. A 
red-figured vase of severe style represents the death of Astyanax, held by 
the hair. Two other vases of the black-figured style represent Priam 
already wounded and dying. There are two modes of representing the 
death in ancient art, one with and one without Astyanax. PAUL WOL- 
TERS, Contributions to Greek Iconography (pp. 113-19 ; pi. iv). In this 
paper, entitled ARCHIDAMOS, W. examines a well-known fine bust from 
the villa at Herculaneum usually called, since Winckelmann's time, a bust 
of Archimedes, on account of a very indistinct inscription painted upon it. 
W. reads the letters APXIAAMOC, and believes the portrait to be that of 
Archidamos III, son of Agesilaos king of Sparta, who first fought after 
the battle of Leuktra and fell on the very day of the battle of Chaironeia. 
A statue was dedicated to him at Olympia by the Lakedaimonians (Paus. 



242 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHEOLOGY. 

vi. 4. 9) ; another, also at Olympia, perhaps by the grateful Tarentines. 
This btist may be copied from one of these. A. MAU, Excavations of Pom- 
peii. Tombs of the Via Nucerina (pp. 120-49). The Street of Tombs here 
described has already been noticed in vols. n, p. 484, in, 183, and iv, 104-5. 
It is only necessary to add, that architecturally these tombs may be divided 
into two classes : one, simple (Nos. 1 , 3, 5) with or without angular pilas- 
ters ; the other, richer (Nos. 2, 4, 6) with angular columns and half col- 
umns, this class being later. All belong to the rite of cremation. CH. 
HUELSEN, Remarks on the architecture of the temple of Jupiter Capitolinus 
(pp. 1505). In view of the scarcity of information regarding this impor- 
tant monument, the writer calls attention to two drawings in the Uffizi at 
Florence, one, surely, the other, probably, executed by Antonio da San- 
gallo the younger. One represents a column, the other a cornice said to 
have been brought from the temple of the Olympian Zeus by Sulla for the 
Capitoline temple. The fine Corinthian cornice is simpler than those of 
the second and third centuries, and by means of it several theories are ad- 
vanced regarding the architecture of the temple. 

No. 3. F. DUMMLER, Fragments of vases from Kyme inAiolis (pp. 159- 
80). The fragments were found at Kyme in 1880, and belong mainly to 
vases similar to both the Corinthian and the early-Ionian styles. Although 
the types are distinctly archaic and the technique early-archaic, the period 
may not be earlier than the Persian wars ; for some positions, like that of the 
half-turned Seilenos, are unknown to strictly archaic art. They are inter- 
esting examples of a distinctive style belonging to part of Asia Minor and 
developing on a parallel line with the Rhodian kerarnics. This is a fur- 
ther proof that the forerunners of Attic painting are to be sought not only 
in Corinth but in Asia Minor. A study is then made of the Ionian mo- 
tives used in these vases from Kyme, and a catalogue of comparative monu- 
ments is given. The nearest in style are vases found at Caere, evidently 
imported, of Ionian style with Rhodian influence and acquaintance with 
Egypt. The Kyme vases are of importance as aids in settling the difficult 
question : What early vases found in Italy are foreign imports, and what 
are native imitations. A. MAU, Excavations of Pompeii 1886-88 (pp. 181- 
207 ; pi. vn). The excavations were limited to two points : (1) the row 
of houses extending on the s. limits of the city, from the triangular forum 
towards the basilica, and the houses called " of Championnet " (Ins. vn. 2) ; 
(T)Insula xi. 7 to the east of the house called "del Centenario " (Ins. ix. 6). 
This paper deals with Ins. vin. 2. House 28 remains essentially in its 
present form from the Samnite period (tufa period), but was rebuilt in 
alternate courses of brick and stone : the style of decorations show this 
reconstruction to have taken place in the last period. The atrium is tetra- 
style and Ionic. The next house, Nos. 26-27, goes back to the same early 



SUMMARIES OF PERIODICALS. 



243 



period, with later reconstruction not later than the third decorative style, 
i. e., about 50 A. D. It is remarkable for a series of subterranean cham- 
bers. The following house, Nos. 22-24, is a small bathing establishment, 
described in the News on p. 219. The adjacent construction (No. 21) has 
not yet been completely excavated, but it is already evident that it was 
rebuilt before the construction of the bathing establishment, to which, how- 
ever, the rooms to the left of its atrium were added. The decoration has 
entirely disappeared. In the atrium lie fragments of marble columns and 
architraves. CH. HULSEN, The site and inscriptions of the Schola Xantha 
in the Roman Forum (pp. 208-32 ; pi. vin). The magistrates of Repub- 
lican Rome who had charge of the finances and archives had offices by 
the Roman forum. All these have disappeared without trace. In the 
middle of the xvi cent, a small building entirely of marble and in perfect 
preservation was excavated near the temple of Saturn and immediately 
destroyed. This schola has been variously placed by archaeologists. The 
writer, by an ingenious connection with the known position of the base of 
Stilicho's statue and a passage of Ligorio, is able to place the building with 
relative certainty on the s. side of the rostra, between them and the Via 
Sacra, facing the latter. The reconstruction of the epigraphic texts is more 
difficult, as none of the four early writers three of them contemporary 
with the discovery report the entire texts. The exact name of the build- 
ing is : schola scribarum librariorum et praeconum aedilium curulium. The 
writer is opposed to the common theory, that the restoration by Bebryx 
Drusianus and A. Fabius Xanthus was as late as the middle of the third 
century, and assigns it to the time of Caracalla. In support of this, he 
gives a list, showing that the double names of servi and liberti of the house 
of Augustus disappear after Trajan. A restoration of the various inscrip- 
tions to their conjectured positions, and with various readings, is given. 
MISCELLANIES. J. Six, Kleophrades, son of Amasis. An examination of 
a vase in the Due de Luynes' collection in Paris ( Vases peints, p. 24) shows 
that it was not executed by an Amasis, as the inscription cannot read 
AMA^[isj eypa<]^[e, on account of there being no room for a letter be- 
tween the last 3 and the three dots. Consequently, there is no Amasis II 
(Klein, Meistersig., p. 149). The inscription may be completed as follows : 
WEO<t>RAAES : EPOIESEM | AMAS[IOS \ HVVJ3; This is, then, 
the work of a son of Amasis. Amasis himself seems to have been the first 
to paint in red figures, and founded that school: this view is supported by 
the De Luynes amphora in which the black and red-figure techniques are 
combined. On account of Amasis' connection with Egypt and perhaps 
with Naukratis, there would be a strong inference in favor of the rise of 
the Attic red-figured style under foreign influence. E. PETERSEN, The 
theatre of Tauromenion. These remarks were written after a short visit 



244 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHEOLOGY. 

to the theatre, for the purpose of showing that it is worthy of more care- 
ful study than has heretofore been given to it. F. RUHL, Representation 
of a dolmen on a painting in Pompeii. It is suggested that the fresco in 
the National Museum, Naples, marked xxxvi, 9042, with the punishment 
of Dirke, contains the representation of a dolmen. 

No. 4. G. JATTA, The rivalry of Thamyris and the Muses (pp. 239-53 ; 
pi. ix). This vase had been published by Michaelis as early as 1865, and 
his drawing has been since reproduced by Comparetti and Baumeister: but 
all these writers, including also E. Pottier ( Ceram. de la Or., p. 359, pi. vi), 
are ignorant of the present existence and ownership of the vase. Michaelis' 
drawing also is incorrect in some details. Hence the present publication. 
The writer opposes Michaelis, who considered the group of three female 
figures with erotes to be Sappho, Aphrodite and Peitho, and denies the 
presence of Sappho, the sole reason for which is the existence of the in- 
scription ^ AO. This explanation is considered forced and not justified by 
myth, legend, art, or literature. He adheres to Furtwangler's opinion, that 
these are Aphrodite, Peitho, Paregoros with Eros, Pothos and Himeros, in- 
spiring Thamyris. The attitude of Apollon and the Muses towards Thamy- 
ris is evidently one of hostility. A. MICHAELIS, The antiquities of the city of 
Rome described by Nicholas Muffel (pp. 254-76). Nicholas Muffel of Niirn- 
berg visited Rome in 1452 in the suite of the Emperor Frederick III, whose 
crown jewels he carried, in view of the coronation by Pope NicholasV. The 
relation of his journey was published by W.Vogt in 1876 in vol. cxxvin 
of the Bibliothek des litterarischen Vereins in Stuttgart, but it has been very 
little noticed. It merits greater attention, especially on account of the very 
detailed description of the seven principal basilicas and the ancient monu- 
ments, given especially at the close of the report. He appears to have 
carefully digested Poggio's dialogue de varietatefortunae. The text is here 
republished with some omissions. F. STUDNICZKA, The archaic statuette of 
Artemis from Pompeii (pp. 277302 ; pi. x). The numerous recent discov- 
eries of archaic statuary will strongly affect our views regarding the group 
of sculptures usually termed " archaistic." It will be recognized that these 
are just as much copies of genuinely archaic works as the well-known repro- 
ductions of sculptures of the masters of the classic period, and they will 
thus help to reconstruct the history of early Greek art. Such a work the 
writer sees in a statuette of Artemis, hunting, found in 1760 in the tempietto 
of a house in Pompeii. Its base and colors were then perfectly preserved. 
The height of the figure is 1.078 met. The upper and lower part of the 
quiver, the attribute in the left hand, and bits of the diadem are missing, 
as are also pieces of the garments, etc. The original of this work may be 
assigned to the time of the Persian wars, the copy being made in the early 
imperial period. The figure is represented as advancing rapidly with eager 



SUMMARIES OF PERIODICALS. 245 

eyes fixed on the distance, raising her long chiton with her right hand. 
There is great similarity to the NikS figures of the Chios- Attic archaic 
school. The archaic character of the different parts is discussed in detail. 
A good proof of this being a copy of an archaic original is found in a rep- 
lica at Venice from the Grimani collection. A wall-painting of the time of 
Augustus, reproducing the same figure, was found in the Farnesina gar- 
dens. The bow held in the left hand leads one to restore the same in the 
hand of the statue. This is supported by several coins reproducing the 
so-called Sicilian Artemis. Pausanias (vn. 18.9) describes at Patrai a 
statue of Artemis by Menaichmos and Soidas, artists of Naupaktos, trans- 
ported there from Kalydon by Augustus. This is considered to be possibly 
the original of the Pompeian statue. E. PETERSEN, Commodus and Tritons 
(pp. 303-1 1). An elegant bust of Commodus in the new Capitoline Museum, 
supposed to have no connection with the two tritons placed near it, is shown 
to have formed their centre-piece, instead of a Neptune, as had been sug- 
gested. On sarcophagi, tritons and other mythical creatures are often rep- 
resented holding a circle with the portrait-head or heads of the deceased. 
The bust seems to have been held directly by the tritons, and the entire com- 
position would thus very easily be fitted into a gable. T. MoMMSEN,.Le#er 
to C.Huelsen, supporting his demonstration of the disuse of double names 
of servi and liberti after Trajan. A. L. F., JR. 

GAZETTE ARCHEOLOGIQUE. 1888. Nos. 7-8. H. DEGLANE, The 

Palace of the Ccesars on the Palatine (pp. 145-63 ; pis. 21, 22, 23) (contin.). 
The constructions under Augustus are first studied, then the buildings of 
Tiberius and Caligula and the imperial palace up to the time of the Flavii, 
then the palace of Domitian. These include the house of Augustus, the 
temple of Apollo of the Palatine, the temple of Vesta of the Palatine, and 
the library of Apollo, the palaces of Tiberius, Caligula and Nero, and the 
palace of Domitian. In the latter, the entrance, the tablinum, the lara- 
rium, basilica, the communications with the palace of Tiberius, and the 
tribunals are specially studied. The restored plan of M. Deglane evinces 
careful study of previous restorations as well as of the existing remains. 
L. COURAJOD, A sculpture from the church of La Chaise-Dieu (pp. 1646; 
pi. 24). The church of La Chaise has many features in common with for- 
eign churches, but the fayade is more truly national, especially the sculp- 
tured portal with its triple row of archivolts figured with musical angels, 
patriarchs and prophets, apostles and doctors. The sculptured prophet 
here reproduced belongs to the great current of French art formed in Paris 
under Flemish influence during the second half of the xiv century. E. 
POTTIER, Studies in Greek Keramics (pp. 167-81 ; pis. 25, 26). i. Vases 
with artists' signatures. In the Gazette Arch, for 1877, M. Pettier increased 



246 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY. 

the series of known signed vases by adding those of the Ravestein Museum, 
Brussels. He now adds a number from the Louvre, contributing also new 
bibliographical material to supplement the work of Prof. Klein, Die grie- 
chischen Vasen mit Meistersignaturen. The new names of artists are Oiko- 
pheles, Greece ; Menaidas, Boiotia ; Aisehines, Athens ; Kallis, Athens ; 
Oreibelos, Athens; Xenotimos, Italy. New ^ases by artists already known 
are also added. 11. Acquisitions by the Louvre. An enumeration of about 
150 figurines and vases acquired by the Louvre from Feb. 1886 to Jan. 
1888, classified as of the styles of Asia Minor, of Krete, of the Cyrenaica, 
Greek (Attic, Boiotian, N. Greece, Lokris, Eretria) and Italic. DIEULA- 
FOY, Notes on the standard cubits of Persia and Chaldaea (pp. 182-92 ; 
pi. 27). In the Cabinet des Medailles there is a black-marble rule covered 
with cuneiform characters. It was brought to Europe in the xvn century. 
The inscription reads: "I am Darius the great king, son of Hystaspes the 
Achsemenid." It seems to be a standard measure, corresponding to a half- 
cubit. Its length is 0.2656 m. The cubit deduced from other measure- 
ments is found to be 0.5311 m., a sufficiently exact correspondence. 

Nos. 9-10. J. Six, Archaic Vases with polychromatic figures on a^black 
background (pp. 193-210 ; pis. 28, 29). The fact that Furtwangler, in 
his catalogue of vases in the Berlin Museum, classifies these polychromatic 
vases with the red-figured, and Koumanoudis, in the Archaeological Mu- 
seum at Athens, classes them with the black-figured, is only an apparent 
contradiction, as the style covered both periods. Forty-five vases of the 
archaic period are here studied. Of these, seventeen come from Greece 
proper, eleven from Magna Graecia, three from Vulci, four from Italy 
(possibly Etruscan), and nine are of uncertain provenance. It is not pos- 
sible to state the exact number found in Athens or in Attika, but it seems 
to be large enough to make it reasonably certain that they were all made 
in the workshops of Athens. H. DEGLANE, The Palace of the Ccesars ort 
the Palatine (contin. and end: pp. 211-24; pis. 21, 22, 23, 30). Con- 
tinuing his survey of the constructions, the writer describes (8) the peri- 
stylium, a rectangle of over 3000 sq. meters, decorated on all four sides 
with a portico of channelled columns. As one faces the triclinium, the 
right side led to eight halls, surrounding a central octagon, of small dimen- 
sions but varied in shape, and which may be considered as summer halls 
or zetae aestivales. The peristyle of the Flavian palace joined on to the 
house of Augustus (9), and under it were buried, when the level was raised, 
some halls (10) built at the end of the Republican period. From the peri- 
style opened out a large and sumptuous triclinium (11) with a aymphaeum 
on either side, connected on the one side with the aedes Jovis Victoris and 
on the other with the house of Augustus. Next came the Bibliotheca and the 
Academia (13), the stadium of Domitian (14), the imperial tribune (15), 



SUMMARIES OF PERIODICALS. 247 

and, in front of it, the portico of the stadium (16). M. COLLIGNON, Fune- 
rary plaques in painted terracotta found at Athens (pp. 225-32 ; pi. 31). 
These plaques, now in the Museum of Berlin, were found at Athens, in 
1872, in the tomb of a woman. They are in the archaic Attic style, and 
are covered with painted funerary scenes. The fragments belong to a 
series of twelve plaques of unusual size, 0.37 cent, high by 0.43 cent, long: 
contrary to the usual custom they have no holes for suspension. The 
direction of the painted maeanders indicates that they formed two distinct 
series arranged as friezes. They are of extreme interest for the study of 
the funeral rites in Attika, because they represent, with details not to be 
found in vase-paintings, the successive acts in the ceremonies : (1) the ex- 
position of the body (7iy>o0ecris) and the mourning ; (2) continuance of the 
mourning ; (3) scene in the women's apartments ; (4) transportation of 
the body (e/c</>opa) ; (5) the funeral procession, including men and women 
on foot, chariots, and horsemen. The conception and execution of these 
scenes is fine. Their date is thought to be about 550 or 540. JOIN- 
LAMBERT, The inscriptions (Rebus and Enigmas) of the church of Saint- 
Gregoire-du- Vievre (pp. 233-44 ; pis. 32, 33). The writer sees, in these 
peculiar figured drawings and inscriptions on this church-wall of the end 
of the xvi century, signs of free-masonry and of protestant enmity to Catholi- 
cism. A. DE CHAMPEAUX and P. GAUCHERY, Works of architecture and 
sculpture executed for Jean de France, due de Berry (contin. : pp. 245-54 ; 
pi. 34). This ch. vii treats of the duke's tomb. During his lifetime he 
made several efforts to erect a monument to himself, and even went so far 
as to build at Bourges the Sainte Chapelle, begun in 1392 and finished in 
1405, which he regarded as a mausoleum. His death took place, how- 
ever, before his monument was begun, and the English wars, the penury 
of the royal treasury, etc., prevented the carrying out of the project until 
1450. Before this, Jehan de Cambray, the duke's imagier, had executed 
the effigy of his master. The life and family of Jehan de Camb.-ay are 
studied, as well as his works, and his style is judged to be Burgundian. 
In fact he was one of the best pupils of the famous Andre de Beauneveu. 
In 1453, when King Rene visited Bourges, Estienne Bobillet and Paoul 
de Mosselemen are mentioned as the sculptors working on the tomb : at 
least one of these artists is Flemish, and this explains the style of the 
monument. They executed the ornamental part of the sarcophagus and 
the surrounding statuettes. The name of Paul Mosselmann was already 
known : that of Etienne Bobillet is new. An excursus is made in order 
to narrate the history of the execution of the stalls of the cathedral of 
Rouen, in part executed by Mosselmann. The tomb of the due de Berry 
was finished about 1457, and occupied for three centuries the centre of 
the choir of the Sainte-Chapelle, until the building was demolished in 



248 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY. 

1757, when it was taken to the cathedral. A. VERCOUTRE, Note on a 
piece of pottery with bilingual inscription (pp. 255-6). This fragment was 
found at Soussa and bears, on one side, a Latin inscription (PHERI) and, 
on the other, a neo-Punic inscription of doubtful reading. CHRONIQUE. 
BIBLIOGRAPHY. 

Nos. 11-12. J. N. SVORONOS, Odysseus among the Arkadians, and the 
Telegoneia of Eugammon (pp. 257-80 ; pi. 35). The coinage of Arkadia 
offers numerous examples of the use of types of coins referring to local myths 
concerning Artemis, Arkas, Paso, Herakles, etc. This article refers to simi- 
lar types on some coins from Mantineia the meaning of which has thus far 
escaped the numismatists and archaeologists. Several of these coins ex- 
hibit the figure of a man carrying what appeared to be a spear or har- 
poon. Homer (Odyss. XT. 121-34) shows this to be Odysseus, at the 
moment when he meets the predicted wayfarer and plants his "shapen 
oar " in the earth and sacrifices to Poseidon. This interpretation is sub- 
stantiated by correspondences of the coins of Mantineia with the continu- 
ation of the story of Odysseus in the Telegoneia of Eugammon. The con- 
clusions are thus summarized by the author : " A single coin enables us to 
comprehend, for the first time after so many centuries, what was the people 
indicated by the great poet in one of the most interesting rhapsodies of his 
epic; it enables us to avoid ancient and modern misinterpretations; to un- 
derstand the spirit and the series of facts of an epic which constitutes the 
continuation of the Odyssey ; to recognize the very interesting costume with 
which they were clothed who went down to consult Trophonios ; it shows 
us the as yet unknown form of the krepides of Lebadeia ; it gives us the 
correct interpretation of one of the rarest and most interesting of engraved 
stones ; it enables us to understand why in Arkadia and not elsewhere there 
are so many legends about the end of the life of Odysseus ; in this coin, we 
possess a monument commemorative of the famous battle of Leuktra and 
of the reconstruction of Mantineia under the advice and support of Epami- 
nondas the noblest of ancient generals; the exact date of the coin is known, 
a circumstance of importance for the chronological classification of the coins 
of the entirePeloponnesos." J. Six., Archaic Vases with poly chromatic figures 
on a black background (contin. and end : pp. 281-94 ; pis. 28, 29). If doubts 
may be cast upon the provenance of the group of vases previously described, 
the same cannot be said of those which form the subject of the present paper, 
as they are undoubtedly of Athenian origin. The painting is in general poor, 
but the potter's work excellent. The little paterae, about twenty centimeters 
in diameter, are light, smooth, and often have the black varnish most suc- 
cessfully applied. As characteristic marks, may be mentioned, that the 
figures painted on the inner side have always their heads toward the centre 
and feet toward the border ; and that the omphalos is often surrounded 



SUMMARIES OF PERIODICALS. 249 

with radiating marks painted with greater carelessness than the rest. Simi- 
lar careless marks sometimes form the band which encloses the subject-paint- 
ing. A strong resemblance was first observed between a fragment from the 
Athenian akropolis and the pottery of Naukratis. Now that more than, 
thirty such fragments have been founc[ on the Akropolis, the presumption 
is very strong in favor of a date prior to the Median wars. Epigraphic evi- 
dence establishes this conclusion. G. DUPLESSIS, Italian Binding ofthexv 
century in silver niello (pp. 295-8 ; pis. 37, 38). Of all the known nielli, 
the book-covers here reproduced are the largest ; measuring 0.415 X 0.295 
met. They are now in the possession of Baron Nathaniel de Rothschild of 
Vienna, and appear to have once belonged to the Vatican collections sold 
in 1798. As they are of Italian workmanship and contain the arms of the 
French Cardinal Jean Ballue, it seems not improbable that they covered 
an evangelarium to be presented to the Cardinal shortly after his nomi- 
nation to the office in 1464, but that, owing to the Cardinal's unfortunate 
career, it could not be presented, and found its way naturally to the library 
of the Vatican. MAURICE PROU, Carlovingian inscriptions in the crypts of 
Saint- Germain atAuxerre (pp. 299-303). The monk Raoul Glaber relates 
that, during his stay in the abbey of Saint-Germain at Auxerre, he was 
invited, about the year 1002, to restore the inscriptions of about 22 altars. 
These epitaphs cannot be earlier than 859, the year when the crypts were 
finished and the body of Saint-Germain transported there. The work of 
Raoul can hardly have been more than refreshing the color of the inscrip- 
tions. E. BABELON, Applied bronze figures in the Cabinet des Medailles 
(pp. 304-7 ; pi. 36). Two bronze figures in relief in the Cabinet des Me- 
dailles, in Paris, which belonged to Foucault's collections and were placed 
in 1727 in the Cabinet du Roi, appear to have been detached from a series 
of figures in applied relief which formed a procession similar to the Pana- 
thenaia, or rather a nuptial procession of gods and goddesses analogous to 
those decorating the sarcophagus of the Villa Albani (marriage of Peleus 
and Thetis) and the circular altar at Corinth, which are Graeco-Roman 
copies of works of the fifth century. These two bronzes are themselves 
archaistic, and seem to represent Hebe and Hera. E. MOLINIER, The 
chalice of the Abbot Pelagius at the Museum of the Louvre (pp. 308-11 ; pi. 
39). This well-known chalice was recently purchased by the Louvre : it 
is of silver partly gilt : the globe which is placed between the conical foot 
and the hemispherical bowl is cast and chiselled, and has the symbols of 
the Evangelists in relief. The inscription on the foot reads: * Pelagius 
abbas me fecit ad honorem s(an)c()i lacobi ap(osto)li. It is accompanied 
by its patena. The place of manufacture is evidently Spain. The name 
Pelagius is especially common in Gallicia and the Asturias. In style, it 
would belong to the xn cent, if it were French, but Spain was behind 



250 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY. 

France in progress, and this work probably dates from the first half of 
the xiu century. A. HEISS,^. Keltiberian dish in terracotta discovered at 
Segovia (pp. 312-20 ; pi. 40). At the beginning of 1888, this plate in red 
terracotta covered with a black varnish was found at Segovia. It is 48 cen- 
tim. in diameter, and has two inscriptions in Keltiberian characters. It 
seems to be unique, and is now in the possession of M. Stanislas Baron. It 
has been considered a forgery, partly because it was not found in the region 
where " Hispano-Moorish " pottery was manufactured. The date is sup- 
posed to be the beginning of the reign of Augustus, and the place of manu- 
facture the south of Spain. The inscriptions are compared with the bilingual 
coins of the Balearic Islands and with those of Abdera, Oba, Lascuta, Asido, 
etc. Only on some of the coins of the Turdetaui are the inscriptions retrograde, 
as on the plate. A comparative table, on the basis of the Hebrew alphabet, 
is given of the characters of the dish compared with those of the Iberian 
and Turdetanian alphabets ; and other tables of the values of the characters 
of the internal and external dish-inscriptions. No attempt is made at a 
philological explanation. INDEX. CHRONIQUE. BIBLIOGRAPHY. 

ALLAN MARQUAND. 

JAHRBUCH D. K. DEUT. ARCHAOLOGISCHEN INSTITUTS. Yol. III. 

1888. No. 4r. R. BORRMANN, Stelai for votive offerings on the A kropolis at 
Athens (30 cuts). The shafts of these stelai are round, polygonal, or four- 
sided, sometimes square, sometimes oblong. The shape of the capitals de- 
pends upon that of the offerings they are intended to support. The capi- 
tals are of all kinds, Doric, Ionic, and cup-shaped. The ornamentation 
is executed in colors, mostly blue, red, and gray. Inscriptions are gener- 
ally colored red. The round columns are sometimes fluted: the flutes 
are always shallow, and have sharp dividing lines whether the capital be 
Doric or Ionic. The top of the shaft is hewn down to a comparatively 
small size, and fits into a hole in the capital, where it is fastened with lead. 
This is like wood construction, except that wooden beams would be fas- 
tened with pegs instead of melted lead. In general, these stelai confirm 
the recent theories concerning the origin of Doric as well as Ionic archi- 
tectural forms from wooden prototypes. These stelai were probably placed 
so high that the tops of the capitals, which are often but roughly finished, 
were invisible. F. IMHOOF-BLUMER, Figures on ancient coins (pi. 9 rep- 
resenting 29 coins), i. Praying and supplicating figures. A late Tyrian 
coin represents a woman stretching out her hands in prayer to the temple 
of Melkart. Two Sikyonian coins (of Julia Domna and Fulvia Plautilla) 
represent a youth with garland on his head, his hands raised in prayer. 
Two coins of Magnesia in Lydia have the same type. The youth is pro- 
bably returning thanks for an athletic victory. A Corinthian coin of 



SUMMARIES OF PERIODICALS. 251 

Antoninus Pius represents Melikertes standing on a dolphin and praying. 
Three coins of Nikaia (Commodus) represent the infant Dionysos sitting 
in a basket, and stretching out his arms. Similar gestures of prayer are 
seen on coins with representations of Eros and Aphrodite, of the infant 
Dionysos, of Arkas, and of children, n. Myths of Zeus. Two Laodicean 
coins of Marcus Aurelius represent respectively the infant Zeus with Rhea 
and Adrasteia and with Adrasteia and the Korybantes. in. The Judg- 
ment of Paris. Coins of Skepsis, Ilion, Tarsos, and Alexandreia represent 
the judgment of Paris, iv. The Legend of the Foundation of Ephesos. 
Three Ephesian coins represent the mountain-deity IleiW, a mountain, 
and a stricken boar. v. Mountain-deities, Mountains, Nymphs. On the 
coins of Laodikeia, Skepsis, and Ephesos above-mentioned, mountain-deities 
are depicted. A coin of Synnada represents Kybele and a recumbent moun- 
tain-god. A coin of Dokimia represents the mountain Persis and Kybele. 
A coin of Kyzikos represents a nymph and a satyr. A. FURTWANGLER, 
Studies on Gems with Artists' Inscriptions, u. Gems with Artists' Inscrip- 
tions in various Collections (contin. : pis. 10, 11 ; 8 inscriptions in facsimile). 
The Paris amethyst with the so-called head of Maecenas is not an original 
work of Dioskourides, but a work of the later part of the xvi or of the 
xvn century. A second copy is in Berlin. Four gems with the inscrip- 
tion COAOONOC represent the same head, and are doubtless copies of a 
lost gem by an artist Solon. The head is that of Cicero. Three modern 
copies (two in the British Museum and one in Rome) exist of a lost gem 
by Dioskourides representing the head of Julius Csesar. Three gems rep- 
resenting Augustus are not by Dioskourides, but are modern. The same 
is true of the Perseus in Naples. All other known gems ascribed to Dios- 
kourides (except those mentioned in the previous article) are manifest 
forgeries. Eutyches and Hesophilos, sons of Dioskourides, have left each 
one gem, here described. Three gems by Hyllos, a third son, are described. 
Of Solon only two genuine works are known to exist. All others are imi- 
tations. Works by Felix, Polykleitos, and Gnaios are discussed. All these 
artists worked in the style of Dioskourides. Are described and published 
gems by Agathangelos, Mykon, Saturninus, Epitynchanos, Euodos, Apol- 
lonios, Pamphilos, Teukros, Anteros, and Philemon. To judge from the por- 
traits which they represent, these artists belong to the early Empire. 
J. BOEHLAU, Boiotian Vases (36 cuts). A catalogue is given of a class of 
vases from early Boiotion tombs. 55 are wide dishes with or without a 
standard or foot ; the remaining 17 are of various forms. Idols of similar 
technique are discussed, and three are published. These vases are of light, 
loose clay, and made on the wheel. The decoration is "geometrical" and 
" orientalizing." The " geometrical " part resembles that of the " proto- 
Corinthian" style, rather than that of the "-Dipylon " style, which latter 



252 AMERICAN JO URNAL OF ARCH^OLOG Y. 

derived its ornaments in great measure from the Mykenaian style. The 
" orientalizing " parts of these Boiotian vases reached Boiotia by way of 
Chalkis. The vases belong to the vn century B. c., but cannot as yet be 
more accurately dated. In an appendix (12 cuts) are described objects of 
bronze found in the Boiotian graves. The objects comprise fibulae, rings, 
bracelets, etc. E. PERNICE, On the Chest of Kypselos and the Amyklaian 
Throne. Pausanias describes the first, third, and fifth x^pat of the chest 
of Kypselos from right to left, the second and fourth from left to right. 
He describes (v. 17. 9) Herakles in the description of the funeral games 
of Pelias. This figure belongs in the preceding scene, the departure of 
Amphiaraos, and is not Herakles but a crouching figure holding the horses 
of Amphiaraos. The staff held by this figure may have been mistaken 
for the club of Herakles. This figure is found on Corinthian vases with 
representations of the departure of Herakles. So, too, the house mentioned 
at this point by Pausanias occurs on Corinthian vases. Comparison of 
Pausanias' description of the chest with vase-paintings strengthens the 
probability that the chest was of Cdrinthian workmanship. The division 
of the first, second, fourth, and fifth x^pat into scenes of equal size divided 
by triglyphs (Klein, Sitzungsber. d. Wien. Akad., vol. 108, pp. 51-83) is 
impossible, for the scenes contain various numbers of persons, and cannot 
be reduced to the same size. Besides, if the scenes were divided by tri- 
glyphs, Pausanias could not attribute any figure to a scene to which it did not 
belong. One such false attribution (v. 17. 11), by which lolaos is removed 
from the scene of the Hydra and made victor in a chariot race, is univer- 
sally acknowledged, and a second is pointed out above. In his descrip- 
tion of the Amyklaian Throne, Pausanias (in. 18.11) mentions, in order, 
Herakles in combat with Thourios, Tyndareos with Eurytos, and the rape 
of the daughters of Leukippos. Tyndareos belongs to the last scene, for 
the maidens are carried off by his sons Kastor and Polydeukes. Klein 
(Archaol.-epigr. Mitth. aus Oester., 1885, pp. 145-68) divides the repre- 
sentations on the throne into separate pictures. This is impossible for 
reasons similar to those which forbid the division of the scenes on the chest 
of Kypselos. ADDENDA. BIBLIOGRAPHY. REGISTER. 

Vol. IT. 1889. No. 1. O. RICHTER, The Roman Orator } s Platform (9 
cuts). There is no evidence of a locus inferior as part of the rostra. The 
ships-beaks were arranged in two rows across the entire front of the plat- 
form, 20 in the upper and 19 in the lower row. The platform was 80 feet 
in length. Its base was a foundation a foot in height ; above this was a 
moulding f foot high ; then the wall 8 feet in height, which was sur- 
mounted by a cornice If ft. high. Above the cornice was the balustrade 
which surrounded the platform with the exception of a space in the middle 
of the front and the entrance at the back. The platform was entered by 



SUMMARIES OF PERIODICALS. 253 

an inclined plane. At the sides of the entrance were the reliefs represent- 
ing the suovetaurilia and the scene with the rostra at one end and Marsyas 
under the fig-tree at the other. Upon the platform were numerous statues, 
and at least five triumphal columns. As the taste of the Romans grew more 
and more to favor colossal figures, the foundations of the platform had to 
be strengthened to support the great masses placed upon it. G. TREU, A 
Painted Marble Head in the British Museum (pi. 1). This female head was 
found on the Esquiline, and was brought to the British Museum in 1884. 
It was originally set into a statue. The hair is yellow, but the shading was 
done in brown ; the face is of a rosy flesh-color ; the eyebrows are black, 
as is the pupil of the eye and the outline of the iris. The black of the eye- 
brows is applied directly to the marble, which was covered with fine white 
wax to receive the other colors. The colors are now very easily effaced, 
rubbing off at a touch : the result of long lying in the damp earth. The 
figure was once covered with a disc to keep off the rain : it must, then, have 
stood in the open air. A. E. J. HOLWERDA, Attic Vases of the Transition 
Style (4 cuts). Five vases (kylikes) of the museum in Leyden are discussed, 
of which three are published. One represents a music-lesson and scenes of 
the komos ; the second, scenes in the life of an Attic iTrn-eus ; the third a 
draped female figure in the centre, and ; on the outside, two groups, each 
consisting of a female figure between two males, all draped. Under the 
handles of all these vases are palmettes. The t7nrev<s is treated as an athlete 
rather than as a soldier. The Athenian cavalry attained little prominence 
in war until the Peloponnesian war. These vases show the transition from 
the rigid red-figured style to the free style. In the treatment of drapery 
there are still reminiscences of the careful, apparently starched, folds of 
earlier art. The change from those folds to the free drapery of the fifth 
century probably took place in reality as well as in art. The rigid red- 
figured style of vase-painting flourished before the Persian wars. After the 
Persian wars, a less artificial costume and a freer life was accompanied by 
a corresponding change in the style of vase-painting. A. FURTW ANGLER, 
Studies on Gems with Artists' Inscriptions (conclusion : pi. 2, nos. 15 ; 1 cut ; 
9 inscriptions in facsimile). Only three works of Aspasios are recognized 
as genuine : the well-known Athena Parthenos, a bearded Dionysos in the 
British Museum, and a fragment of what seems to be a Sarapis in the 
Florentine Museum. Gems by the following artists are described : Skylax, 
Koinos,Aulus son ofAlexas, Quintus son of Alexas, Caius, Lucius, Tryphon, 
Rufus, Sostratos and Diodotos. The gemjahrbueh in. pi. 11. 24 has the in- 
scription e Y7repex t/ou - This may be the name of the artist or of the owner. 
The name$Admon,Nicomacus,PharnaJces, andAlpheos are those of the owners 
of the stones on which they are engraved. The name Allion occurs on imi- 
tations of antique gems. A Florentine gem has the form A A A 1 N . Whether 



254 AMERICAN JO URNAL OF ARCHJEOLOG Y. 

the inscription denotes the artist, the owner, or the person represented is un- 
certain. The following artists' names are forgeries : Action, Neisos, Heius, 
Thamyras, Skopas,Axeochos, Glykon,Pergamos,Agathemeros, Seleukos,Am- 
monios, Hermaiskos, Epitonos,Karpos,Apollonides,Kronios, Hellen, the last 
three of which are derived from Pliny. The gems with all these inscriptions 
are described and discussed. The artists' signatures are always modest in 
size and position. Before Alexander, the inscriptions are careful, and the 
earliest ones follow the curve of the edge of the gem. In the earliest in- 
scriptions the strokes taper to a point, but later they are of uniform width 
and end in a curve. The nominative is more frequent than the genitive. 
The works follow the tendencies of monumental art of the same period. In 
the Hellenistic period, the inscriptions are more careless. The nominative 
is more common than the genitive, and the verb tTroiet is more frequently 
added than before Alexander. The artists are distinguished for freshness 
in conception and execution. In the first century before and after Christ, 
the inscriptions are exact and elegant. The strokes end in a ball. The 
round cursive forms of epsilon and sigma are the rule. Omega has the forms 
CO and Q. The verb eTroiei is less frequent than before, and the genitive is 
more frequent than the nominative. The inscription is always written in 
a straight (generally vertical) line. The artists' works are distinguished 
for correctness and elegance, but lack the freshness of the earlier works. 
In an appendix, the ring of Philon (Jahrb., in, p. 206) is said to be in the 
possession of Count Michel Tyszkiewicz. An additional work of Ly komedes 
is published and discussed. A beautiful fragment of the gem of Athenian 
(Jahrb. in. pi. 3.3) is published and discussed. So also another work of'Hyl- 
los. A. CONZE, The Prototype of the Diomedes Gems (pi. 2.7). A relief in 
the Museo Nazionale in Naples is published. Orestes is represented in the 
sanctuary at Delphoi about to leave the altar: at his feet is a sleeping Erinys. 
The motive seems to have been invented for Orestes and adopted by Dios- 
kourides for Diomedes. Furtwangler, however, thinks it was invented 
for Diomedes. ARCHAOLOGISCHER ANZEIGER (Supplement to theJahrbuch). 
This contains an account, by IT. Wilcken, of the Hellenistic portraits from 
El-Faiyum, which are said to represent the persons in whose graves they 
were found, and are ascribed to the second and third centuries after Christ ; 
Reports of the meetings of the Berlin Archaeological Society from Jan. 1886 
to July 1886; Reports on the activity and publications of the Institute ; and 
& Bibliography. HAROLD N. FOWLEE. 

MITTHEILUNGEN D. K. DEUT. ARCHAOLOGISCHEN INSTITUTS. 
ATHENISCHE ABTHEILUNG. Vol. XIII. Nos. 3-4. W. M. RAMSAY, 

Laodieeia Combusta and Sinethandos (pp. 233-72). Laodikeia was situ- 
ated where Yorgan Ladik now is. Sinethandos was at Khadyn Khan, 



SUMMARIES OF PERIODICALS. 255 

about 12 miles on the road from Laodikeia to Apameia and Ephesos. 
Geographically in Lykaonia, Laodikeia was at various times included in 
Galatia and Pisidia. 140 inscriptions from this neighborhood are pub- 
lished, most of them for the first time. Their dates are from the third cen- 
tury B. c. to the fifth century of our era. Most of them are sepulchral, 
many Christian. F. DUMMLER, Remarks on the earliest Art-handiwork on 
Greek soil (pp. 273303 ; 10 cuts). I. The Nekropolis near Halikarnassos. 
The race to which the nekropolis (discovered by W. R. Paton, see Journ. 
of Hell. Stud., vin, p. 66 ff ) belonged regarded its graves as family sanc- 
tuaries, and practised cremation. The family tomb is of two kinds : a rec- 
tangular temenos, and a sepulchral chamber with dromos and tumulus. Of 
these the former is more primitive. In these the remains were placed in 
ostothekai like the tombe a pozzo of Corneto, but also in graves like the 
tombe a fossa. In the tumuli also both kinds of graves are found. The 
nekropolis was evidently not very long in use. In the tombs were found, 
beside vases, objects of gold, bronze, and iron. The decoration of the vases 
consists mainly of horizontal stripes and groups of concentric circles or 
semicircles. The civilization of the people was evidently not that of My- 
kenai, but the decoration of the vases has points of resemblance with that 
of some of the early vases found at Rhodos. u. The Kyprian geometrical 
style. The types of the Kyprian vases are either (1) Phoenician with only 
chance points of similarity to Greek geometrical vases, or (2) Phoenician 
exerting an influence upon Greek manufactures, or (3) originally Greek 
and developed in Kypros by Greeks and Phoenicians in common. The 
third alternative is adopted. Comparison of different geometrical styles 
shows that the Kyprian style is as closely connected with the style of My- 
kenai as is the Dipylon-style. The Kyprian geometrical style is pre- 
Dorian. It was brought to Kypros by the Arkadians when they came 
from Peloponnesos. The Dipylon-style is attributed to one of the Greek 
tribes which drove out the people to which the civilization of Mykenai be- 
longed, and forced some of the Arkadians also to leave the Greek mainland, 
in. The Nekropolis at the Dipylon and the style of the Dipylon-vases. The 
earliest Greek inhabitants of Attika may sometimes have buried their 
dead in their cities or even in their houses. They certainly buried them 
before the gates at both sides of the road. They burned the bodies. The 
smaller and earlier Dipylon-vases go back to a time centuries before the 
large vases with burial-scenes and naval battles which Kroker ascribes to 
the seventh century B. c. Iron objects found in graves do not prove that 
they are post-Homeric but rather that they are pre-Homeric. The Ho- 
meric descriptions apply in great measure to the Ionic nobility, which was 
under Oriental influence. As the Arkadians were driven to colonize Ky- 
pros, so other tribes were driven out of Greece at the same time. Tradi- 



256 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHEOLOGY. 

tions of such early colonization are not wanting. The nekropolis at Hali- 
karnassos belonged to such a colony founded long before the Dorian inva- 
sion. H. G. LOLLING, Inscription from Kyzikos (pp. 304-9 ; supplementary 
pi.). A list of prytanes of Kyzikos is published. The inscription is now 
in Constantinople. There were, in imperial times, at least 8 tribes in Kyzi- 
kos : Otvowres, "OTrXrjTcs, 'ApyaSeis, TeXeovre?, 'lou/Veis, Se/foo-Teis, Bca/oets, 
AiytKopets. The 'louAets and Sc/Sao-Tets were probably connected with the 
cult of the emperors. The year of Kyzikos began at the autumnal equi- 
nox. The months were : (first half-year) Bo^Spo/xiwv, Kvavoi/wov, 'A-Trarov- 
pecov, Iloo-eiSecoj', Ar/vatwv, 'Avfleo-n/pKoj/, (second half-year) 'Apre/ucrioji/, Tav- 
/oeoiv, KaA.a/x,cu(ov, Ilav^/xos, Kpovtoov, apy^A-ttov. P. WOLTERS, The grave- 
stone of Antipatros of Askalon (pp. 310-16 ; cut). The relief upon this 
stone (see Corpus Insc. Semit., I, p. 140) represents a dead body on a couch, 
over whose head leans a lion, while a man with a ship's prow for a head 
leans over his feet, opposite the lion. The lion probably represents the 
god of death. The figure with a ship's prow for a head may represent the 
ship which saved the body of Antipatros for burial, or may have some 
unknown significance in Phoenician mythology. G. TREU, The Inscrip- 
tion of the Leonidaion at Olympia (pp. 317-26; facsimile). The inscription 
was cut on the Ionic architrave of the "southwest building" at Olympia. 
The fragments read : A[e]co[v]tS[^]5 Aeorrov [N]aios eTrot^crc. The in- 
scription was repeated on at least two sides of the building. This Leonidas 
is the same mentioned by Pausanias vi. 16. 5 ; but, in v. 15. 2, he describes 
him as an Eleian. The inscription was covered with stucco at the time 
of Pausanias. It must have been longer than the mere artist's inscription 
given above ; probably, AetoviS^s AeoWi; Natos e-TrotV/cre /cat dve^/ce Ait 
'OXvfjL7TLo)L. This agrees with the statement of Pausanias, that the Leoni- 
daion was a gift (dva^r/px) of Leonidas. There can now be no doubt that 
the "southwest building" is the Leonidaion. W. DORPFELD, The Altis- 
wall at Olympia (pp. 327-36 ; pi. vn). The inscription of the Leonidaion 
makes it certain that the TTO/XTTIKT) eto-oSos of Pausanias was at the s. w. cor- 
ner of the Altis. The wall which has been ascribed to the Macedonian 
epoch is shown to be Roman. It had three gates: a large one with a 
triumphal arch on the southern side, and two smaller ones on the western 
side. This wall was probably built by Nero. He caused the " southeast 
building " to be changed to a Roman dwelling, and increased the size of 
the Altis toward the west and south. The great street which passed in 
front of the Leonidaion and turned to the east along the southern side of 
the old Altis was now partly inside the Altis. In front of the Leonidaiou, 
the new wall was in the middle of the old street, making it so narrow as 
to excite the comment of Pausanias. Nero doubtless intended the trium- 
phal arch in the southern wall for the main entrance to the Altis. The 



SUMMARIES OF PERIODICALS. 257 

bouleuterion, with part of the agora, was within the enlarged Altis. The 
site of the Hippodameion is uncertain, but must still be sought in the east- 
ern part of the Altis. A. MILCHHOFER, Account of Antiquities in Attika 
(pp. 337-62 ; conclusion). E. The Plain of Athens, i. The upper plain, 
(a) West of the Kephisos. Antiquities reported from : Menidi (Epano 
Liossia, Kamatero), Kato Liossia and vicinity, Bistardo, Hagios Elias, 
Chaidari, Daphne and vicinity and the olive grove by the Kephisos. (6) 
East of the Kephisos. The reports are from : Kukuvaones, Herakli, Ke- 
phisia, Marousi, Chalandri, Kalogresa, Psychiko, Omorphi Ekklisia, Galaki, 
Plakakia, Patisia, and Kypseli. n. The Lower Plain (from Athens to the 
sea). The western and southern slopes of Hymettos. The reports are from : 
Ambelokipi, Kutzopodi, Asteri, Kaesariani, Kutala, Kopana, Karea, Kara, 
Brahami, Trachones, Pirnari, Chasani, Haliki, Vari. This part of the ac- 
count embraces Nos. 496-778. The antiquities reported consist of inscrip- 
tions (largely sepulchral, terminal, and dedicatory), together with some 
reliefs and fragmentary sculptures. Inscriptions and monuments already 
known are assigned to their proper places in the territorial scheme. A. 
BRUCKNER, On the Gravestone of Metrodoros in Chios (pp. 363-82 ; pi. iv ; 
2 cuts). Examination of this stone (see Mitth., p. 199 ff.) shows that it was 
ornamented on all four sides. The leaf-pattern, the sirens, the battle of 
the centaurs, and the chariots driven by Nikai were continued on the four 
sides. On the side to the left of the front, the deceased is represented shoot- 
ing an arrow ; behind him stands a small slave with arrows ; a plane tree 
and a column upon which is an amphora show that the action takes place 
in a gymnasium. On the back of the stone, the attributes of an athlete 
(sponge, strigil, oil-bottle, and a fourth object, perhaps a quiver or a purse) 
are represented hanging from a peg. At each side is a column. The rep- 
resentation in the middle of the fourth side is destroyed. Examples of the 
use of sirens as ornaments are given, and the use of other figures in the 
same way is discussed. The Nikai and the battle of the centaurs are also 
purely ornamental, without any connection with the deceased. Such orna- 
mental representations had become conventional in the third century B. c. 
The parallels adduced are also from Hellenistic times. One cut represents 
the monument of Parmeniskos from Apollonia in Epeiros. It is orna- 
mented with a battle of Amazons, a pattern of oak-branches, two sirens, 
two rosettes, and two griffins between which stands a kantharos : in the 
gable at the top of the stone is a face. The other cut represents the grave- 
stone of Heraion (C. I. A., n, 3, 3771). The top is adorned with a pal- 
metto : below the inscriptions are two dolphins, instead of the more usual 
rosettes. E. REISCH, The Monument of Thrasyllos (pp. 383-401 ; pi. vin; 
cut). This monument is the only example of a tripod-building of the time 
of the agonothetai. The original building of Thrasyllos was intended to 



258 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY. 

support one tripod, which probably stood over the middle of the facade. 
When Thrasykles had been agonothetes (in 271/70 B. c.), he wished to set 
up two tripods, one for the choir of men and one for that of boys. He 
changed the upper part of the monument erected by his father Thrasyllos, 
adding an attika. The tripods were doubtless placed one at each end, 
while the central position on the top of the building, was occupied by the 
statue of Dionysos now in the British Museum. The pose and drapery of 
this statue remind one of the works of the fifth century. The same aca- 
demic tradition is to be noted in many Athenian reliefs of comparatively 
late times. The head and arms of the statue were made of separate pieces 
and set into the trunk ; the left arm was partly raised and held forward ; 
the head cannot have had long hair or beard ; in the breast is a hole for 
the attachment of an attribute, probably a harp. The hole in the lap of 
the figure may have been (as it cannot be seen from below) made to aid 
in raising the figure to its place. Dionysos with the harp (Dionysos Mel- 
pomenos, C. I. A., in, 274) was an appropriate figure in this place. The 
statue was seen and sketched by Cyriacus of Ancona (cut) : even in his 
time the head and arms were gone. A part of the inscription of Thrasyl- 
los is given in facsimile. B. GRAEF, The Sculptures of Olympia. The 
head which has been placed on the kneeling girl in the eastern pediment 
(o, Treu) belongs to the youth whom Curtius and Kekule put crouching 
before the horses of Pelops (#, Treu). The head heretofore given to this 
youth belongs to the figure which sits, according to Kekule, close behind 
the horses of Pelops (c, Treu). The head here taken from the girl (o) and 
given to the youth (#) has the same arrangement of hair as the Apollo of 
the western pediment and the head formerly given to the girl E but now 
to the Lapith H. A very similar arrangement of hair is found in a few 
other cases not in Olympia. This arrangement is peculiar to young men. 
The head, therefore, which has been ascribed to the Athena of the lion- 
metope from the opisthodomos of the temple of Zeus at Olympia is a male 
head, as is further shown by the wrinkle in the forehead. It must be the 
head of Herakles in the Amazon-metope. S. P. LAMBROS, KvpaSes-Xot- 
/oaSes (pp. 408-9). Lolling (Hist, undphil Aufs. Ernst Curtius . . . gewidmet, 
p. 8) suggests that the modern name KvpaSes for the two small islands off 
Cape Skaramanga in the strait of Salamis is only a slight corruption of an 
ancient name XoipaSes. Aischylos, Pers., 421, d/crai Se 
l-n-XrjOvov seems to support this view, though neither d/am nor 
should be written with a capital in this line. M. P. KONSTANTINOS, In- 
scriptions from Tralleis. Three inscriptions : (1) the name Alexandras ; 
(2) on the same stone names of victors in running, strength (eveta), jave- 
lin-throwing, and archery ; (3) a fragment of an honorary decree. H. 
WINNEFELD, The Sanctuary of the Kabeiroi near Thebes (pp. 412-27 ; 



SUMMARIES OF PERIODICALS. 259 

pis. ix-xn ; 18 cuts), in. The vases. The fragments of vases found in 
the Kabeireion form three groups: (1) Attic vases, (2) black-figured vases 
of local manufacture, (3) black varnished vases. The number of Attic 
vases is comparatively small. They are mostly red-figured vases of vari- 
ous shapes. Several of these are described. A few lekythoi and flat dishes 
have black figures. Fragments of panathenaic amphorai also occur. The 
vases of local manufacture are for the most part round cups with two 
handles, though other forms occur. They are decorated with black stripes, 
plant-patterns, and figures. The plant-patterns represent ivy, tamus 
cretica, grape-vines, olive branches, branches which look like myrtle, 
and occasionally other plants. A few simple patterns of curved lines 
occur. The vases were made expressly for the sanctuary of the Kabeiroi. 
This is evident from the inscriptions, as well as from the scenes repre- 
sented. The Kabeiros and the Pais are frequently represented. Other 
scenes are Kephalos and Lailaps, Bellerophon and the Chimaira, pygmies 
and cranes, a procession, feasts, dances and flute-playing. In all of these, 
caricature is the most striking feature. Somewhat different are the few 
representations of Seilenoi and Mainads. The workmanship of these paint- 
ings is careless but lively. They all belong apparently to the fourth cen- 
tury B. c. A group of curious hollow cylindrical articles, ending at the 
bottom in a slightly rounded cone, have much the same ornamentation as 
the above-mentioned vases, but without representations of figures: perhaps 
these articles are tops. The black varnished vases are mostly in the form 
of a kantharos with a high, thin foot and high handles, though other forms 
occur. The forms are not elegant, nor has the varnish the gloss or black- 
ness of that of Attika. MISCELLANIES. H. SCHLIEMANN, Attic Sepulchral 
Inscriptions. Two inscriptions from the courtyard of Dr. Schliemann's 
house in the 'OSos Movorwv. LITERATURE and DISCOVERIES. An account 
of recent discoveries in Athens and Pergamon. HAROLD N. FOWLER. 

REVUE ARCHEOLOGIQUE. Noy.-Dec. 1888. S. REINACH, The 

Gauls in ancient art and the Sarcophagus of the Vigna Ammendola (pp. 
273-84 ; pis. xxn, xxin ; 2 figs.). The museum of St.-Germain has 
been collecting casts of Greek and Graeco-Roman art with representations 
of the Gauls or the Galatians of Asia. Ethnographic exactitude in the 
representations appears first with the Pergamene artists of the third cent. 
B. c. Roman art went still further, as in the columns of Trajan and Anto- 
nine. The writer here undertakes to give a list of the Graeco-Roman works 
of art in which Gauls are represented, confining himself to the Hellenistic 
works, including especially the monuments commemorating the victories of 
the Greeks over the Galatians of Asia Minor and the hordes of Brennus be- 
fore Delphoi. It is only of late years that such a group of monuments has 



260 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHEOLOGY. 

been recognized. The first to be properly identified was the so-called dying 
gladiator of the Capitol; then the so-called Arria andPaetus of the Villa 
Ludovisi ; in 1870, statues were recognized in museums, coming from the 
great composition dedicated by Attalos, and representing Galatians, Per- 
sians, Amazons, and Giants ; finally, the excavations at Pergamon disclosed 
a number of bases of bronze statues. It would seem as if the "gladiator" 
and the Ludovisi group were copies of part of a large composition at Per- 
gamon, connected with these bases. R. CAGNAT, The Camp and Praetorium 
of the III Augustan legion at Lambesa (pp. 285-93 ; pi. xxiv ; 2 figs.). 
These notes are given as a supplement to the very detailed description of 
these ruins published in 1885. The camp is placed on a slight rise at the 
foot of the Aures chain and forms a rectangle 420 met. wide by 500 long, 
more in accord with the plans of Polybios than those of Hyginus. There 
are four bastions on the shorter sides and five on the longer. It is defended 
by two semi-engaged towers, and has four gates, one on each side. The 
praetorium or N. gate has two unequal openings, one for pedestrians, the 
other for vehicles. Two main roads at right angles joined these gates, and 
at their intersection stood the praetorium. BERTHELOT, On the name of 
bronze among Greek alchemists (pp. 294-8). There is great obscurity in re- 
gard to the origin of the word bronze. A text in the collection of Greek 
alchemists uses the word ppovrrjo-iov. The MS. in which it is used dates from 
the xi cent., but the text is probably of the vm or ix cent. From a pas- 
sage in Pliny (H. N., xxxiv. ix. 45 and xvir. 48), it might be concluded 
that this word, brontesion, was derived from the name of the city of Brun- 
dusium (Gr. B/oev-nyo-iov), famous for its bronze called aes Brundusinum. 
P. MONCEAUX, Eponymic Fasti of the Thessalian League: Federal Tagoi and 
Strategoi (pp. 299-318) (contin.). Chapter mis on the constitution of the 
new Thessalian league by Flaminius in 196 B. c., after the conquest by 
Philip of Macedon. Autonomy was however given to a number of tribes 
formerly subject to the Thessalian KOLVOV. The constitution given by Flami- 
nius was strongly aristocratic. This lasted for a half century, until the 
Macedonian insurrection and the ruin of the Achaean League, which was 
the occasion for the abolition of all federations in Greece : Thessaly was 
then annexed to Macedon. But, again, Csesar proclaimed the liberty of 
Thessaly in 48 B. c., on the battle-field of Pharsala, and the league was re- 
constituted. The varieties of coins struck during the different parts of this 
period are reviewed, and from them a list of the Strategoi of the new league 
is constructed. Most of them belong to the first period of autonomy, 196- 
146 B. c. F. DE MELY, The fish in engraved stones (pp. 319-32). The tal- 
ismanic virtue of the fish in antiquity is best illustrated in the so-called 
Cyranides of Hermes Trismegistus which is based on the science of draw- 
ing omens from the combination of letters. There are 24 formulas corres- 



SUMMARIES OF PERIODICALS. 261 

ponding to the letters of the alphabet : the four elements are represented 
in each, the air by a bird, the earth by a plant, fire by a stone, water by 
a fish, whose names begin with the same letter. The writer has identified 
three of these on engraved stones, the eagle or dc-ros, the sole, and the 
anchovy. E. DROUIN, The era ofYezdegerd and the Persian calendar (pp. 
333-43). The era of Yezdegerd is, next to the Hegira, the most import- 
ant chronological system used in the East. The present memoir studies 
the circumstances of its establishment and its calendar. Yezdegerd III 
was the last Sassanid king, and was conquered by the Mohammedans. 
His era begins on June 16, 632 A. D. It is still used by the followers of 
Zoroaster. The Sassanid names of months are then given. W. HELBIG, 
Inscription engraved on the foot of a Tarentine vase (pp. 344-8). The vase 
was found near Chiusi : the style is that of inferior vases from Magna 
Graecia. The curious inscription reads OTO(S) rov Brj^ov ty-q -jrovrjpov: 
" This one called the bad demos." The dialect is Doric, the sentiment 
political. L. DE FLEURY, The deposits of ashes at Nalliers (Vende'e) (pp. 
34959). J. MENANT, Two false Chaldaean antiquities. This article seeks 
to prove that two tablets published by Dr. Wm. Hayes Ward in the Journal 
of Archaeology (March, 1888) are forgeries, copied, in his opinion, from the 
finds of Telloh. V. J. VAILLANT, Circular stamp of the fleet of Brittain found 
at Boulogne-sur-mer (pp. 36671). This circular tile has the four letters 
C L B R for ClassisBritannica. BIBLIOGRAPHY. SUPPLEMENT. R. CAGNAT, 
Review of Epigraphic Publications relating to Roman Antiquity. 

Jan.-Feb. 1889. R. CAGNAT, The Camp and Praetorium of the III 
Augustan legion at Lambesa (cont. : pp. 110 ; pis. I, n). iv. The Prae- 
torium. It is a rectangular building measuring 23.30 X 30.60 met., deco- 
rated on the outside with two superposed rows of pilasters and isolated col- 
umns. Its main fa9ade has an immense arcade in the centre. An inscrip- 
tion, probably dating from 268 A. D., records the reconstitution of the 
building, presumably after the consequences of the earthquake of 267, and 
at this time some decorative additions were made. The s. fagade is similar. 
The two side-fronts have four doors with Corinthian pilasters. From frag- 
ments of surrounding walls, it is proved that the now-existing part of the 
Praetorium formed only the inner court of the building. Like the prae- 
torium at Carnuntum, recently uncovered, it was divided into three sections : 
that in front of the court being the forum, that at the rear the posticum. 
v. Other buildings in the Camp. One is the thermae of the legion, a second 
is unidentified, a third is of uncertain use, supposed by some to be a prison, 
by others a basilica. An appeal is made for the complete excavation of 
the Camp. S. REINACH, The Gauls in ancient art and the sarcophagus of the 
Vigna Ammendola (contin. : pp. 11-22). Among the statues probably 
belonging to the ex-voto of Attalos I in the Akropolis, six are certainly of 



262 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY. 

Galatians: (1) a bearded warrior, (2) a dead warrior, (3) a warrior fall- 
ing backwards, all three at Venice ; (4) a helmeted wounded warrior, at 
Naples ; (5) a wounded warrior, resting on one knee, at the Louvre ; (6) 
a warrior seated on an oval buckler, in the Torrigiani garden, at Florence. 
Other statues are related to this series : five are enumerated by Brunn ; 
three are here added. Several more are known to have existed in the first 
half of the xvi cent, from the travels of Claude Bellieure and Aldrovandi's 
Statue Antiche. M. Reinach brings forward arguments to prove that the 
original ex-voto of Attalos was composed of bronze statues, and that these 
marble statues may have been replicas in Pergamon or some other Asiatic 
city. E. LE BLANT, On some ancient monuments related to the consequences 
of criminal affairs (pp. 23-30 ; pi. in). A few monuments are here brought 
forward which illustrate different acts of Roman criminal procedure. (1) On 
some sarcophagi, a man arrested by placing a rope around his neck (St. 
Paul ?) ; (2) a fresco of Pompeii, supposed by some to represent the Judg- 
ment of Solomon, before 79 A. D., with a view of the praetorium ; (3) a 
miniature in the Codex Rossanensis, of the vi cent., representing the pro- 
curator ; (4) an ivory diptych of Rufius Probianus. E. POTTIER, An 
oinochoe in the Louvre signed by Amasis (pp. 317 ; pi. iv). On a small 
black-figured oinochoe in the Louvre, we read the signature of Amasis 
M EPO I E[* E] N A M A* I *. The figures are : 1., Poseiden draped, holding 
trident and facing an advancing group of gods Hermes with the cadu- 
ceus, Athena armed, Herakles as archer. The work is very delicate. M. 
Pettier remarks on the Oriental origin of many of the names of the early 
vase-painters of the black-figured vases: 6 ^KV^S., "the Scythian"; 
6 AvSos, " the Lydian " ; Sikelos and Sikanos, from Sicily ; etc. Amasis 
reminds of the Egyptian king Aahmes or Amasis II, from whom the 
painter may have taken his name. In view of the recent importance given 
to the cult of Herakles at Athens by the recent discoveries, M. Pettier 
thinks that the combination of Herakles and Athena on this vase may be 
but another indication of the attempt of Peisistratos to reconcile the cults 
of the two great Greek races, the Dorian and Ionian. M. DELOCHE, 
Studies on some seals and rings of the Merovingian period (contin. : pp. 
38-49X LXI. Gold ring found in a Frankish cemetery in Hesse-Darm- 
stadt, with the name of Hunila, probably a person of royal family. LXII. 
Gold ring, found near Valenciennes, with a monogram of the name Falco. 
LXIII. Bronze ring found in Hesse- Darmstadt with the name of a Frankish 
woman, Fagala. LXIV. Gold seal-ring of Audo. LXV. Bronze ring with 
merely the letters Si for Signum or Signavi. LXVI-LXX. Bronze rings found 
respectively at Worms, Worrstadt, Oberolm, Dietersheim, and Udenheim. 
P. MoNCEATJX,-E2pom/?mc Fasti of the Thessalian League: Federal Tagoi and 
Strategoi (cont. and end ; pp. 50-63). Ch. iv. Constitution of the League 



SUMMARIES OF PERIODICALS. 263 

under the Roman Emperors, from Augustus to Gallienus. The League was 
reorganized by Augustus, and its condition may be studied from an inscrip- 
tion of Tiberius at Kierion : it then had an eponymic strategos, common 
assemblies, and the right to coin money. After Hadrian, it was not even 
required that there should be any Roman type on the coins. A list of the 
federal strategoi is given. Certain general conclusions, summarizing all 
the preceding papers, are given, classified under the four periods. (1) The 
KOLVOV TWI/ eo-o-aXoiv, organized between the vm and vi cent. B. c., with 
Aleuas of Larissa as its military, and Skopas of Krannon as its financial 
legislator. It included the cities of Thessaliotis and Pelasgiotis with the 
surrounding mountainous tribes as tributaries. The election of a life-dic- 
tator or rctyos, on occasions of great danger, led to tyrrany, and this to the 
Macedonian intervention. (2) Macedonian period with nominal inde- 
pendence. (3) Roman republican period with greater independence but 
restricted territorial dominion interrupted by annexation to Macedonia. 
(4) Roman imperial period. A. LEBEGUE, The Miikriac basrelief of Pesaro 
(pp. 64-9). A paper in the same sense as that by M. Fr. Cumont in the 
last number. J. BAILLET, The Stele of Menschieh (pp. 70-83). This stele, 
now at Bulaq, was found at Menschieh, the site of Ptolemais. It com- 
memorates the erection of a temple and begins : "In the name of the 
Emperor Caesar Nerva Trajan Augustus Germanicus, in the honor of As- 
klepios and Hygieia, this temple and its enclosure have been built by our 
city under the prefect Pompeius Planta and the epistrategos Calpurnius 
Sabinus." This is followed by an interesting paean to Asklepios. The 
whole is Greek without any Egyptian elements. D. MALLET, The in- 
scriptions of Naukratis (pp. 8491). A summary is given of the diver- 
gent opinions of Ernest Gardner and of Hirschfeld. BUHOT DE KERSERS, 
Monumental Statistics of the department of the Cher : Conclusions (pp. 92- 
101). A resume" is given of the history of architecture in this department 
during various periods. This paper includes the prehistoric, the Gallic, 
the Roman, the Merovingian, and the Carlovingian periods. BIBLIOGRAPHY. 
SUPPLEMENT. R. CAGNAT, Review of Epigraphic Publications relating 
to Roman antiquity. 

March-April, 1889. E. LE BLANT, On some ancient monuments relating 
to the consequences of criminal a/airs (pp. 145-62). In the enumeration of 
monuments, we find a fresco representing a martyr appearing before a judge, 
and the assessors or members of the judge's concilium represented in an ivory 
and on sarcophagi. The instruments of torture, the lignum or nervus, the 
prison, the machaera or sword and the mensa, the work at the mines and the 
representations of martyrdom are described. The martyrdom itself was 
very seldom represented in early Christian art. M. DE VOGUE, Note on 
the necropoli of Carthage (pp. 163-86 ; pis. v-vm). A full account of this 
9 



264 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHEOLOGY. 

paper is given under News, on pp. 201-2. SAL. REINACH, Gauls in ancient 
art and the Sarcophagus of the Vigna Ammendola (3rd paper : pp. 187- 
203 ; pi. ix). The enumeration is continued of Greek or Graeco-Roman 
statues representing Galatinns or Gauls. First of these is a torso in Dres- 
den, reproduced in fig. 10, representing a wounded Gaul ; fig. 11 gives the 
head of a Gaul in the museum of Bulaq ; fig. 12, one of two large reclining 
decorative statues at the Villa Albani; fig. 13, the mediocre statue of a 
Gallic warrior resting on his shield, at Avignon ; fig. 15, the fine bust of 
a barbarian in the British Museum, which also contains two small bronzes 
one of which is an evident imitation of Pergamene models. Several small 
bronzes represent captive Gauls: one of these is given in fig. 16. The 
koroplasts of Asia Minor represented the Galatians, and a very interest- 
ing series of statuettes and groups of this character are enumerated. Two 
of these (figs. 18, 19) are from Myrina, in the Louvre ; two, representing 
fighting and dead warriors are from Pergamon, at Berlin. The works of 
decorative sculpture are then enumerated, principally trophies (pi. ix), 
sepulchral monuments, arches, etc. D. MALLET, The inscriptions of Nau- 
kratis (con tin. : pp. 204-11). The eight famous inscriptions on which the 
entire discussion has turned are examined. The writer reads, against Mr. 
Gardner's views, a>rroAAa> o-ds ei/u, taking the letters before and after the 
second o to be the same, namely, or ; instead of the first a v, and the second 
a o-, as Gardner thinks. This involves the question of the origin of certain 
letters. The general tendency of this paper is to claim a direct influence of 
Egyptian hieratic writing on the Greek alphabet without the intervention 
of the Phoenicians. PH. BERGER, On the coins of Mikipsa and the attribu- 
tion of other coins of Numidian princes (pp. 212-18). The writer believes 
he has found in a Neo-Punic inscription from Cherchell the name of Mi- 
kipsa, and this led him to an examination of the legends on coins attributed 
to this and other Numidian princes, which led to unexpected conclusions. 
The name is written Mikipzan on the stele. Coins belonging to a series of 
autonomous coins of Numidia have the two Phoenician letters M N, which 
the writer recognizes as the first and final letters of Mikipzan. This is 
made clearer by another coin which contains the additional letters H T, 
the first and final letters of the word for king : hammamleket. An entire 
series of coins attributed to Adherbal and Hiempsal I must be restored to 
Mikipsa. The application of the same solution to other coins leads to the 
restoration of many, (1) to Gulussa; (2) to Adherbal; (3) to Hiempsal. 
M. de Vogue was led to adopt a similar system in explanation of the coins 
of Kypros. V.-J. VAILLANT, The new Roman cippus of Boulogne-sur-mer 
(pp. 219-24). J.-ADRIEN BLANCHET, Ancient theatrical and other tesserae 
(pp. 225-42). A bibliography of the subject is first given, beginning with 
Fabretti in 1702. A description of individual tesserae follows, with numer- 



SUMMARIES OF PERIODICALS. 



265 



ous illustrations and the reproduction of all inscriptions. The first class, 
alone treated in the present paper, is entitled, tesserae with legends and 
numbers, of which only section 1, with names of divinities, is completed. 
The figures are : Agathodaimon ; the Dioskouroi; Athena; Apollon; Ares; 
Harpokrates; Aphrodite; Erato; Eos(?); Zeus; Helios; Hera; Herakles; 
Isis ; Kastor ; Kore\ E. DROUIN, The era of Yezdegerd and the Persian Cal- 
endar (contin. : pp. 243-56). The author draws the following conclusions 
from the texts he examines: (1) that the Persian year had, at the Sassanid 
period, 365 days ; (2) that every 120 years the beginning of the year was a 
month in advance of the solar year, thus necessitating the addition of a 
thirteenth month ; (3) it is not certain what position in the year this month 
occupied ; (4) the epagomenoi came at the close of the embolismic year, 
and preserved this position during the rest of the cycle of 119 years ; (5) 
in 1006 A. D. the epagomenoi were definitely placed at the close of the year 
after Isfendarmed ; (6) finally, the ninth intercalation would have been 
made under Yezdegerd, had it not been for the Arabic invasion. The first 
intercalation must have taken place in 309 B. c. An examination of the 
reason why in 309 B. c. originated the idea of equilibrating the civil year 
and the astronomical year is deferred to the following paper. BUHOT DE 
KERSEKS, Monumental Statistics of the department of the Cher: Conclusions. 
This is the continuation of a history of architecture in this department, and 
includes the Romanesque period, the xi and xn centuries. R. CAGNAT, 
Review of Epigraphic Publications relating to Romanantiquity. A. L. F., JR. 



AMERICAN 
JOURNAL OF ARCHEOLOGY. 

Vol.V. SEPTEMBER, 1889. No. 3. 

PAPERS OF THE AMERICAN SCHOOL OF CLASSICAL 

STUDIES AT ATHENS. 
EXCAVATIONS AT THE THEATRE OF SIKYON. 



I. GENERAL REPORT OF THE EXCAVATIONS. 

[PLATES VI, VII, IX.] 

The excavations at Sikyon by the American School were begun March 
23, 1886, during the directorship of Professor M. L. D'Ooge, and were 
continued, with some interruptions, until May 10. In the succeeding 
session of the School, under the directorship of Professor A. C. Merriam, 
the excavations were resumed under the supervision of Mr. M. L. Earle, 
who will present a final report of the work done.* The choice of the 
site of Sikyon as a field for archaeological investigation was recom- 
mended by the fact that, in spite of the antiquity of the city and its 
particular importance in the history of art, no systematic excavation 
had ever been made there. Whether it was due to the charm of the 
surrounding landscape, or to a happy blending of Ionian and Dorian 
elements in the population, or again to the circumstances of the politi- 
cal history of the city, or, what is most probable, to the united action 
of all these causes, few cities in Hellas were more renowned as art cen- 
tres than Sikyon. 

Sikyon first comes into view in the Homeric line, KOI ^IKVWV, od'ap* 
Trpwr e/jLJ3ao-[\vev (Iliad, II. 572). Hesiod (Theog., 536) 



* The PLAN of the theatre so far as excavated by Mr. McMurtry was made by Mr. 
S. B. P. Trowbridge. To this the results of Mr. Earle's work have been added by Mr. 
J. W. Cromwell. The other PLATES are from photographs taken by Mr. W. L. Cushing. 

267 



268 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY. 

makes it the scene of a contest between gods and men. He calls the 
place M.r)Kd)i>r), an appellation which undoubtedly originated from the 
abundant growth of wild poppies, which still, at the present day, are 
scattered over the plateau upon which the old city was built. At 
the Dorian conquest, the Ionian inhabitants seem not to have been 
expelled or violently oppressed, as in nearly all the regions of the Pelo- 
ponnesos, and they came to form a fourth tribe beside the three tribes 
of the Dorians. To this diiference of race among the inhabitants, and 
to the jealousies and variances that would naturally arise from it, may 
be attributed the long duration in Sikyon of the rule of tyrants. In 
fact, tyranny was the usual rather than, as in other Hellenic communi- 
ties, the exceptional form of government. One family of despots, the 
Orthagoridai, held sway for a century, a circumstance without paral- 
lel among Greek states. The government of this family was very 
successful. They formed extensive commercial relations, carried on 
victorious wars, encouraged artistic enterprises, and won chariot-vic- 
tories for their city in the national games. The period of Kleisthenes 
especially was one of the most flourishing in the history of Sikyon. 
Herodotos' story (vi. 126) of the marriage of the daughter of that 
prince gives a picture of the contemporaneous importance of the city. 
The Orthagoridai seem not to have belonged to the Dorian portion of 
the people, and to have done everything in their power to repress the 
citizens of that race. Kleisthenes went so far as to change the ancient 
and venerated names of the three Dorian tribes and to force upon them 
new and odious designations. But Kleisthenes was the last ruler of 
his line, and it is probable that after his death there came a Dorian reac- 
tion. At any rate, we find that Sikyon was a member of the Dorian 
league during the Persian and Peloponnesian wars. During the strug- 
gle between Sparta and Thebes the city suffered severely. It gradu- 
ally lost its importance, became subject to Ptolemy, and finally fell into 
the hands of Demetrios Poliorketes, who played a prominent part in 
its later history. Previous to his time, the main portion of the city 
stood in the plain at the foot of the large plateau upon which the 
akropolis was located. Probably for the reason that the population 
had become so reduced in numbers as to be inadequate for the defense 
of so large an extent of wall, Demetrios compelled the citizens to abandon 
the town in the plain, and to build upon the akropolis. Upon the smaller 
and somewhat more elevated plateau immediately behind the earlier 
akropolis, he placed his own, fortifying the entire height, already by 



REPORT OF EXCA VA TIONS A T SIKYON. 26 9 

nature almost impregnable, by means of a wall, considerable portions 
of which are still standing. 

When the Achaian league became powerful, its most efficient leader 
was Aratos, a Sikyonian, who freed his native city from the oppressive 
sway of tyrants under Macedonian protection, and induced it to join 
the league. After the destruction of Corinth by the Romans, Sikyon, 
delivered from the rivalry of that city, increased in power and secured 
the administration of the Isthmian games. The period of prosperity, 
however, was of short duration. &oman cupidity was tempted by the 
numerous and valuable works of art in the city, and many of the most 
precious treasures, were removed to contribute to the splendor of the 
imperial metropolis. Afterward, earthquakes destroyed many of the 
art-treasures which the Romans had left behind. Yet, when Pausanias 
was at Sikyon in the second century A. D., he found it, though a place 
of small population, still in possession of notable works of art. 

It was in the field of art rather than of politics that Sikyon won 
her fame. There, for a long period, was one of the chief seats of 
Greek artistic activity ; indeed, one tradition places the invention of 
painting at Sikyon ; and, as Pliny says (HN, xxx. 11), Diu ilia 
fuitpatria picturae. One of the great schools of painting has its name 
from Sikyon, a school founded by Eupompos, and of which Pamphilos 
and Apelles were pupils. 1 In sculpture, too, the fame of Sikyon was 
no less great. While tradition assigns to a native of Sikyon the inven- 
tion of painting, Pliny (HN, xxxv. 43) tells us that Butades, a Sik- 
yonian, was the first to make images of clay. Dipoinos and Skyllis, 
the early sculptors, though Kretans by birth, were connected with 
Sikyon in their work. 2 The first native sculptor of importance was 
Kanachos : the most famous was Lysippos. The city was also famed 
throughout Hellas for the taste displayed by the inhabitants in the manu- 
facture of various articles of dress, especially a certain kind of shoe. 3 

No Greek city had a more advantageous site, or more beautiful natu- 
ral surroundings than Sikyon. The extensive plateau which formed 
the original akropolis, and was made by Demetrios the site of the new 
town, is situated about two miles back from the gulf of Corinth. Its 
level, fertile surface would have been adequate for the support of a 
large populace in case of a protracted siege. Water was conveyed to 
it by rock-cut aqueducts, which are still to be seen. In the rear of 

1 PUN., HN } xxxv. 10. 2 PLIN., HN, xxxvi. 4. 3 STEPH. BYZANT., s. v. 



270 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHEOLOGY. 

this plateau, to the southward, a smaller one rises above it, having 
about one-third the area of the lower, from which it is separated by 
a rocky slope. This was made by Demetrios the new akropolis. On 
either side of the entire height a small river flows toward the gulf. 
The larger of these, that on the east side, is the ancient Asopos : the 
smaller stream, that toward the west, was probably the ancient He- 
lisson. At the foot of the large plateau, a fertile plain stretches north- 
ward in several descending terraces to the brilliant blue waters of the 
gulf. It is now covered, as undoubtedly it was of old, by vineyards. 
On the opposite side of the gulf rise the peaks of Parnassos, Helikon, 
and Kithairon. To the eastward stretches the rich plain, the fertility 
of which gave rise to the proverbial wish, Eti? poi TO. yueraf v KopivOov 
KOI ^IKVWVOS. On this side, the landscape is shut in by the Isthmian 
mountains and Akrokorinthos. At sunrise and sunset especially, the 
view is of surpassing loveliness. 

Pausanias' description of the city (n. 7) is so indefinite in its topo- 
graphical allusions that very little can be made of it in an attempt to 
fix the actual location of the temples and other monuments. The 
theatre is the only object, in his description, of which the site is now 
certain. He tells us that upon the stage was the statue of a man with 
a shield, said to represent Aratos. Beyond the theatre (yuero, TO 6ia- 
Tpov), he says, is a temple of Dionysos. He speaks of about fifteen 
temples, some of them already at that time in ruin. In the agora, 
he saw bronze statues of Zeus and Herakles, by Lysippos. He speaks 
of two gymnasia, in one of which was shown a marble statue of Hera- 
kles by Skopas. 

On the site of Sikyon, as seen to-day, there are, scattered here and 
there over the lower and the upper plateau, numerous foundations of 
buildings, some of them cut out of the living rock. These remains 
are most numerous in the vicinity of the theatre, which is partly hol- 
lowed out from the rocky declivity separating the two plateaus. A 
short distance northeast from the theatre are considerable remains of 
a Roman building, consisting of brick walls eight or nine feet high, 
with numerous small compartments in the interior. This was pro- 
bably a bath. A short distance to the west of the theatre are the con- 
spicuous remains of the stadion, not mentioned by Pausanias. It was 
constructed in the usual manner, the northeast extremity of the course 
being built up with a wall of polygonal stones. On the upper plateau 
only a few foundations appear. It is hardly probable that there were 



REPORT OF EXCA VATIONS AT SIKYON. 271 

ever any great number of buildings here : Pausanias mentions only two 
temples. Underneath this plateau, aqueducts are cut in the rock at a 
considerable depth; indeed, both natural and artificial underground 
cavities are very numerous about Sikyon. On the lower plateau at vari- 
ous points the location of the old streets is indicated by long lines of 
stones, extending from N. E. to s. w., and from s. E. to N. w. Of the 
numerous foundations upon this plateau some have evidently belonged 
to large structures. At the present time, the northeastern side is occu- 
pied by the Albanian village of Basilik6, the name of which doubtless 
originated from the extensive ruins near by. Some architectural frag- 
ments are to be seen about the village church, within which there is 
a large Corinthian capital. 

The ruins at Sikyon, and particularly the theatre, have been de- 
scribed by various scholars and travellers, of whom the most promi- 
nent are Leake, 4 Curtius 5 and Bursian. 6 A very brief account of the 
theatre, accompanied by a plan, is given by Blouet in the Expedition 
scientifique de Moree. The most peculiar feature of the theatre, the 
two arches affording an entrance to the KOI\OV on either side, is noticed 
by all these writers. Both Curtius (op. dt. 9 n. 490) and Bursian 
(op. cit., p. 28) seem to have thought, as they had no other means' of 
judging than the scanty traces of the stage-foundations that were visible 
previous to our excavations, that these foundations were cut from the 
natural rock, while we now know that they were largely constructed 
of masonry. 7 

The Theatre previous to the Excavations. The declivity from which 
the Kol\ov of the theatre is excavated, consists of a soft poros-stone, 
and this same stone was used in the construction of the masonry. The 
structure faces toward the northeast, and commands the beautiful view 
which has been described. The diameter of the KoT\,ov is about four 
hundred feet. These dimensions were not secured entirely by exca- 
vation of the side-hill ; the sides of the KOL\OV were extended by 

' * Travels in the Morea, vol. m, p. 364 ff. 5 Peloponnesos, n. 482 ff. 

6 Geographic von Griechenland, II, 23 ff. 

7 The space occupied by the stage-structure, as a whole, was originally formed of 
an irregular mass of rock, some two meters or so in height toward the orchestra at 
each side, but cut asunder by a depression through the middle. The rock was cut 
down to the level of the orchestra for the reception of the ends of the walls of the 
scene-structure A-DD, leaving considerable masses on either side, which were smoothed 
or left rough as exigencies required. The projections of these rock-masses were seen 
by Curtius, and others. 



272 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHEOLOGY. 

masonry covered with earth. Before we began our work, at each end 
of the space that was evidently occupied by the stage-structure, a mass 
of rock projected above the surface. Between these rock-masses ap- 
peared slight traces of the foundation-walls of the stage. The orches- 
tra was covered by a deposit of earth that had been washed down from 
above : this earth was found to have a depth increasing from one meter 
in front to three in the rear. The seats were visible here and there 
in the upper portion of the icoTKov, those in the lower part being cov- 
ered with earth. So great a mass of material overlaid the orchestra 
that it was out of the question, with the means at our command, to 
undertake to uncover the theatre completely. Our aim was therefore 
restricted to such excavation as would fully bring to light the plan 
of stage-structure and orchestra. Moreover, we were not without hopes 
that some works of art might have been covered up and hence pre- 
served in the theatre. 

RESULTS OF THE EXCAVATIONS AT THE THEATRE. 

THE STAGE-STRUCTURE. The PLAN of the excavated portion of 
the Theatre (PLATE ix) shows that there are five main foundation- 
walls belonging to the stage-buildings, marked A, B, C, DD, E. Of 
these, A and E, the front and rear walls, are of about the same length, 
projecting on the west side a little more than six meters beyond the 
others. The rock has been cut away, in both front and rear, in order 
to admit of this projection. 

The Wall A. The total length of this wall is 23.60 meters. A piece 
of it at the east end is formed of two upright slabs of stone, 0.70 m. 
high. The remainder of the wall is composed of small blocks of poros 
intermingled with bricks and mortar. The average height is about 
0.55 m., the thickness, 0.65 m. There are three doorways in this 
wall. The first is 2.56 m. from the east end, and its width is 1.05 m. 
Upon either side of this doorway, as well as of the others in this wall, 
there is a cavity for the door-post. At a distance of 7.32 m. from this 
doorway there appears to have been a double door. The openings are 
each 1.05 m. wide, and are separated by a pier formed of two blocks of 
stone. On the west side of the western doorway the end of the w^all is 
plastered over, and preserves some traces of ornament in color. The 
third doorway is 2.65 m. distant from the western end of the wall : 
like the others, it is 1.05 m. wide. The portion of wall beyond this 
door is higher than the rest, having a height of 0.80 m. 



REPORT OF EXCA VATIONS AT SIKYON. 273 

In front of the base of the wall A, a marble step or plinth extends 
almost the entire length : it begins at the east side of the eastern door, 
and continues to the western end of the wall. The width of the 
blocks is 0.57 m. ; and they project 0.40 m. These blocks were un- 
doubtedly taken from another structure. In proof of this, I observed 
a shallow circular cavity cut in one of the blocks and extending partly 
under the wall, evidently having no connection with the present posi- 
tion and use of the block. Moreover, upon another of these blocks, at 
the west end of the wall, there is an inscription which, in the present 
position of the block, is inverted. Upon the ends of a number of these 
marble blocks we found the masons' marks in the form of Greek letters. 
These are as follows, proceeding from east to west : (1) none ; (2) K ; 
(3) A; (4)A-M; (5)8 1; (6)1-; (7)s ; (8) none; (9) 
A 3; (10) H B ; (11) B I; (12) A 9 ; (13)1. It will be 
observed that the first and eighth blocks are unmarked, and that some 
of the others are marked only at one end. The irregular order of the 
letters seems to indicate that they were not cut with reference to the 
existing arrangement. A remarkable peculiarity is the archaism in 
some of the letters, especially the angular beta. The alpha is of the 
type of the Macedonian period. 

In front of that part of the wall lying to the west of the western 
door stand two marble bases (marked a and b in the PLAN : PLATE 
ix). The length of a. is 0.66 m. ; height, 0.37 m. ; width, 0.56 m. 
Both a and b rest upon a stone foundation. Upon the upper surface 
of a is cut a rectangular cavity, 0.33 m. by 0.26 m., and 0.04 m. deep. 
The dimensions of b are similar to those of a, except that it is not 
quite so long : it also has, upon its upper surface, a cavity similar to 
that of a. These bases probably supported statues, or columns or pil- 
asters, most likely the latter. In the space of 1.85 m. between them, 
there is a continuation of the marble foundation-step, consisting of two 
slabs ; and beneath these slabs and projecting in front of them there 
appears a foundation of stone. Upon the face of the second slab (the 
western one) is an inscription of the Macedonian period, which records 
the victories gained in various games by a certain Kallistratos, son of 
Philothales. This inscription, the second one found, is given below : 
it is inverted, as already observed. 

Directly opposite the western door, on the north side of the wall 
-4, there is a stone block, marked c on the PLAN, 0.75m. long, 0.85m. 
wide, and 0.38 m. thick. It has a circular hole cut through it, lying a 



274 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHEOLOGY. 

little back of the centre, the diameter of this hole at the top being 0.45 m., 
and decreasing gradually downward. On either side of this hole is cut 
a deep groove in a slanting direction to the edges of the block. This 
stone has every appearance of being in situ. It may have served as 
a support for some revolving stage-machine. 

Both the material and the method of construction of the wall A 
mark it as of Roman origin. The position of the doors displays a lack 
of symmetry. We should naturally expect the double doorway to be 
midway between the other two : we find, however, that on the east side 
the interval is 7.32 m., while on the west side it is but 6.14 m. The 
position of the double door was probably determined with reference to 
the doors in the walls B and C. 

The Wall B. This wall is at a distance of 2.15 m. from A, with 
which it is parallel. Its total length is 16.07m., average height, 1.10 m., 
and thickness, 0.65 m. It has one doorway, 1.15 m. wide, 4.60 m. dis- 
tant from the west end. The construction of this wall is entirely dif- 
ferent from that of A, and it is undoubtedly one of the original Hellenic 
walls. It consists of two courses of large blocks of stone in isodomic 
masonry, resting upon a low stone foundation : the blocks have a 
uniform length of 1.30 m. At a distance of about 1.50 m. east of the 
door, on the north side of the wall, is a buttress-like projection, marked 
d on the PLAN, having in the top a deep rectangular cavity. Imme- 
diately opposite this, there remains a small fragment of what may 
have been a similar projection from the wall C. 

The Wall C. This wall is 3.24 m. distant from B. Its length 
is 16.29 m., average height, one meter, thickness, like B, 0.65 m. 
It has two doorways, the first of which is 2.70 m. from the east end, 
and is 1.49 m. wide. At the west side of this doorway there is an 
upright block of stone projecting 0.55 m. above the wall. The second 
doorway is four meters from the west end of the wall, and is 2.10 m. 
wide. At a distance of about three meters from the west end of the 
wall there is a projection from it on each side, formed by the transverse 
position of two blocks, 1.30 m. long, laid one above the other. The 
wall C is of mixed construction, part being of the same nature as B, 
and of Hellenic origin ; while the remainder is like A, and Roman. 

The Cross-wall F. This wall extends between B and (7, at a dis- 
tance of 6.95m. from the east end. Its length is 3.24m., height the 
same as that of B and C, its thickness 0.31 m. The construction is 
Hellenic, of the same nature as that of B. Near its northern end there 



REPORT OF EXCAVATIONS AT SIKYON. 275 

are singular projections (marked e and/), one on either side of the wall, 
each formed of two blocks of stone ; the second block on each side hav- 
ing the upper lateral edges cut out squarely. These blocks seem to be 
in position ; yet they have no foundation, resting merely on the earth 
filling the space between B and C. 

The Wall DD. This wall is about 3.75 m. distant from (7, with 
which it is parallel and of equal length. It is of very irregular and 
rough construction, composed of a single course of stones, and evi- 
dently of Roman date. 

The Wall E. This wall, the fifth and last main foundation-wall of 
the stage-structure, is of much better construction than DD although 
it, too, is undoubtedly Roman. Its length is 23.86 m., and its thick- 
ness, 0.70 m. At about seven meters from the west end, we found, 
standing upright upon the wall, a piece of a column of poros, appar- 
ently in situ. Its diameter is 0.43 m., and it is fluted only on the 
northern side. This column suggests that the wall E served as the 
front foundation of a stoa decorating the side of the theatre facing the 
city. The wall terminated at the west end in a corner built of brick. 
Immediately opposite, a short pilaster of brick-work is built out from 
the rock, leaving sufficient space for a door leading into the structure 
on the west side, an account of which will be given below. 

THEOEY AS TO THE CONSTRUCTION OF THE STAGE-STRUCTURE. 
The similarity in the dimensions and mode of construction of A and 
E makes it probable that both were built at the same time, when the 
stage of the theatre was altered and probably enlarged to conform with 
the Roman standard. In the Hellenic form of the theatre, the wall 
C, as I believe, formed the foundation of the rear wall of the stage, 
or the front wall to a person approaching the theatre from the city. 
Possibly a portico extended along the north side of C. But this wall 
did not constitute the entire foundation ; the structure continued north- 
westward, with the natural rock as a foundation, as far as the point 
marked h on the PLAN. If the KoTkov and orchestra had practically 
the same width in both the Hellenic and the Roman form of the thea- 
tre, and it is evident that they had, it is impossible to suppose that the 
stage originally extended only so far as the outcrop of rock. As the 
walls now stand, the cross-wall F t one of the original walls, seems to 
be unsymmetrical. But, if there was another compartment extending 
from the edge of the rock-mass to A, it would correspond in length with 
the compartment east of F, the middle compartment being somewhat 



276 AMERICAN JO URNAL OF ARCHJEOLOG Y. 

longer than those at each end. Hence, the hypothesis of an extension 
to h gives a natural explanation of the position of F. At i, in the PLAN, 
there is an approach to the stage consisting of an ascending passage or 
ramp cut in the rock, and there must have been a door giving com- 
munication from this passage to the western compartment. There may 
have been a similar arrangement at the eastern end ; but we did not 
dig at that point. 8 The Hellenic stage proper would project in front 
of the wall E. When the Roman stage was built, the Greek one was 
removed, in any case, so that no traces of it remain. The wall A 
seems to have been the front foundation-wall of the Roman stage. The 
rooms in the rear would serve for dressing-rooms, etc,. 

THE ORCHESTRA. Th orchestra was buried in earth to such a 
depth that the removal of the entire mass was too great an under- 
taking. Our aim was necessarily limited to the laying bare of the 
boundary, so as' to show the form of the orchestra. First, we dug a 
trench from the middle point of the wall A to the opposite point at 
the rear of the orchestra. The PLAN shows that the orchestra, within 
the line of seats, comprises somewhat more than half the circumference 
of a not entirely perfect circle, the diameter of which is about twenty 
meters. If carried up to the wall A, the orchestra would still fall con- 
siderably short of the complete circle. The floor of the orchestra, at 
least as we found it, is of earth (icovicrTpa). 

The theatre had an elaborate drainage-system. On the west side of 
the orchestra, where we laid bare not only the boundary of the orchestra, 
as on the east side, but also a portion of the Ko2\ov, we found a care- 
fully constructed drain extending around the orchestra (PLATE vn). 
This drain is about 1.25 m. wide, and about a meter deep. Opposite 
each stairway of the KoTkov, a stone slab, with an average width of 
about 0.75 m., is laid across the drain to serve as a bridge. The aver- 
age distance between these bridges is about 2.15 m. This drain closely 
resembles that in the Dionysiac theatre at Athens. Another drain 
extends from the centre of the orchestra, and passes, at right angles, 
underneath the wall A and the other walls of the stage-structure par- 
allel to A. Within the orchestra, this drain is covered over with blocks 
of stone laid transversely, some of which were found displaced. On 
each side of A } this covering is formed of pieces of columns of poros- 
stone. A third drain extends from the west side of the orchestra, at 

8 See Supplementary Report of the Excavations, below. 



, REPOE T OF EXCA VA TIONS A T SIKYON. 277 

a point opposite the termination of the icol\ov, to the central drain. 
This now consists of two parallel lines of stones. 9 At its west end, on 
the south side, a drain of earthen pipe, near the level of the orchestra, 
connects with it. The stone slabs near by (marked F) may have served 
as steps. A similar slab was found at the middle point in the rear 
of the orchestra. The earth was removed from one TrapoSo?, that 
on the west side. It has a width at the entrance of 4.08 m. The side 
forming the end of the Kol\ov is composed of a strong retaining- wall 
of large rectangular blocks, which shares in the upward slope of the 
icol\ov. The coping-stones of this wall have something of an orna- 
mental finish. The . opposite side of the TrapoSo? is inclosed by the 
natural rock. 

THE KOL\OV. The lower part of the Kol\ov, like the orchestra, had 
a thick covering of earth. We were able to excavate only a small por- 
tion of the western half, including three complete tiers of seats and the 
front of another. The icoTXov was found to be divided into fifteen sec- 
tions (icep KiSe?) by fourteen stairways. Accordingly, a line drawn from 
the middle point of the stage through the centre of the orchestra passes 
through the middle of the eighth section of seats, and does not coincide, 
as in some theatres, with one of the stairways. This, at least, is the 
method of division in the lower section of seats. One Sidfafjia is easily 
recognized by portions of a wall composed of upright slabs, about a 
meter in height, that formed one side of the passageway. At the base 
of this wall, we uncovered a portion of an open drain that undoubtedly 
extended along the entire length of the wall. We dug a little, in the 
hope of discovering whether there was a second Sid^co/jia above ; but 
the upper portions of the icol\ov, here, had been so far destroyed that 
our search was not successful. The general configuration of the sur- 
face, as well as the great distance from the lower SidZw/jLct, to the sum- 
mit of the KOL\OV, give ground for the belief that a second Sid%a)/j,a 
did exist at the point where it might naturally be looked for. The 
entire number of rows of seats seems to have been about forty : the 
uppermost tiers, though cut out of the natural rock, are very incomplete. 

The seats of the first tier that we laid bare are superior in character 
to the others ; they correspond to the marble chairs in the Dionysiac 

9 [As these project above the level of the orchestra, it may be questioned whether 
they did not rather form the front wall of a still later Roman stage, like the Phaidros 
wall in the theatre at Athens. The drain of earthern pipe is close to the surface, 
not at the bottom of the conduit surrounding the orchestra. A. C. M.] 



278 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY. 

theatre at Athens, and were plainly intended for the accommodation of 
priests or other officials. But, unlike the Athenian chairs, they are 
made of the same poros stone as the ordinary seats. Each seat extends 
across the front of a /ee/o/a?, the first one at the west end of the KOL\OV 
being placed a step higher than the others. These seats have backs, 
and arms at the ends ; each seat is cut from two blocks, which are 
joined at the middle. The average length is about 2.45 m. The seat 
proper has a width of 0.45 m. and a height of 0.43 m. The side ele- 
vation of the back is 0.54 m., rear elevation 0.35 m. Some of the arms 
show remains of ornamental scroll-work on the outer side. The back 
and arms of the first seat are destroyed; one block of the second is 
overturned : the others are in a good state of preservation. The aver- 
age length of the ordinary seats in the first tier is about 2.70 m., in the 
second, about 2.90 m. They are divided into two parts by a longi- 
tudinal depression. The front part, or seat proper, is 0.35 m. wide ; 
while the back part, upon which the persons sitting behind placed their 
feet, is 0.20 m. wide. The entire width of the seat is 0.85 m., the height 
0.35 m. The front edge has a projection of 0.06 m. The rock-cut 
seats still remaining in the upper portion of the KOL\OV differ in form 
from the lower ones. The feet of the row of persons behind were not 
on the same level as the surface on which the persons in front sat, but 
rested on an elevation which was 0.35 m. above the seat and the same 
in width. The seats of this type have a total width of 0.75 m. 

THE VAULTED PASSAGES (Pand Q). The arched passages, one on 
the east and the other on the west side of the KOI\OV, served as entrances 
by which the people could pass directly from without, and issue upon 
the first Sid^co/Ma. The arches or vaults are still in good preservation, 
and are important as instances of true Greek arches. That the vaults 
belong to the purely Hellenic portion of the theatre seems clear from 
their structure. The eastern passage is now about fourteen meters long, 
but a portion has fallen at the outer entrance. The original length may 
have been about sixteen meters ; the width is 2.55 m. The vault is 
formed of six courses of poros blocks on either side, exclusive of the 
keystone course. It is noteworthy that the blocks have the same dimen- 
sions and are laid in the same manner as those in the Hellenic stage 
foundation-wall B. The length of the stones is 1.30 m., and their 
thickness 0.65 m. As in the wall J5, the joints between the blocks 
are placed beneath the middle of the blocks above. The similar char- 
acter of the masonry seems an indication that the vaults and the wall 



REPORT OF EXCA VATIONS AT SIKYON, 279 

B were built at the same time. The absence of any mortar or brick 
in the arches distinguishes them very clearly from the Roman wall 
A. At the interior entrance of the vault, a wall projects, on each 
side, to a length of 3.40 m. and a height of about one meter. The dis- 
tance between the two walls of the passage is 3.95 m. The western 
passage is similar to the eastern. 

THE STRUCTURES ON THE EAST AND WEST SIDES OF THE STAGE. 
In front of the mass of rock on the east side of the stage are the foun- 
dation-walls of a structure (marked M in the PLAN) 10.35 m. long and 
8.55 m. wide. The walls are 0.65 m. thick, and appear to be of Hellenic 
construction. In the middle of the front wall there is a doorway 1.25m. 
wide. The front of the structure falls nearly in line with the Roman 
stoa. Immediately beyond the western extremity of the wall E, we 
came upon some foundations (marked N in the PLAN), built on the north 
side of the westerly portion of the rock-mass, measuring in length 
5.84 m., and in width, at the widest part, about 5 m. The structure 
is double, the front being rectangular, the rear part semicircular. Two 
low steps extend along the entire front of the structure : in the lower 
step is cut a deep groove along the base of the upper one. Along their 
front stand, at regular intervals, the lower parts of four columns (PL.VI), 
having a diameter of 0.52 m. The fragments are about a meter in height, 
and show the same peculiarity instanced in the piece of column found 
on the wall E, only a part of the flutes having been cut. The column 
on the corner toward the east has fourteen flutes cut ; the other three, 
eleven. The corner one has a larger number of flutes, evidently because 
of its more exposed position. The floor of the front part of the struc- 
ture is a coarse mosaic of pebbles. At a distance of 1.58 m. from the 
columns is a wall separating the two portions of the structure. This 
wall is 0.50 m. high. At each end, a stone block stands upright in 
front of it, one of these being one meter, the other 1.30m. high, and 
both being 0.50 m. broad and 0.27 m. thick. The wall is pierced in 
the middle by a circular hole. The height of the rear wall of this 
semicircular part, on the inner side, is 1.60 m. At its base, on the same 
side, is a semicircular mass (marked m in the PLAN), projecting 0.54 m., 
0.85 m. wide at the base, and 0.65 m. high. Both the semicircular wall 
and the straight front wall are coated with a coarse stucco. Upon re- 
moving the earth within, we found numerous fragments of earthen tiles, 
which must have belonged to the roof; and in front we found also ashes 
and pieces of burnt lime. It is, thus, possible that the building was 



280 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY. 

destroyed by fire. 10 In the rear of the semicircular wall the rock has 
been cut away, making a triangular space with a floor of natural rock. 
On the south and east sides of this space there is a low projection of 
stone, like a seat. The rear wall of the semicircular structure has an 
exterior elevation of 0.40 m. At its middle point, a hole is cut through, 
similar to the one in the front wall. Below this hole there is a trough- 
like hollow surrounded by a wall, within which is a semicircular pro- 
jection with a hole in the top and a niche cut in the outer edge. From 
this cavity a narrow channel, 0.60 m. deep, is cut around the eastern 
half of the semicircular wall. Measured within this channel, the wall 
is 0.23m. thicker than above it. At the bottom of it we found frag- 
ments of earthen tile, showing that it served as a water-course or drain. 
Two other water-courses were found, leading to the southwest corner 
of the trough or reservoir n. Another earthen water-pipe was found 
extending along the east side of the front part of JV, and passing between 
it and the extremity of the wall E. On the west side of N we found 
a structure, 0, presenting the appearance of a seat. Its length is 2.52 m., 
height 0.50 m., width 0.65 m. At the rear is a back with an eleva- 
tion of 0.56 m. Upon the upper surface are two trough-like depres- 
sions, 0.42 m. wide and 0.15 m. deep. It is manifest that the structure 
N was an ornamental fountain. 11 The numerous drains, the reservoir n 
at the back, and the perforations in both the rear walls, together make 
this attribution certain. may have been a drinking-trough for the 
use of horses. The entire structure is of Roman date. 

OBJECTS FOUND. We had less good fortune than had been hoped 
for in finding remains of art. Most of the objects found were uncov- 
ered while removing the earth from between the stage-walls, particu- 
larly along the front wall A. The remains of sculpture comprise the 
following fragments, now preserved in the school-house at Basiliko : 
(1) A piece, 0.28 m. long, of the leg of a marble statue, apparently of 
good style. (2) The lower part of a female figure in marble, wearing 
the long XLTMV, found resting on the marble plinth in front of wall A, 
about 5.80 m. from the east end of the wall. Its height, including the 
base, is 0.25 m. The right foot, of which the toes are visible, rests full 
upon the base ; while the left foot, of which the greater part is exposed, 

10 [The original Greek building here probably balanced the rectangular structure on 
the E. side. T. W. L.] 

11 [A similar structure has been found by Professor E. Petersen, in connection 
with the theatre at Side in Pamphylia. M. L. D'O.] 



REPORT OF EXCA VATIONS AT SIKYON. 281 

rests upon the toes. (3) The arm of a marble statue of above life-size, 
in two pieces : the fingers are lost. (4) A lion's claw of marble, be- 
longing to a lion-skin that served as a robe. 

The following architectural members, fragments, and other objects 
may be mentioned: (1) Doric epistyle-block of marble, 1.53m. in 
length. Upon one face is an incomplete inscription, given below in 
No. 1. (2) Ionic epistyle-block of poros, 1.35 m. long. (3) Piece of 
an Ionic marble column, 0.83 m. long ; diameter 0.25 m. X 0.27 m. 
(4) Two large fragments of an Ionic base, of marble, 0.21 m. thick ; one, 
0.90 m., the other, one meter long. (5) A Doric semi-capital of poros. 
(6) Fragment of a peculiar Ionic capital of poros. (7) Fragment of a 
triglyph of poros, upon which are traces of blue coloring. Other frag- 
ments were found having upon them traces of blue, and some of red. 
(8) Large fragment of an earthen water-spout or gargoyle, of a usual 
lion-head design. (9) Terracotta fragment having upon it a volute and 
flower-bud. (10) Terracotta antefix of graceful design. (11) Antefix 
of poros-stone. (12) Ten earthen lamps of usual form. (13) A number 
of copper coins, most of them bearing the dove, the symbol of Sikyon. 
Upon one the letters A H appear, showing it to be a coin of Demetrios. 

EXCAVATIONS OUTSIDE OF THE THEATRE. 

While the design of our work at Sikyon was limited, in the main, 
to investigation of the plan of the theatre, we thought it advisable to 
make excavations about some of the numerous foundations in the 
vicinity of the theatre, hoping that, by discovery of inscriptions, we 
might determine the location of some of the buildings mentioned by 
Pausanias, or that we might happen upon some art-remains. Neither 
of these hopes was fulfilled. I spent a little time in digging on the 
smaller plateau, above the theatre, hoping to identify some remains 
there as belonging to one of the two temples said by Pausanias to 
have been located upon this height ; but we found nothing that threw 
any light upon the nature of the structure. We also excavated a little 
at two points in the plain below the theatre. At one of these places 
we found the floor, paved with slabs of black and white marble, of what 
must have been a building of elaborate construction. We also found 
here a small piece of marble upon which are the toes of one foot of a 
statue, bat nothing else of importance. A little to the west of this site 
there are extensive foundations, where we dug with no further result 
than the finding of a large Ionic capital of poros. 



282 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY. 

INSCRIPTIONS FROM SIKYON. 
NO. 1. 

On the Doric epistyle mentioned above. 

N POYTIMASAIQSMENTON 

I KATAPPArMATATAPEPIAYTON 

NI3 ONTAEI3APOKATA3TA3INEA 

BON OHIOTIMNA30H3EITAIKATAII 

NQ QSAYTOYTIAU3AI0 12 

<t>A PPESBEIS EPATOKAHS 

ON KTH31PPOS 

IS 

N 

Al 

N 

*(?) 

EA 

EN 

AYTON 

KOTAS 

ANEA(?) 

A<t>0 

Tifjbd(7aL to? /JLGV TOV Kara Trpdyfjuara ra irepl avrov ovra 
et? aTTOKaTaa-Tao-iv e\0rj on fjivao-Orja-eirai, tcaTa%Lw<; avrov 
6 Bd/j,o<;. 



K 



This inscription is incomplete ; and the letters onthe left-hand edge 
of the face of the block indicate that a part of this column of the inscrip- 
tion was inscribed upon an adjoining block. The letters I and K are 
undoubtedly masons' marks made at about the same time and for the 
same purpose as those on the marble blocks of the plinth of the theatre- 
wall A. 13 

12 Break in surface of stone. 

13 [The letters of the inscription itself belong to the later Macedonian period, proba- 
bly the first half of the second century B. c. The lines of the letters run largely in 
curves. A has the curved bar, E the middle bar formed by a dot only, placed at 
some distance from the perpendicular limb ; M and N are quite wide ; 0, 0, Q are 
smaller than the other letters ; P has the upper bar extending beyond the right 
limb which is curved and does not come down to the line ; in the ^, the upper and 
lower bars are not horizontal, but curve out above and below ; P is long, and B has 



REPORT OF EXCAVATIONS AT SIKYON. 



283 



No. 2. 

On the marble slab between the two marble bases mentioned above. 
KAAAI^TPATOS <t>IAOOAAEOS 



TAIAA^BA^IAEIATAAAN 

AYKAIATArKPATION 

I^OMIAPArKPATION 

rANAOHNAIATYrMAN 

NEMEArYTMAN 

ASKAAriEIATArKPATION 

NAATAAANKAirvrMAN 

KAirACKPATION 



I^OMIAArENEIOYSKAIANAPA^rYrMAN 
TAIAYTAIISOMIAAI 
NEMEAPArKPATION 
NEMEArATKPATION 
NEMEArYTMANKAirArKPATION 
TAIAYTAINEMEAAI 



TYGOirYrMAN 



the lower loop larger than the upper. In a word, the chief characteristics (notably 
of M and N) are those to be seen on the Pugioli vases from Alexandria published in 
this Journal (vol. i, pp. 21-22), which seemed to belong to the first half of the third 
century B. c. The flourishes of the pencil or the reed pen found their way into monu- 
mental writing, and a good example of a stage still more elaborate than that of the 
present inscription is the award of the Milesian arbitrators on the basis of the Nike 
statue of Olympia (DITTENBERGER, SIG, No. 240 ; HICKS, Hist. Inscr., No. 200), of 
which I have a squeeze. The date of this falls about 140 B. c., and ours would natu- 
rally come somewhat earlier (cf. LOWY, Inschrift. gr. Bildhauer, No. 272). 

The inscription is a decree of the people in honor of some person or persons 
now impossible to determine. The existing fragment resembles a clause in numer- 
ous decrees whereby some honor is conferred on the deserving, and its inscription 
is commanded, in order that it way be generally known that the State rewards ser- 
vices fittingly, and that others may be incited to similar service or benefaction. The 
following from Priene may be cited by way of example : 'iva Se a'l re ripal at SeSo/teW 
Aapixv evKpaveffrepai Sxriy, KOI rS>v a\\<av ol Trpoaipovfj.evoi ry ir6\ei irape-^effQai ras 
Xpefas Qecap&aiv on 6 Srj/aos rots Ka\o1s Kal ayaOols avfipaffiv eiricrrarai xaptras aTroSiSovai 
Kara^ias, avaypd^/ai rJ5e rb ij/^^tr^a els ffT-f)\Tjv XidivTjy Kal arrival irapa r)]V \K.6va. 
Anc. Grk. Inscr. Brit. Mus., 416. 

It is a noticeable fact that in Athens, where our records are most complete, this 
formula does not occur till about the middle of the fourth century B. c. ; but 
when the fashion is once set it prevails almost immediately and has a long exist- 
ence, together with the other flourishes of the Hellenistic period. Its phraseology 
is quite varied, but nowhere have I found anything so extraordinary as in this Siky- 
oriian inscription. It runs somewhat in this way : " Decreed by the people] to honor 
so and so, son of Nikaphoros, in order that he who does a service to the State may 
rest assured that the people will remember to honor him in a manner worthy of 
itself. Ambassadors, Eratokles, Ktesippos." 

Noticeable are, (1) yueV, solitarium: (2) rbv . . ovra, ace. where a nom. is to be ex- 
pected we may compare XEN., Kyrop., n. 1. 5 ; rovs "EAATJWS owSeV ir<a o-atyes \eye- 
rai el eTrovrai: (3) els airoKaraffraffiv eXOp, in POLYBIOS, IV. 23. 1 (ecas &j/ eV rov yeyo- 
v6ros Kivf)/u.aros els r^v a-jroKaraffraffii/ e\0r) ra Kara r^v ir6\iv), means to come to a set- 
tled condition. A. C. M.] 

2 



284 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY. 

PIEIArAAANKAirYFMAN AYKAIA . . T . ANAIS 

KAITArKPATION \ITYrMANKAir AfKPATION 



IlatSa? BacrtXeta 7rd\av, "lo-fyaa dyeveiovs KCLI avSpas jrvy/jia 

TrayKpdnov, Ta avra ' 

Tray/cpdnov, Ne/// 

irvy/jidv, Ne/^ea Tray/cpaTiov, 

5Neyu,ea Trvy^dv, 15NeyLtea Trvy/jiav KOI Tray/cpdriov 

'Ao-yeXa-Trteta Tray/cpdnov, Ta aura 

Naa 7rd\av KCU, 7rvy/j,av "Icr#/u 

K.CLI Traytcpdriov, Tlvdol 

Pieia Trakav fcal irvy/jiav Avfcaia 

10 /cal TrayKpaTiov. .... /ca]l irvy^av KOI 



14 [This is to be read owias Tei<r[iKpdTov eirol-rjffe. Teisikrates is, no doubt, the pupil 
of Euthykrates the son of Lysippos, who was said by PLINY (Hist. Nat, xxxiv. 8. 19. 
67) to have approached closer to the art of Lysippos than did Euthykrates himself. 
His name has been found as artist in an inscription in Thebes and at Oropos (LowY, 
Inschrift. gr.Bildhauer, 120, 121). The period of his activity lies between 320 and 284 
B. c. (Lowy, 120). His name is always written Teisikrates, even on a base found at 
Albano (Lowy, 478). His son Thoinias appears also on monuments, one from Tana- 
gra, one from Oropos, and a third from Delos (Lowy, 121, 122, 122a). On that from 
Oropos he is denominated a Sikyonian, as his father is named by Pliny. His career 
as artist would fall about the middle of the third century, probably for some years 
both before and after. Xenokrates, a pupil of Euthykrates or of Teisikrates, was 
engaged at Pergamon on the battle-monuments of Attalos I (B. c. 241-197), and the 
characters of our inscription resemble very closely those there employed, especially 
t 2 in Lowy, p. 116. The bar of A and the horizontal lines of ^ are slightly curved ; 
M has its sides nearly or quite perpendicular; and are somewhat below the 
average size ; P has the upper bar passing beyond the uprights, left and right. On 
the whole, the letters are quite regular and handsome without affectation. The iden- 
tification of the artist's name among these broken letters is of interest in many ways. 
It gives a fixed date for the inscription ; and, as an artist would not have signed a 
memorial bearing an inscription merely, we may conclude, that a statue of the athlete 
formed part of the monument ; furthermore, that a monument of this kind would not 
have been torn down and used to construct the wall in the theatre, unless some dis- 
aster had befallen it. We know of no occasion for this in the history of Sikyon from 
this time on, unless the statue was carried off by the Romans among the numerous 
art-treasures which they conveyed to Eome, or the monument was destroyed in the 
great earthquake which visited the city, probably in the reign of Tiberius. Hence it 
may be said, again, that the wall A was not constructed till many years after Greece 
was reduced to a Roman province, and perhaps not till after the beginning of our 
era. A. C. M.] 



REPORT OF EXCAVATIONS AT SIKYON. 285 

Translation. " Kallistratos, son of Philothales, in the contests of 
boys was victorious at the Basileia in wrestling ; at the Lykaia in the 
pankration ; at the Isthmian games in the pankration ; at the Pana- 
thenaia in boxing ; at the Nemean games in boxing ; at the Asklepieia 
in the pankration ; at the Nai'a in wrestling, boxing, and the pankra- 
tion ; at the Rhieia in wrestling, boxing, and the pankration. At. 
the Isthmian games he was victorious in boxing over both youths and 
men, at the same Isthmian festival ; at the Nemean games in the 
pankration ; at the Nemean games in the pankration ; at the Nemean 
games in boxing and the pankration, at the same Nemean festival ; at 
the Isthmian games in boxing ; at the Pythian games in boxing ; at the 
Lykaia twice in wrestling ; .... in boxing and the pankration." 

Comment. Nothing is known of Kallistratos, of whose athletic vic- 
tories the above inscription is a record. An inscription of similar 
character is found in CIG, I, 1515. The games mentioned in both 
inscriptions are much the same. 

1. Bao-tXeta. These games are mentioned in CIG, 1, 1515. Bockh 
remarks : Basilia suntLebadeae acta, eadem quae Trophonia; sed etiam 
inEuboea celebrata Basilia esse monui ad Pindar. The inscription at 
Sikyon probably refers to the festival at Lebadeia. 

6. 'Ac- K\aTT [eia probably refers to the games at Epidauros. 

7. Naa. These games are mentioned in CIG, n, 2908. The fol- 
lowing note is given : Naa sunt Nai'a s. Naa, Jovi Naio acta. Demosth. 
Cont. Meid. p. 531, ed. Reiske. According to Strabo, Zeus was called 
Nato9 owing to the moisture about Dodona, Schol. II., xvi. 233. 
WELCKER, Griech. Gotterlehre, I. 203. Cf. CIA, n, 1318, 1319. 

9. Pieta were games celebrated at ~Pt,ov. Cf. PLUT., Sept. sapp. conv., 
c. 19 : Tvy%av Se AoKpoi? rj TCOV PLCOV Ka6e(TTW<Ta Ovcria Kal iravr]- 
yvpLs, rfv ayov&iv ere vvv Trepifyavws Trepl rov TOTTOV e/ceivov. 

12 and 16. '10-0/uaSt and Neyu-eaSt are nominal adjectives with eoprfj 
understood. Pindar uses both 'Icrfyua? (I. 8. 5) and NeyLtea? (N. 3. 
4). We find the former in Thoukydides also (vm. 9). 15 

15 [Kallistratos has gained a victory among the beardless youths, the class inter- 
mediate between boys and men, and among the men at the same festival. The mind 
naturally reverts first to that disputed passage of PINDAR, 01 ix. 89, relating to Ephar- 
mostos at Marathon (o-v\a0ls tryei/eiW, pew aywva irpea-^vrfpcav). BoCKH, in his note 
on the passage, says that Epharmostos must have just arrived at manhood, and could 
not have contended as a youth among the men ; for, if he had been a youth in fact, 
it is not probable that he would have been permitted to enter the contest with the 
men. But Bockh was wrong. The Scholiast did not have Bockh's objection in mind, 



286 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHEOLOGY. 

18. TIvOoi, not TLvdta, because the Sikyonians celebrated a TlvOia 
at home. 

19. Av/caia are the games in honor of the Lykaian Zeus. 

W. J. McMlTRTRY, 

Member of the American School 

of Classical Studies at Athens. 

II. SUPPLEMENTARY REPORT OF THE EXCAVATIONS. 

On December 5, 1887, 1 went down from Athens to Basilik6 to con- 
tinue the work on the theatre of Sikyon, to which duty I had been detailed 
by Professor Merriam. The next day, a small beginning was made, 
trouble being experienced both in securing workmen and from a heavy 
rain. From December 7, however, the work was pushed vigorously, 
through the generous assistance of the demarch of Sikyon. Our efforts 
were directed chiefly toward clearing away the very heavy deposit of 
earth in the TrdpoBoi and the orchestra. A trench cut toward the N. E. 
from the wall E revealed nothing more than a sort of floor of cement, 
the terracotta pipes of a drain, and a few copper coins of no value. 

On December 9, the first object of art was found, about 1 met. s. E. 
of the middle of kk. This was a marble right hand, somewhat above 
life-size, grasping what might be the hilt of a sword. It evidently 
belonged to an excellent piece of sculpture, the veining on the back of 
the hand in particular being executed with much skill. On the next 
day, at a point 3.30 meters from the outer angle of the s. E. doorway 
in the wall A in the direction and at about the original level of the 
orchestra, a fine marble head was discovered. 

From this date till December 23, the digging continued rather mono- 
tonously. The deep strata of earth were gradually removed from the 
orchestra and the TrdpoSoL, while the clearing out of the large square 

and PAUSANIAS tells us distinctly of an Artemidoros of Tralleis who, at the same games 
in Smyrna, won the victory among the boys, the beardless youths and the men (KparTja-ai 
irayKpaTidfrvTa eVl T)/j.epas rys avrrjs rovs re e^'OXv/HTrtas avrayuviffrds, Kal eVt rots iraifflv 
obs ayeveiovs Ka\oO<n, Kal rpira S^ on apicrrov -f)V T&V at/Spuv : VI. 14. 3). EUSEBIOS, too, 
mentions the case of Stratonikos the Alexandrian, who won four crowns at Nemea on 
the same day among the boys and beardless youths (bs Ne/iea rfj avrp rj/j-epa TraiSwv Kal 
ayej/eiW reWapas ffTecpdvovs effx*v '- Chron. Hist., I. p. 238, Migne) ; and that of Pytha- 
goras the Samian, who was rejected from the youths and laughed at as too effeminate, 
but who entered the lists with the men and vanquished all in succession 
iraiSwv irvyfji))v, Kal CDS OrjXvs %A.eua(fyiei'os, irpofias ets TOVS avSpas, airavras 
Chron. Hist., i. p. 227, Migne). A. C. M.] 



REPORT OF EXCA VATIONS AT SIKYON. 287 

chamber M, which had not been completed before, was begun. On 
the afternoon of December 23, appeared a most welcome supplement 
to the head found on the 9th, which had meanwhile been removed to 
Athens by Mr. Kabbadias : this was a fine male torso of white marble, 
discovered about 0.60 m. below what was apparently the original level 
of the Greek orchestra, 3.50 m. out from a point 2.27 m. south of the 
middle of the marble surbase of A. The fragment was removed to 
Kia"to, whence it was subsequently transported to Athens. After it 
had been deposited in the Central Museum, Mr. Kabbadias, in the 
presence of Professor Merriam and myself, placed the previously dis- 
covered head upon the broken neck ; and, although a considerable frag- 
ment on the left side of the throat was lost, the remaining portions of 
the two surfaces, on the back and on the right side of the neck, coin- 
cided with perfect exactness, proving that the connection of head and 
torso as portions of the same statue did not admit of question. 

The remainder of our work in the theatre did not result in the dis- 
covery of other artistic treasures. A trench run s. E. from the chamber 
M disclosed nothing but a drain, apparently of Roman construction ; 
and our work was brought to an end on December 30. An intended 
resumption of work in the spring was found impracticable, desirable 
as it would have been for the solution of some interesting problems in 
regard to the original structure and arrangement of the theatre. 

To this brief chronicle belongs some account of certain minor exca- 
vations. On December 14-17, I made several attempts to uncover 
ancient tombs at various points in the immediate vicinity of Basilik6. 
The remains of such tombs certainly exist on the slope of the plateau 
toward the Asopos, south of Basiliko, and at the foot of an odd-looking 
conical hill l s. E. of the last-mentioned point and close to the bank of 
the river. Tombs are also present on the slope of the plateau above 
the village of Moulki, which lies on the edge of the plain, N. of Basilik6 
and near the Hord/jn TT}? Ae%o/3a9 ('EXto-o-coz/), as well as on the 
declivity toward this river, N. of the theatre and N. w. of Basilik6. 
The most interesting of the tombs on the ancient site are those above 
and below the fountain called MiKprj Rpvo-is (probably the ancient 

1 The opinion has been, I believe, entertained, that this hill is artificial : an ex- 
amination of the entire circuit of the old site has convinced me that this is not the 
case. Other similar hills are observable toward the s. w. near the Asopos, the hard 
clay soil naturally assuming shapes which appear as if artificial. 



288 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY. 



, the northernmost fountain of Basilik6, situated north of 
the village in the gorge through which passes the ordinary road from 
Moulki. Our attempts, however, which could not be pushed so vigor- 
ously as to interfere with our main work at the theatre, resulted in 
nothing beyond confirming the opinion of my workmen : 'Tirdp^ovv 
rdfoi, aXX' elvai o\oi avoi^ptvoi ! " There are graves, but all have 
been opened." I made other attempts on January 4, 1888, at a point 
north of and below the Mifcpr) Bpuo-t?, and on the following day on 
the plain toward Kiato, where some Christian tombs, containing terra- 
cotta bowls, etc., of small interest, were the only reward of some hours 
of work in a bleak and piercing north wind. 

Returning now to the theatre, I will endeavor to state, as exactly as 
possible, what additions were made to our knowledge of its construction 
and arrangement by the excavations of this second season. 

In the orchestra, as already stated, we removed the heavy deposit 
of earth, down to what seemed to be the original /covia-rpa, which, like 
that in the theatre of Epidauros, consisted simply of stamped earth. 
The hard, whitish clay soil of Sikyon lent itself readily to this use. 
This was probably the original condition of the entire orchestra ; but 
at some subsequent period, most likely during the Roman domination, 
an alteration was made in the space between Jck and A. Here the 
soil, differing from that on the other side of kk in being of a mixed 
character and not the whitish clay, was removed, in the spaces indicated 
on the plan as Z Z, to a depth of some 0.60m. below the apparent 
original orchestra-level. It was in this space on the east side that the 
head and torso of the marble statue were found. Between these spaces 
and the marble surbase before A, was found what seemed to be a 
pavement of rough mosaic- work. The conjecture may be hazarded, 
that the so-called drain kk is to be dated with the ancient hollowing 
out of this part of the orchestra. Between the double line of stones 
forming kk, were found fragments of poros columns, and an irregu- 
larly-shaped block of marble 0.75m. in length. 

A small rough drain (?), to the west of and nearly parallel with kk, 
runs at a distance of 2 m. to 2.60 m. from it. It is 0.35 m. wide, 

2 This fountain is at present concealed by a Turkish wall, but the dropping can 
be heard through a small square aperture in the wall. Lapse of time may easily 
have wrought changes in the conspicuousness of this fountain, aside from its artificial 
concealment. Rangabe", cited by Meliarakes (rewypatyia 'ApyoXiSos nal KopivOias, 
p. 117), seems wrong in identifying ^rd^ovcra with the Tpav^j B/jucns, if that is taken 
as the name of the southern fountain. 



REPORT OF EXCA VATIONS AT SIKYON. 289 

formed, like kk, of a double line of stones, and runs across the orches- 
tra from the large square stone (indicated at X on the PLAN) to a simi- 
lar stone on the other side. Its greatest distance from kk is at the 
extremities. A marble basis, .F 2 , was discovered on the second day 
of our excavations. Its dimensions are : length, 0.82 m. ; breadth, 
0.75 m. ; thickness, 0.21 m. In the upper surface is a hollow, 0.63 m. 
by 0.135 m., with a depth of 0.07 m. This block, which is appar- 
ently in situ, probably served as the base for a statue, but whether for 
the statue discovered by us cannot be determined. 

We now come to the TrdpoSoi* (K and L\ of which that toward the 
S. E. (K) is the better preserved. This is at its entrance rock-cut, the 
native rock outside it being graded down, and the point where the 
TrdpoSo? proper begins being marked by a sharp downward cut. The 
sill thus formed, which is indicated on the PLAN, is about 0.25 m. high. 
Within this there are remains of door-posts, that at the right hand 
upon entering being almost destroyed, but that on the left, against the 
avd\r)ijL/j,a, rising to a height of 1.35 m. with a thickness of 0.42 m. 
The distance from its inner angle at the base to the point at which the 
dvd\rjfjL/jia meets the orchestra is, as accurately as the measurement 
could be made, 10.77 m. This door-post (a on the PLAN), above which 
the artificial portion of the dvd\^^Lfjba now rises only 0.65 m., seems to 
have been altered, presumably in Roman times ; for its original thick- 
ness is increased by the adjunction to it, on the outer side with a mortar- 
joint, of a piece, which, to judge from the moulding on the face toward 
the orchestra, might have formed part of a cornice. The avahrififia 4 
is here very handsome, being built of large blocks of the native stone, 
most carefully set and with beveled joints. This Trapo&o?, of which 
the floor, after passing the rock-cut entrance, seems to have been of 
cement or concrete, slopes downward toward the orchestra, the fall 
from the sill to the point where the avaXri^a meets the orchestra be- 
ing about 0.50 m. the height of one course of stone in the dvdkri^a. 
The width of the Tra/ooSo?, taken at a point just within the line of the 
door-posts, is about 3.35 m., and from the basis .F before mentioned to 
the dvd\r)fjiiJLa 3.50 m. Traces of stucco appear on the rock-cut wall 
on the side opposite the ava^^a, both in this irdpoSos and in that 
opposite. 

3 For this term, see MULLER, Lehrbuch der griechischen Buhnenalterthiimer, p. 58. 

4 Cf. MULLER, op. cit., p. 04, and Notes 6, 8, ad loc. 



290 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY. 

At the entrance of the N. w. TrdpoSo? (L) also, we find a door-post 
about 1.50 m. in height, cut out of the solid rock which here forms the 
avdXrjfjLf^a, though the latter is constructed of masonry near the orches- 
tra. From the door-post to the point where the avak^^a of that side 
meets the orchestra the distance is, roughly, 10.85 m., or approximately 
the same as at the s. E. TrapoSo?. The very ruinous state of this TrapoSo? 
prevented the taking of further dimensions, except the breadth near 
the entrance, 3.40 m. It may be said, however, that it seems doubtful 
whether the dvd\rjfjufjLa here was ever of so handsome workmanship 
ps in the other parodos, which seems to have been the principal entrance 
for the townspeople. 

Between the S. E. TrdpoSos and the square chamber (.M), there are two 
rock-cut ramps 5 (Fand W) leading up from the rock-cut entrance- 
way outside the TrapoSo?, one to the scene-structure of the Greek period, 
the other to the Roman. The wall which separates them was stuccoed 
on the side toward the TrdpoSo^. The inner ramp(F) is somewhat 
lower than the other (perhaps as much as 0.20m.), and, in its present 
condition at least, appears to have been more carefully finished. It 
ends at the top of the rock in which it is cut, which here seems much 
weatherworn. Its width is 1.80 m. at a point about 0.90 m. up from 
the line of the sill of the TrdpoSo? ; and 2.14 m. at a point some 5.50 m. 
up toward the o-K^vr) from the same line, at which point the cutting 
of the ramp, as now existing, ends. The highest part of this ramp 
is at least 2 m. above the corresponding point of the TrdpoBo^. 

The outer ramp ( W). was apparently separated from the large s. E. 
chamber (M) by a wall, whether entirely of the native rock subse- 
quently destroyed, or constructed in part of masonry, cannot now be 
determined. It is certain that the native rock rises at least a little 
higher than the ramp at this part, the width of the ridge of demarca- 
tion being about 0.88 m. The width of the ramp itself is 1.30 m., and 
that of the rock-cut wall separating it from the inner ramp, about 0.80 m. 

On the other side of the aKrjvrj the shattered condition of the rock 
precludes study. The outer ramp (i) is well preserved, being deeply 
cut in the solid rock. Its width is 1.55m. at the entrance, and 1.45m. 
near the point where it ends above (as indicated on the PLAN). It 
thus does not coincide exactly in dimensions with W. The width of 
the wall dividing this from the inner ramp is from 0.50 m. to 0.60 m. 

5 Perhaps to be designated as &vw TropoSoi? Of. MULLER, op. cit., p. 58. The thea- 
tre at Epidauros had a ramp on each side. 



REPORT OF EXCA VATIONS AT SIKYON. 291 

In regard to the large s. E. chamber (M), which is now fully exca- 
vated, a few details may be added to the results obtained by the former 
investigations. Around the interior walls of this chamber, there is a 
continuous rock-cutting in the form of a bench or seat, broken only by 
the doorway of the chamber. The width of this bench is about 0.45 m., 
and its height from the floor about 0.40 m. It was coated with stucco. 
At the doorway of the chamber there is a low step ; and in the centre 
of the chamber we found what appeared to be the base of a pillar or 
roof-support of poros. A considerable quantity of broken roofing-tiles 
was found within the chamber. The largest of these measures 0.415 m. 
by 0.46 m., the length having been originally greater. With these 
tiles were found a small figurine of a cock, in terracotta, one or two 
common terracotta lamps, and some other insignificant objects. 

In the course of the work on the theatre, some thirty-five copper 
coins were found, most of them in exceedingly bad preservation. Of 
these, several are unmistakably Sikyonian. They were found chiefly 
in the irdpoSoi. 

A few remarks must be added with respect to the so-called vTrovopos, 
assumed above to be a portion of the central drain of the orchestra 
extending transversely under the entire Graeco-Roman o-tcyvrj from 
A to E. 6 In the course of the work, I had one of the massive cover- 
stones of this cavity removed (at 8 in the plan), and found a deep 
channel, 0.65 m. wide, partly cut in the solid rock and partly built up. 
It was unobstructed for a considerable distance, so that a man could 
easily make his way in it about as far as the wall E, where it was 
closed by the solid rock. Its depth was somewhat over a meter. 
There was a deposit of earth in the bottom which has been but in part 
removed. The depth of the cutting is certainly over 2 m. Two 
fragments of poros columns, which lay in front of A (at ft in the 
PLAN), were rolled away, and some earth removed from beneath them. 
Here, as was noted at the time, the virovopos appeared clogged with 
earth, and the exact manner of its connection with the orchestra-drain 
did not appear. At <y (between A and B), some digging revealed 
a block of stone, shaped like a double step, and apparently having 
some connection with the virovopos. 

The exact extent and depth of this interesting cutting, and its use 
whether it served as reservoir, drain, or for some other purpose have 

6 [This has been designated, on the PLAN, as Roman, but it must belong to the 
same period as the conduit surrounding the orchestra. A. C. M.] 



292 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY. 

not been definitely determined. Indeed, this must be left, for the pres- 
ent, among several other unexplained problems of the theatre, which we 
had intended to solve but were, to our regret, prevented from taking up. 

MORTIMER LAMSON EARLE, 

Member of the American School 

of Classical Studies at Athens, 

III. A SIKYONIAN STATUE. 

[PLATE VIII.] 

Of the mutilated marble statue found at Sikyon, as stated in the pre- 
ceding article, 1 some mention has already been made in archaeological 
publications; 2 but no exhaustive discussion has appeared of the quali- 
ties of the work and the interesting questions which it suggests. 3 

The statue 4 represents a nude youth resting upon the left leg and with 
the back of the left hand upon the hip. A considerable portion of the 
bent left arm is missing. It was carved from a separate piece of marble, 
and was attached by metal pins, as is evident from the seven holes, with 
the trace of an eighth, which appear in the vertically cut surface to which 
it was secured. About this arm a himation is draped, and it falls, from a 
point just below the shoulder, in straight folds, with a gradual increase 
of fullness as it descends. Doubtless it originally reached the base 
of the statue and served as a support. As such, it is well motived ; for 
the sharpness of the folds shows that the fabric is of comparatively light 
texture, as can be gathered also from the manner in which it is held, the 

1 Supplementary Report of the Excavations (pp. 286-7). 

2 Seventh Annual Report Am. School, p. 46 (MERRIAM), with a cut from Scribner's 
Magazine, 1888; Journ. Hell. Studies, 1888, p. 130 (HARBISON). 

3 The plate which accompanies this article is made from an indifferent photograph 
by Panagopoulos of Athens, to which, with another similar one from a different point 
of view and a third photograph of the head, I have been limited in the preparation 
of this paper. The lack of a cast has necessarily left much to be desired. 

* The dimensions of the statue in its present condition are as follows : length of 
face, from roots of hair to end of chin, 0.16m.; breadth of face, 0.11 m. ; measure 
over face from ear to ear, 0.21 m. ; height of forehead, 0.06 m. ; length of nose, about 
0.055 m. ; length of eye, 0.03 m. ; of mouth, 0.035 m. ; distance of nose from ear, 
0.08 m. ; tip of lobe of ear below plane of outer angle of eye, 0.03 m. ; measure 
around chin and crown of head, 0.67 m. ; around head above curls, 0.56 m. ; over 
breast from arm-pit to arm -pit, 0.34 m. ; from throat to navel, 0.33 m. ; from navel 
to pubes, 0.12 m. ; between hips, 0.26 m. ; around waist, 0.71 m. ; from shoulder to 
shoulder, 0.35 m. ; from back of neck to small of back, 0.40 m. ; across back from 
arm-pit to arm-pit, 0.34 m. 



JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY. 



VOL. V. PLATE VIII. 




SIKYONIAN STATUE 

PKOM THE EXCAVATIONS OP THE AMERICAN SCHOOL 
AT THE THEATRE OF SIKYON. 



A SIKYONIAN STATUE. 293 

hand upon the hip supporting easily the bulk of the weight without the 
appearance, between wrist and arm-pit, of a brooch or clasp to help 
hold it, such as we find elsewhere in a somewhat similar conception. 5 
Thus, the garment was practically a support, artistically a graceful 
relief to the nude figure. The statue is still further mutilated by the 
loss of the right arm from a little below the shoulder, the greater por- 
tion of the right leg, and somewhat less of the left, with the contiguous 
drapery. The membrum virile, which was not, as very commonly, 6 
carved separately and set in, is broken off; a considerable portion of 
the left side of the throat is missing, rendering restoration here neces- 
sary ; and the nose is somewhat mutilated, as well as the curls. The 
head was broken into three large pieces, 7 which were still in contact. 
The greatest break comes just above the forehead, on the right side of 
the head, and may be distinguished in the photograph. The right arm 
was extended, as is shown by the direction of the remaining portion ; 
the motive of this will be considered later in connection with the iden- 
tification of the statue. The pupils of the eyes were not plastically 
indicated, but were painted red, and traces of the yellow coloring of 
the hair were plainly visible just after the unearthing of the head. 

The surface of the marble the provenience of which I am unable to 
state is somewhat corroded ; but the fine Greek workmanship remains 
plainly evident ; and the finish was most careful in all parts of the 
statue except the hair, of which more below. 

The following questions naturally suggest themselves with reference 
to our statue : first, whether it represents a god or a man ; second, if the 
former, what god is represented ; third, what motives known to the 
history of Greek sculpture does the work embody ; fourth, to what age 
of Greek sculpture is it to be referred, to what school, and, perchance, 
to what artist. 

5 Of. Hermes in Berlin (Verzeichniss der ant. Skulpturen, No. 196) ; brooch on left 
shoulder, left hand extended, garment (chlamys) falling around and below left arm ; 
Hermes on Ephesian columna caelata (FR.-Woi/r., 1242-3, OVERBECK, PlastikW n, 
p. 97) ; sequel to preceding motive, chlamys has slipped from shoulder bringing 
brooch in bend of left arm (left hand on hip). In connection with this last figure, 
it may be mentioned that, in attitude, it corresponds very closely with the figure of 
an athlete in an Attic relief of the fourth cent. B. c. figured in the Annali, 1862, tav. 
d'agg. M (text by MICHAELIS, ib. pp. 208-16). 

6 Of. Berlin originals, Verzeichn., Nos. 258, 259 (Satyrs of "Periboetos" type), 
FR.-Woi/r., No. 1578 (Eros of Centocelle), etc. 

7 Two small fragments filling fractures in the curls were also found: now probably 
lost. 



294 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHEOLOGY. 

As regards the first question, there can scarcely be a doubt that we 
have before us the statue of a god. A consideration of the whole form 
and character of the work precludes the supposition that the artist was 
elaborating portraiture of any sort. There are no features of actual 
human personality ; on the contrary, the whole is pervaded with the 
spirit of ideality. Nor can it be considered an ideal athlete or ephebe 
portrait ; for neither is the muscular development such as to warrant 
this opinion, nor is the pose that of an athlete : one of the most char- 
acteristic features though not adequately rendered in the photograph 
is a plump fullness and a heavy sensuous droop about the region of 
the loins that show a far different character. The body is languid, 
and far more suggestive of soft, seductive ease than of the palma no- 
bilis: in fact, I can find no better expression of the whole spirit and 
character of the body than the admirable words in which Overbeck 8 
describes the Praxitelean satyr-type : Zu ringen und zu kdmpfen oder 
selbst zu einem eilenden Botengange wilrde dieser Satyrkorper nicht tau- 
gen, fur ihn passt nur das freie Umherstreifen, ein Tanz mit den 
Nymphen oder diese behdbige Ruhe y die wir vor uns sehn und welche ihn 
von oben bis unten durchdringt und selbst fur den Arm auf die Hufte 
einen Stutzpunkt suchen Idsst. Attention should also here be called 
to the fullness of the breasts and the distinctly feminine form of the 
shoulders, to which further reference will be made. It is not, however, 
to be assumed, from the implied comparison with the Praxitelean satyr, 
that we have before us a type intermediate between god and man. The 
expression of the features, though sensuous, is yet lofty and ideal. It is 
plain, then, that it is the statue of a god ; and let us attempt to answer 
the question, What god is represented ? 

The opinion that we have here a Dionysos was broached in the first 
instance by M. Kabbadias ; indeed, he made his assumption before 
it had been demonstrated that head and torso were parts of the same 
statue. To this he appears to have been led by a certain likeness to 
the so-called Ariadne head. 9 It seems proper to refer here to this des- 
ignation, inasmuch as it was made public at the time in the daily '^77- 
pepis of Athens, and was followed in a brief report on the excavations 
at Sikyon, published in the New York Evening Post in 1 888. It is also 
accepted as probable by Miss Harrison, 10 while Professor Merriam " left 
the question an open one by describing the statue simply as " a naked 

8 Plastik ( 3 ), n, p. 42. 9 See Fn.-Woi/r., No. 1490, for data in regard to this head. 
10 Journ. Hell. Stud., ut supra. n Seventh Ann. Report Am. School, ut supra. 



A SIKYONIAN STATUE. 295 

male figure of pronounced feminine type/' Allowing this assumption 
to rest for the present, let us seek to gain firmer ground by a process of 
elimination. Considerable stress should be laid upon the feminine forms 
of our statue, particularly the breasts and the shoulders. Such shoul- 
ders appear in statues of Apollo, Dionysos, Eros, and (rarely) Hermes. 12 
An identification with Hermes is to be excluded, inasmuch as there is 
not a hint of the swift messenger of the gods, nothing of the lightness 
and lithe ephebic or mellephebic vigor which characterizes the youthful 
Hermes type. Eros also must be stricken from the list ; for there is 
in our statue no trace of wings, which are required in an Eros, 13 to say 
nothing of the greater boyishness of most of the types of Eros. 

We have then to decide between Apollo and Dionysos a task by 
no means easy. The statues of the youthful Apollo exhibit a boy of 
graceful and agile form, with an inherent capacity for action, as in the 
Sauroktonos. 14 On the contrary, we find in our statue an inertia, a 
fleshiness about the body, not marked enough to be in any wise gross, 
and yet plainly and skilfully suggested. We have this much, then, to 
urge in favor of the identification with Dionysos ; and we can find still 
further support for it. The statue was found in the theatre, which 
was consecrated to Dionysos, who had moreover at Sikyon a temple in 

12 Cf. the Florence statue (FR.-Woi/r., No. 1534). I am unable at present to give 
another instance. Even in this figure there is a plump firmness about the shoulders 
distinctly at variance with our statue. 

13 On this question, see FURTW ANGLER (ap. ROSCHER, art. Eros, p. 1350) : Von Anfang 
an erscheint Eros als Knabe oder Mellephebe gebildet und mit Flilgeln ausgerustet. Par- 
ticularly also the following: Ungefliigdte Bildung des Eros ist nirgends als beabsichtigt, 
sondern nur aus Nachldssigkeit erstanden und zwar namentlich in spdtrb'mischer Zeit zu 
konstatieren, wo man die Fliigel bei bekannten Typen zuweilen auch an Statuen aus Be- 
quemlichkeit wegliess (I.e., p. 1369). We have, of course, in the present instance noth- 
ing either nachldssig or spdtrb'misch ; as wingless, may be mentioned the St. Peters- 
burg torso (FR.-W., 217), a replica of the same original as the Sparta torso (FR.-W., 
No. 218), which latter shows evident traces of wings. Cf. also the wingless group in 
Berlin ( Verz. 150) to which the designation Eros und Psyche (?) is given and favored, 
obwohl das iibrigens nicht gerade unerldssliche Abzeichen der Fliigel den Figuren fehlt. 

' u Cf. BAUMEISTER, DenkmtiL, s. v., Apollon, p. 95 sqq. ; especially p. 98, where we 
read : Die grosse Menge der sonst erhaltenen Apollonstatuen geben den Charakter tvieder, 
welchen Praxiteles seinem Sauroktonos aufgeprdgt hatle : eines Epheben von schlanker Bildung, 
Kraft und Zartheit der Glieder vereinigend, zwischen Hermes und Dionysos die Mitte hal- 
tend. Cf. the remark of FURTWANGLER (ap. ROSCHER, p. 467) : Die Korperformen 
[des Apoir] sind regelmdssig sehr jugendlich und weich, oft denen des Dionysos sich ndhernd. 
I am well aware that it is frequently difficult to distinguish mutilated statues of Dio- 
nysos from those of Apollo, and the attempted restorations are frequently dubious : 
cf. BRTJNN, Beschreib. der Glyptothek, Nos. 97, 103. Examples might be multiplied. 



296 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHEOLOGY. 

the immediate vicinity /zera TO dearpov, in the words of Pausanias. 
This argument, while of some value as corroborative testimony, is 
worth but little per se, for we find a statue of Apollo in the great 
theatre of Dionysos at Athens. 15 

But it may here be urged, in favor of the identification as Apollo, 
that the face of our statue has an expression too lofty and intellectual 
for the youthful Dionysos. This objection may be satisfactorily 
answered, if we consider on what it chiefly rests, namely, the high 
forehead. For the mouth, though not broad as in Satyr-faces, will be 
found full and sensuous, while the cheeks and chin sink so softly into 
the unusually full throat that the uncommon heaviness here strikes 
one immediately when the statue is viewed in profile. Furthermore, 
a high forehead is precisely what we find in Seilenoi and Satyrs ; 16 and 
the apparent lowness of the brow in many statues of Dionysos is due 
to the arrangement of the hair or to the head-band across the upper 
part of the forehead, while the height of forehead is noticeable only 
in those statues of Apollo which exhibit some such arrangement of 
hair about the face as in our figure. 17 We have, also, a noteworthy 
instance of a sweet femininity and quite as much intellectuality in a 
head in the Berlin Museum, 18 which was at first, like the Sikyonian, 
assumed to be that of a female, but has been unhesitatingly declared 
to be a Dionysos by an authority so competent as Furtwangler. 

We have next to consider what Greek sculptural motives the statue 
embodies : (1) the general pose of the body and legs ; (2) the evident 

15 Cf.on this subject SCHREIBER (Mittheilungen Athen., ix, p. 248), whose arguments 
against Waldstein's-athlete hypothesis seem convincing. He would make the familiar 
Athenian figure an original by Kallimachos the Karar^irexvos. The statue, accord- 
ing to him, is that of Apollo Daphnephoros, the chair of whose priest we find in the 
theatre : cf. ut supra. 

16 Cf. the airotr/coTrejW (FR.-W., No. 1429). The comparison of Sokrates with his 
high forehead to a Seilenos is well known. 

17 Cf. the so-called Ariadne head (FR.-W., No. 1490). Many statues of Dionysos 
have low brows, but the same is true of heads of Apollo: cf. the Belvedere and Apol- 
lino, with the high forehead (fourth-century type), with FR.-Woi/r., Nos. 222-4. 

18 Ferz., No. 118; FURTWANGLER, Sammlung Sabouro/, Tafel xxin. Gefunden zu 
Athen beim Lykabettos. Hohe 0,24. Gesichtsldnge 0,12. Penielischer Marmor (FURT- 
WANGLER, I. c., Note 1 under text). The marked femininity of the face, the sweet- 
ness of expression and the high forehead are points of comparison with our statue 
which at once struck me. Wir haben hier, says Furtwangler, einen ganz unversehrten, 
etwas unterlebensgrossen Dionysoskopf vor uns, der aus einem atlischen Atelier der Zeit des 
Praxiteles selbst stammt. 



A SIKYONIAN STATUE. 297 

motive of the left arm ; (3) the probable motive of the lost right arm ; 
(4) the head and arrangement of hair. 

As regards the pose, we observe that the weight of the body rests 
on the left leg, and that there is a corresponding graceful sway in the 
hips and loins. As is admitted, on the testimony of Pliny 19 and the 
evidence of replicas of the Doryphoros and other statues, Polykleitos 
was the first to introduce into Greek sculpture the distinction which is 
well described by the German terms Standbein and Spielbein the leg 
on which the weight of the body rests and that which is free to pose 
in any one of several. graceful attitudes. Praxiteles added a graceful 
sweep and curve of the body, giving to it, as a whole, a sort of S-shape. 
This is admirably exemplified in the Olympian Hermes. The Prax- 
itelean type is at once evident in our Sikyonian statue, and that, too, 
not as a novelty but as part of the common stock of artistic tradition. 

Concerning the left arm there are several points to consider. The 
left hand supported on the hip is noted as a favorite motive with Prax- 
iteles, though it may have had an earlier origin. It is easily demon- 
strable that the resting of the left hand on the hip may be so motived 
as to express more than one artistic idea. Let us take, for example, a 
satyr-statue of the Periboetos type (e. g., Berlin originals Nos. 258, 
259; Overbeck, Plastik (3 \ n, p. 41). Here we see the back of the 
left hand resting softly against the side, rather below the hip : this, 
together with the graceful and delicate pose of the whole figure, may 
fairly be considered as the fully developed Praxitelean motive. This 
is essentially the position of the hand in our Sikyonian statue, though 
here there is a fuller and firmer resting of the back of the hand against 
the side, which, in a draped statue of an elderly man, would give 
an air of dignified composure. If the motive were that in which 
the back of the hand is turned outward and the knuckles rest firmly 
against the side, there would be a greater sturdiness, a certain holding 
of force in reserve, particularly when accompanied by a firmer pose 
of the whole body. 20 The same may be said of the position of the 

19 HN, xxxiv. 56 ; cf. OVERBECK, Schriftgudlen, No. 967. 

20 It is instructive to observe the effect of the supporting of the right hand upon 
the side (in the instance about to be cited, fingers outward in plain view, thumb be- 
hind) in the figure of Pelops from the east pediment of the temple of Zeus at Olym- 
pia. Cf. FR.-W., p. 125 : Nicht ohne Absicht scheint fur ihn der Kilnstler die selbstbe- 
wusste, fast trotzige Haltung gewahlt zu haben : den Kopf etwas zurilckgeworfen, die Hand 
in die Seite gestemmt, steht er seines Sieges bewusst da. A somewhat similar attitude in a 
nude Poseidon statuette is described (FR.-W., No. 1763) as mehr energisch ak stolz 



298 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY. 

hand with the fingers extended forward, the thumb behind, to us per- 
haps the most common and natural of these attitudes. 

It is essential here to give in historical sequence a brief list of in- 
stances of the left hand supported against the side more or less in the 
manner of the Sikyonian statue. From the Parthenon we have the 
following : (1) Standing semi-draped male figure on w. frieze (Mi- 
chaelis, 9. 1. 1) ; in which the left hand rests rather below and somewhat 
behind hip : c/. Carrey's drawing ap. Michaelis. (2) Standing male 
figure on E. frieze (Michaelis, 14. in, 19), back of left hand on hip, 
staff under right arm, also draped. Together with these may be 
grouped a number of Attic reliefs in which the traces of Pheidian 
art are evident. I give the numbering of the casts ap. Friederichs- 
Wolters. (3) Standing figure of Asklepios (Fr.-W., No. 1070), the 
familiar draped type resting on staff with left hand concealed in gar- 
ment and supported on hip. Such figures have a close likeness to 
that cited above from the E. frieze of the Parthenon. 21 As Overbeck 
(Plastik^, i, pp. 274, 279) has no hesitation in deriving the seated 
statues of Asklepios (cult-statues), whether through Alkamenes or Ko- 
lotes, from the Zeus of Pheidias; so we may claim. the standing figures 
of Asklepios on the reliefs as Attic and Pheidian, in view particularly of 
the Parthenon figure alluded to above. Similar figures are Fr-Wolt., 
Nos. 1085, 1196. It is not always possible to determine whether the back 
of the hand rests on the hip or whether the doubled hand holding a por- 
tion of the robe rests the knuckles upon the hip. This latter posture in 
connection with a more erect position of body, necessitating the firmer 
holding of the robe, is expressive of sturdier dignity. This position 
of the hand we have clearly in the Berlin statue Verzeich., No. 71, and 
apparently in the fine statue of Sophokles in the Lateran (Fr.-Wolt., 
No. 1307). For left hand on hip, c/., also, Fr.-Wolt., Nos. 1085, 1147, 
1150, 1151, 1161, 1195, 1196, 1445. To these should be added, as 
Praxitelean, the Periboetos satyrs (e. g., Berlin Verz., Nos. 258, 259) ; 
the Hermes of the eolumna caelata (Overbeck, Plastik^ n, 97 ; Fr.- 
Wolt., No. 1242-3) ; an athlete in an Athenian relief previously cited 
(Annali, 1862, tav, M). An archaistic Hermes on the "Altar of the 
Twelve Gods" in the Louvre (Fr.-Wolt., No. 422) stands stiffly with 
left hand on hip. A standing figure of Ammon from Pergamon may 

21 Of. FR.-WOLT., pp. 327, 328, for some remarks on the connection between such 
reliefs from Parthenon and other sculptures. 



A SIKYONIAN STATUE. 299 

be added a draped figure with left hand on hip, reminding one 
strongly of Attic work. 

In the preceding list we have either Attic works or at least Attic 
types. Since it appears already in Pheidian art, it is plain that the 
motive in question in its more general aspect cannot be called Praxi- 
telean ; but there seems no just ground for refusing it this title, when 
it appears as developed in the more restricted type of the fourth cen- 
tury, and as applied to nude or nearly nude youthful male statues. 

As regards the right arm, it is evident from the remaining portion 
that it was at least somewhat extended ; and, in consonance with the 
rest of the figure, it may most readily be assumed that it was sup- 
ported upon an object of some height. If the figure is Dionysos, this 
object may with great probability have been the familiar thyrsus. An 
interesting comparison may here be made between our statue and a 
relief on one side of a white marble disk in Berlin ( Verz., No. 1042), 
found at Gabii, thus described : in flacherem Relief und fluchtiger 
ausge/uhrt die stehende Figur desjungen Dionysos in Chiton [?~\ und 
Umwurf [Himation], auf einen Stab (Thyrsos) gelehnt; auf Fehen 
neben Him brennt eine Flamme. Romische Arbeit. The figure looks 
toward the spectator's right and somewhat downward ; the left hand 
is supported on the hip, the hair seems to be gathered in a knot on the 
back of the neck, the right arm is bent sharply at the elbow and the 
hand, held high, grasps the thyrsus ; the weight of the body rests on 
the left leg, the right is bent in the same manner as the left leg of the 
Ephesian Hermes. The points in common with the Sikyonian statue 
are the following : (1) left hand on hip ; (2) weight on left leg ; (3) 
right arm raised ; (4) garment (himation) over left arm although in the 
disk figure it is draped over the left shoulder, and, leaving the left elbow 
bare, falls in front of the left arm as far as the knee, being then brought 
around behind the figure and looped from before over the bent right 
arm. It seems not improbable that the Roman disk figure goes back 
to a much earlier Greek original ; and one is reminded of the Diony- 
sos by Eutychides in the house of Asinius Pollio. 22 The comparison 
aifords us, at all events, an interesting parallel ; and, aside from this, 
the thyrsus seems the most natural explanation for the position of the 
right arm in our statue. 

As regards the position of the head, I fancied I could detect, in 

22 OVERBECK, PlastikW, ii, 135. 
3 



300 A M ERIC AN JO URNAL OF AR CHJEOL OGY. 

the inclination toward the right with the gaze turned toward the left, 
something borrowed from the Alexander type, which is undoubtedly 
due to Lysippos. 23 But if there is just reason for this conjecture, the 
motive is here merely hinted at ; it is already an artistic common- 
place of the post-Lysippian epoch. But we have particularly to notice 
the free handling of the hair, reminding in a measure of the heads of 
Alexander, in which we have, as in the Sikyonian statue, a simple 
arrangement of the locks, which are drawn down from the crown of 
the head and curl freely upward over the forehead and temples, falling 
somewhat lower on the neck behind. 24 This, so far as I am aware, we 
do not observe in the Praxitelean types and can hardly date earlier 
than Lysippos, to whom, indeed, it seems attributable. It is the germ 
of the treatment in later types, such as the Pergamene figures, where 
we see the hair, as in the Laocoon and the busts of Zeus, rising in a sort 
of halo about the head and face. The conception of this arrangement 
may, of course, be sought earlier. We have, in a diskobolos of Attic 
type 25 and in the Eubuleus of Praxiteles, ephebic figures in which the 
short hair is secured simply by a band or fillet, in strong contrast 
with the Attic krobylos 26 in vogue till the middle of the fifth century 
B. c., though scarcely appearing on the Parthenon. 27 In our statue, 
the hair behind and above the line of curls exhibits very rough and 
superficial workmanship, and was evidently not intended to be seen. 
We observe, also, the great fullness of this portion of the head, more 
noticeable in profile. Taking this in connection with the presence of 
a number of holes in the marble above the line of the curls, we may 
conclude that the head had some sort of decoration, which concealed 
the unfinished upper portion. We observe the same workmanship 
in other statues with a similar arrangement of hair about the face and 
with indubitable traces of wreaths. 28 What more natural, then, than 

23 On this subject, c/. BAUMEISTER, Denkm., s. v., Alexandras, and particularly EMER- 
SON in Am. Journ. Arch., vol. n, pp. 408-13; vol. in, pp. 243-60. Of. OVERBECK, 
PlastikW, 11, p. 110 sqq., in regard to portraits of Alexander by Lysippos. 

24 We see this, also, in the Monte Cavallo colossi, which exhibit traces of Lysip- 
pian influence. 

26 FR.-WOLT., No. 465 ; OVERBECK, PlastikW, i, p. 276. 
26 ScHREiBER, MittheU. Inst. Athen., vui, p. 246 f. 

27 Cf. Mittheil. Inst. Athtn., vui, p. 262, a figure in der Gruppe der schonen Greise, der 
Thallophoren. 

28 Cf. FR.-Woi/r., No. 1283 (Asklepios?) for arrangement of hair, for high forehead, 
and for a certain community of expression (e.g., similarity of mouth) with our statue, 



A SIKYONIAN STATUE. 301 

to suppose, about the head of our statue, an ivy-wreath of bronze, with 
broad, full leaves ? 

The height of the forehead, as already shown, though not necessa- 
rily conflicting, yet seems unusual in a Dionysos. Furtwangler, in his 
excellent notice of the Berlin head, already referred to, 29 says that it 
can be none other than that of Dionysos on account of the fillet in the 
hair which touches the middle of the forehead and there conceals the 
roots of the hair a characteristic of Dionysos. Die gewohnliche Binde, 
he continues, wurde bekanntlich viel welter hinten im Haare getragen. 
In dlterer Zeit trdgt Dionysos ganz regelmdssig den Epheukranz um das 
Haupt und dieser scheint aueh unserem Kopfe nicht gefehlt zu haben ; 
eine schrdge Reihe Ideiner Locher hinter dem Vorderhaar (darin z. Th. 
noch Reste eiserner Stifle) zeugen davon, doss ein solcher aus Metall- 
bldttern angesetzt war. Here we have something parallel to our statue. 
From the end of the fifth century there appears in figures of Dionysos, 
besides the wreath or instead of it, a broad fillet, like that previously 
described, above the middle of the forehead. This arrangement, derived 
from the symposial habits of the time and explained by Diodorus 
Siculus (iv. 4.4), was adopted as a peculiar attribute of Dionysos, and 
from it he derived the epithet fjarprj^opo^. This fillet, originally 
separate from the wreath, as we see it in the Berlin head, was later 
for the most part adorned with ivy-leaves and ivy-berries, and came 
to form an integral part of the wreath (mit dem Kranze zu einem 
Ganzen verbunden). Such an arrangement is common in terracottas 
of Asia Minor and marbles of the Roman period. Can we now 
assume any such arrangement in the case of our statue ? That the 
fillet was not indicated in the marble is at once evident ; and without a 
cast it is impossible to state whether it might have been formed in 
metal and connected with the wreath. It is worthy of note, and plain 
in the photograph, that the hair immediately over the forehead is, near 
its roots, in noticeably lower relief than the waving locks which rise 
above it, and that, in the depressions of the curls at either side, a metal 
fillet might have rested with the wreath. This point, however, can- 
not at present be fully settled. 

Before leaving this subject, I must again call attention to the paper 
of Furtwangler which has been previously quoted. He has summed 

though No. 1283 is bearded. It may be added that the fullness of the back of the 
head is far more Praxitelean than Ljsippian. 
29 Sammlung Sabouroff, text to Taf. xxin. 



302 AMERICAN JO UENAL OF AE CHJEOL OGY. 

up and characterized the features of the .Berlin head in words which 
apply in great part to our statue, as well, although the eye is here not 
so deeply set. The breadth of the root of the nose is certainly notice- 
able ; and we have also the same peculiar fullness of the chin and 
throat, which in our statue is even more marked than in the Berlin head. 

The epoch and school to which our statue belongs will now be con- 
sidered. As we have seen, it has in it no elements earlier than Prax- 
iteles, while the treatment of the hair and perhaps the position of the 
head are rather Lysippian. We must, indeed, admit that a distinct- 
ively Sikyonian element in the work cannot be proved to any marked 
extent, and it is certainly not in any way strongly Lysippian. It par- 
takes rather of the character of a generalized post- Alexandrine or 
Hellenistic art. At the same time, we see in it no trace of the over- 
wrought pathos of the Pergamene and Rhodian schools, or of the 
archaistic tendencies of Pasiteles. These considerations will weigh in 
approximating the date of the work, particularly if we bear in mind 
that all its characteristics appear as fixed artistic elements and in no 
wise as inventions. That the work is Sikyonian is unquestionable. 

The later history of Sikyonian sculpture is known to us through 
scattered references, especially in Pliny. Inscriptions also have of late 
come most serviceably to our aid. According to Pliny, Greek sculp- 
ture fell into decay after the time of Lysippos and his immediate suc- 
cessors, to revive again in Ol. CLVI. As has already been said, we have 
in our statue nothing of this ars renata, as it is known to us in the 
later schools. It must then be attributed to one of the successors of 
Lysippos ; and, as we can trace no strong Lysippian elements in it, to 
some artist not under the immediate sway of the master to one who 
displayed a spirit rather pan-Hellenic than Sikyonian. 

So far as we can estimate on the data of Pliny, the activity of the 
artists named as followers of Lysippos must have continued into the 
latter portion of the third century B. c. Our knowledge on this sub- 
ject may be resumed as follows The pupils of Lysippos, who accord- 
ing to Pliny flourished Ol. cxin, 30 were Daippos, Boedas, Euthykrates 
son of Lysippos, Phanis, Eutychides, Chares of Lindos ; 31 of whom Eu- 
tychides and Daippos, on the same authority, 32 flourished Ol. cxxi, 
i. e., about a generation later than their master. Euthykrates had a 
disciple Teisikrates, 33 while Xenokrates is mentioned as disciple of 

30 LV, xxxiv. 51 ; OVERBECK, Schriftquellen, No. 1443. 

31 Of. OVERBECK, Schriftquellen, No. 1516. 32 HN, 1. c. 33 HN, xxxiv. 67. 



A S1KYONIAN STATUE. 



303 



either Euthykrates or Teisikrates. 34 From Pausanias, we learn that 
Eutychides had a disciple Kantharos, a Sikyonian. 35 Furthermore, 
the inscriptions collected by Lowy (Imchr. gr. Bildhauer) show that 
the Sikyonian Thoinias son of Teisikrates was the son and disciple of 
Teisikrates son of Thoinias. The name of this Thoinias son of Teisi- 
krates, moreover, occurs in the Sikyonian inscription No. 2, published 
above, and assigned to the second half of the third century B. c. 
Starting from Lysippos, 36 we may draw up the following artistic 

genealogy : 

Lysippos 



Daippos Boedas Euthykrates Phanis Eutychides 
. Ol. cxxi son of Lysippos fl. 6l. cxxi 


Chares 
of Lindos 


| | Kantharos 
Xenokrates Teisikrates of Sikyon 
son of Thoinias 
fl. Ol. cxv-cxxiv ? 

Thoinias 
son of Teisikrates 
in inscr. at Sikyon 
circa 240 B. c. 



From the date assigned to the above-mentioned Sikyonian inscrip- 
tion, we may conclude that Teisikrates son of Thoinias flourished about 
Ol. cxxvm-ix, and that Thoinias his son continued his activity to 
about Ol. cxxxvi. But, according to Pliny (HN, xxxiv. 52), between 
the time of Eutychides and Ol. CLVI cessavit ars ; so that Thoinias 
may be reckoned among the last of Lysippos' successors. 

Hence, we may say so much : First ; we have a statue of the 
youthful Dionysos, of good workmanship, a product of Sikyonian 
art : second ; we may assign this work, on grounds of Greek art- 
history, presumably, to the third century B. c. and to one of the more 
distant followers of Lysippos : third ; we know that Thoinias son of 
Teisikrates was active at Sikyon and elsewhere in the Greek world 
in the middle and latter half of the third century B. c. : fourth ; we 
have in our work a- certain pan-Hellenistic spirit, such as we may 
apprehend could have been exhibited by Thoinias. 



Berlin, 

August 6, 1889. 



MORTIMER LAMSON EARLE, 

Member of the American School 

of Classical Studies at Athens. 



84 HN, xxxiv. 83. 35 PAUS., vi. 3. 6. 

36 Who was avToSiSaKTos, according to PLINY, HN, xxxiv. 61. 



PAPERS OF THE AMERICAN SCHOOL OF CLASSICAL 

STUDIES AT ATHENS. 
DISCOVERIES IN THE ATTIC DEME OF IKARIA, 

1888. 



VII. INSCRIPTIONS FROM IKARIA. 
No. 8. 

Stele with inscriptions on both sides ; one (No. 8), of 24 lines, com- 
prising six transfer accounts, the other (No. 9), a decree of which por- 
tions of 49 lines remain. Length of stone 0.93 m. ; greatest width 
0.38 m. Found under the front wall of church. One edge is broken 
off clean, the other is complete on the side of the transfer account, but 
broken off obliquely on the other. 

No. 1. HMAPXONPAPEAQKEH 

APTYPIOAIOHYSOXX MI 

OXXHPhhC 

X X IIH H H H AAA h h h I I I I 
No. 2. FAPEAQKEKE<t>AAAIOMAPrYPIO 

rnHIKAPIOKE^AAAIOMXXHi-l 

TIIIHII 
No. 3. WAPEAQKEKE4>AAAIOMAPrYPIO 

IKAPIOAPrYPIOKE^AAIOHXXH 

TYPIOTTTTXHAAI-hh 
No. 4. AEMAPXOMPAPEAOKEr 1 



A P HIIA PAYPIOHO^IO 
DM iTTTTXXHHFAAAPI-hh 
No. 5. EMAPXOMPAPEAOKEM 

KE+ At A IOfTOA-1 OCY.4-0 

AAP MIMA P A Y P I OHO * I 
Dh TTTTXX[flHFAAAhhh 
KAPAYPIOKE^A OH 

/// 

No. 6. A H M A P X M P A P E A K P 

0;KE<t>AUAIO HTTTT X X 

YPIOiKE<l>Al^AIOhXXXX 
D IO;APAYPIO!KE<|)Al^AIO 
304 



INSCRIPTIONS FROM IK ARIA. 305 



No. 1. o Belva B~\rjfjLapxwv 

/cecf)d\cuov~] dpyvpLOV kiovvcrov XX[XX]HH 
'Itfapfjou XXHPI- hC [ocriov dpyv- 
piov TTTT]XX[T!HHHHAAAhhhllll . [o Beiva 
No. 2. Brj/jLapxcov] TrapeBcoKe Kcj)d\,aiov dpyvpiov [Aio- 

vvcrov XXXX]rHH 'I/capiov icecfrdkaiov XXHH(?)[' ocriov 

dp<yvpiov~\ TTTTHH [. . . o Belva 

No. 3. BrjfjLap^wv TrapeBcoKe KecfyaKaiov dp<yvpiov [Ato- 

vvcrov XXXX ] '\icapiov dpyvpiov K(f)[d~^\aiov XXH 

oa-iov dp~\yvpiov TTTTXHAAhh h. 
No. 4. o Seiva ] Brj/jiap^wv TrapeBay/cev 

dpyvpiov Ke~\$>aKaiov rov kiovvaov 
XXXX . . . . JAP hill dp<yvpiov ocriov 

K ^akai~\ov TTTTXXHHFAAArhhH. 
No. 5. o Selva S]r;/>tap%a)v jrapeBcofcev 

dp<yvpiov~\ K(j)d\ai,ov rov ktovvorov 
........ JAA P h Illl * dp<yvpiov ocriov 

TTTTXXFHPAAAhhh 
dpyvpiov 



No. 6. o Belva 

vpuov ocrQov K6<f)d\ai,ov TTTTXX 
kiovvcrov dp^~\vpiov icecfraKaiov XXXX 

v dp<yvpiov Kecl>d\aio[y XX. 



Comment. Height of letters : in No. 1, 0.014 m. ; in Nos. 2 and 3, 
0.010 ; in Nos. 4 and 5, 0.017 ; in No. 6, 0.016. The inscription is 
not a-roL^rjBov, and even in the same line the letters vary considerably 
in size. The various accounts are not of the same date. The oldest 
are Nos. 4 and 5 ? which belong to the period 460447, as is determined 
by the three-barred sigma, the form of the slanting nu, and other indi- 
cations, such as the form of the phi with somewhat flattened circle and 
crossbar passing beyond but slightly, and a strong tendency to slant- 
ing in the crossbar of alpha. Next in point of time was inscribed 
No. 6, in which there is an example of the Ionic use of H. But 
sporadic instances of this occur in Attic inscriptions earlier even than 
445 B. o., so that we need not ascribe No. 6 to a very much later date 
than Nos. 4 and 5, especially as the forms of the letters differ but 
slightly. Nos. 1, 2, and 3 were cut, as seems to me probable, at the 



306 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHEOLOGY. 

same time. The forms of the letters are the same in all, and ^..differ- 
ent accounts are not so distinctly separated one from another as would 
probably be the case if they had been cut at different times. Thus, in 
Nos. 2 and 3 there is not space enough for the demarch's name to 
appear before Sijfiap%a)v on the same line, and it must be supplied in 
the previous line immediately following the conclusion of the preceding 
account. In these three accounts the Ionic element in the form of 
the letters strongly predominates. The gamma and lambda are Ionic, 
and the omega always appears in its proper place except in the first 
word. If this inscription were from Athens, we should unhesitatingly 
place the three accounts in the years immediately succeeding the archon- 
ship of Eukleides, but there is no certainty that the change of alpha- 
bet for public records was effected in the rural districts at precisely 
the same time as in the city. The very end of the fifth century is the 
most probable date that can be given. 

In the last line of No. 5, the K is, I think, certain, and involves 
an instance of a harsh elision, very rare in prose inscriptions. 1 The 
word TrapeScofce 1 ' seems the most reasonable restoration in this place 
and is favored by the ending of the first line of No. 6, where a similar 
elision seems to occur, although the P is not certain. 

In the earliest accounts, Nos. 4 and 5, only two classes of funds 
are expressly mentioned, that devoted to the cult of Dionysos, and 
the oa-iov dpyvpiov, where OCTLOV has the not unusual sense of " secular " 
as opposed to "sacred." 2 The last line of No. 5 must be a general 
recapitulation of the funds. In No. 6 a new fund is introduced 
*\K<ipiov dpyvpiov, " Ikarian money," and has its place beside the 
Dionysiac and secular funds in Nos. 1, 2, and 3, as well. Possibly, 
" Ikarian money " was a fund set aside for the worship of the epony- 
mous hero of the deme ; but, however this may be, the expression 
must be connected with the phrase which occurs in two of the other 
inscriptions, and it shows that there existed a body of " Ikarians " 
in a restricted sense distinguished from the Ikarians as a body com- 
prising the members of the deme as a whole. The explanation main- 
tained in the one case must hold good in the other. For further 

1 Cf. MEISTERHANS, Grammatik der attischen InschriftenW, \ 23. 

L TIpoffdSov'] Kapyupiov e(/>a[A.ai]oj/ { ['I^aptou. . . ? My squeeze shows some traces of 
letters at the beginning of line 20. A. C. M.I 

2 Cf. DEM. vs. Timokrat., \ 9 : TW lepwv ^v xp-n^druv rovs Scots, rS>v ixriwv Se T^V 



INSCRIPTIONS FROM IK ARIA. 



307 



discussion of the question, see below. The amount of the O<TLOV apyvpiov 
(26,683 drachmas in No. 5) shows that the deme of Ikaria was far 
from poor. It is interesting to compare its religious funds with those 
of the neighboring deme of Plotheia, as we find them given in an in- 
scription (CIA, n, 570). 



H 

M I 



E S 
KA P 



I/ 
Y S 



5. 



10. 



15. 



20. 



25. 



30. 



TO MAEMOTO M 

T OMAXOPEAET 

AMTIAOSIMAE 

OA EMA P X E I K 

M A I A M T I AO S 

X OP E A A P 0<t> 

A AO I A S K AT 



SKA 

A 



I TO X P 



A I 

3T 

SO 



P 



I M A E K 

T 'A A A 

OA EMA 

A YT I 

XO PO 

A E A OM 

M . TO I 

E I A A M 

P P E M 

MEAT 

D A A 

E K A 

K AO 

M Y S 

P TE 

M OS 

S I T 

M OS 

TT E 

I P 

X P 

I 




No. 9. 

L. 

I M E M E ST 
K A I TO M I K A 

M H OT I MAM 
EMAITOMXP 
OS I EME POM 

1 M E TOM A EM 
A I M EM TP I S 
A I' EAEMTOM 
EAOEXSOMO 
A EME PO M EM 
l/MATOS HAP 
PXOKA I TOM 
S I E XSOMOS 

I SMEP OH E 
A P E MTE K A I 
S P POTO XO P 
EMIAYTOMH 
PE M EAMMEA 
0~ I MEMPEM 
I A I . 10X0 
M A P A S ! H E K 
EKASTOMTO 
PPATTEMAE 
MTOXOPEAO 
E AP OT I MEM 
EMEOPTEMO 
TEMHEBAO M 
M EMEPA M A 
E M TO I P YO 
M E A P OT I M 
X P EAOM 
K M A I A EM 
M T P A A I A 



308 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY. 

35. ESTOMXOPC 

P OT I r 4 ETO 
TTETOH OL 
A ESMEA E V 
*\EMOS X P E 

40. =>AXMA3KA 

A I P P A T 7 E 
TO XO 
M E V A X E H 
OAWE A I A 

45. E S T A 

TT A 3 TO 
NTE V E 
S A I E S 
E MT 



wv KOI r&v 'lKa[pia>i> elvau rpay- 
OV^TCOV a^oprjytjrcov OTIV av [ 
5. %o/3?77eiv] avribocriv &e elvai TWV ^p^rj/jbdrcov avrov ev- 

avTiov T~\OV Brj/jLap^ov elicocn 

eT\vau avriSoa-iv, ij rov 



rbv [ 
10. ]o? KOI rov xopTj 

~\OCTLV Befca rj/juepwv e'//- [ TlvOLwi ' 
JSe rov dydX/maro^ a7r[r(r0ai 
TOV Srj/jLdp^ov KOI rwv\_ 
]at avrolcr(i 

TT/ojwro^opot? jjir] Trfpjo ^[ 
] . . . eywva Trevre /cal[ 



eviavrv 



20. ]i/, r) aTroriveiv irev\re 

T^paryw 
B~\e/c d 



TOV 



Toy eviavrov 
Trprreiv Se[ 



INSCRIPTIONS FROM IK ARIA. . 309 

25. f\oprr)v 

]ft)I>O9 T) a7TOTt 

rfv 6[eov 



Jrretv rj^ipav a[ 
30. ](t?)po eV ran 



T]OZ/ 
e'Jttf 
r]wv 
35. Jet? TO 



ra) [ 
o 



40. 

/cjal r rrpar 

7Tp]ft)TO^ 

]y eXa^e '[ 

]o/A yU-^ Sfc 

45. ]e<r 



]eV T[ 

Comment. The letters of the first line are larger than those of the 
second, and those of the second line are larger than those of the body 
of the inscription. Height of letters in first line, 0.013 m. ; in second 
line, 0.011 m. ; in the remaining lines, 0.009 m. The arrangement is 
O-TOLX^OV, except in the first two lines. The surface is broken off on 
the left, but the extent of the stone is known, and, calculating from 
this, I estimate that there are seven letters missing in line 5, and from 
this we can easily determine the number to be supplied in other lines. 
The right of the inscription is entirely gone, but, judging the width of 
the stone from the restorations made in the inscription on the other side, 
I conclude that the number of letters to be supplied is about twelve. 

The form of the letters is that common in the last stage of develop- 
ment of the Attic alphabet, a period which in Athens falls between 



310 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY. 

447 B. c. and the archonship of Eukleides, when the Ionic alphabet 
was officially introduced. The lower bar of the sigma is often nearly 
horizontal, but this is an individual peculiarity of the stone-cutter. 
There is not a single instance of encroachment of the Ionic alphabet 
such as we meet with in No. 8, though there are four cases of omission 
of the rough breathing, namely, in lines 6, 11, 27, 29. But such 
omissions are very common in this period; 3 and the two words in 
which the breathing is omitted in this inscription, rj/j^epa and opr^ f 
are especially liable to this. 4 In line 14, we have an almost certain 
instance of a dative in oio-i, which may serve to date the inscription 
more accurately within the period above suggested. Even in the 
earliest inscriptions there is a fluctuation in the use of OKTI and ot?, 
and they continue to be used with about equal frequency until 444 
B. c., after which date there are only two occurrences of -oicn, one in 
an Athenian decree of 434, and the other in a decree of the Plotheian 
deme inscribed in the Ionic alphabet, a remarkable instance of rural 
conservatism. 5 All points considered, I am disposed to place the date 
of our inscription between 447 and the beginning of the Peloponne- 
sian war. A few orthographical questions remain to be noted before 
we consider the subject matter of the inscription. 6 In 1. 4, are we to 
regard the nu of ovnva as omitted owing to a blunder of the stone- 
cutter ? This is not the kind of mistake most frequently made ; 

3 Of. EGBERTS, An Introduction to Greek Epigraphy, p. 105. 

4 Particularly, ^uepa, which in pre-Eukleidean inscriptions is more often written 
without the aspirate than with it. In looking hastily through CIA, I and iv, I 
have found 16 cases of the word without the rough breathing, against 9 cases with it 
and 6 cases in which a preceding surd mute is made aspirate, as /ea0' y/j.epai'. Cf. 
KATHMEPANona fourth-century inscription found at the Peiraieus and published 
in Bull, de Corr. Hell, 1887, p. 131. These facts show that the rough breathing was 
very weak in this word, a circumstance which should not be overlooked by those who 
discuss its etymology. 

[Since writing this, I note that BAUNACK (Studien aw dem Gebiete des griech. und 
der arischen Sprachen, i 2, p. 240) cites, from the dialects, examples of this word with- 
out aspirate, and explains the processes by which this and other words may have 
acquired a secondary aspirate.] 

5 Cf. MEISTERHANS( 2 ), \ 47, b ;' CAUER, De dialecto Attica, p. 410. 

6 [The following is suggested as an alternative for lines 3-6, the first letter of line 
4 not being certain : 

KOTO eros] ruv STJ/XOTWI/ /col TO>V 'iKapiwv [Suo rbv A- 
lovvffov a.y]S>va. xop-nyeiTcov &TIV* &i/ [/caToo-Ta07jTO- 
v XP 7 iy^ > '~\ avriSocriv 8e clvai TUV xp[?7/ia'Ta>j', far iro- 
VT\I, eVl r~\ov S-nfj.dpxov efaotn ^uepcDj/. A. C. M.] 



INSCRIPTIONS FROM IK ARIA. 311 

moreover, this document seems to be very carefully inscribed. I am 
loath, therefore, to consider it a blunder, and prefer to take oriva as a 
genuine form of the Attic vernacular. In the genitive and dative, the 
short forms orov and orw alone occur in Attic inscriptions. May not 
the popular speech have in like manner preferred an accusative form 
with the first element indeclinable, though for the second element 
there is no short form, as Homeric onva ? The solitary instance of 
ovTiva is certainly not an insuperable obstacle to this opinion. 7 In 
the matter of elision, there is here the same inconsistency that charac- 
terizes Athenian inscriptions generally. 8 

The subject of our inscription seems to be a decree relating to the 
choregia, with special reference to antidosis. In the text of the trans- 
literation, I have given scarcely any restorations, because, even in 
places where I have found some that are plausible, they are too un- 
certain to be of value. The bare fact that there are only three lines 
in the inscription in which the number of letters extant is equal to the 
number to be supplied would not in itself necessarily be discouraging, 
if the subject were one upon which our information were more com- 
plete. But this decree -is considerably older than our earliest literary 
sources on antidosis, which are found in the Attic orators of the fourth 
century, Demosthenes, Isokrates and Lysias ; and this is, moreover, 
a rural decree. Even with all the literary evidence, including the 
detailed account given in the Phaenippea, by Demosthenes, no one 
has yet been able to advance an entirely satisfactory explanation of 
the working of the system of antidosis ; and one has only to read the 
various contributions to the subject by German scholars, 9 especially 
the rather warm discussion between Frankel and Thalheim in Hermes, 
to appreciate what radically different views may be taken. 

If this inscription were complete, it would undoubtedly shed a 
flood of light upon the question, and enable us to arrive at its true 
explanation. But even the fragments preserved are of no little im- 
portance, and they settle conclusively at least one matter of dispute. 

7 Cf. MEISTERHANS ( 2 >, $59, d; G. MEYER, Griechische Grammatik, p. 401. 

8 Cf. MEISTERHANS^), I 23. 

9 Cf. BOCKII, Staatshaushaltung der AthenerW, i, p. 673 ff.; DITTENBERGER, Ueber 
den Vermb'gentausch und die Trierarchie des Demosthenes; BLASCHKE, De antidosi apud 
Athenienses; THALHEIM, N.Jahrbuchf. PhiloL, cxv, p. 613 ff. ; FRANKEL, Hermes, 
xvin, p. 442 ff. ; THALHEIM, Hermes, xix, p. 80 ff. ; LOLLING, De antidosi ; MEIER 
and SCHOMANN, Der attischer Process ( 2 >, p. 737 ff. Friinkel has the last word on the 
subject in his edition of Bockh's Sth. d. Athener, Note 883. 



312 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY. 

We have first to ask whether we have to deal with an original decree 
inaugurating the system or with a copy of an earlier regulation. De- 
mosthenes 10 states that antidosis was established by Solon. Frankel ll 
thinks that this statement is to be credited only to the tendency of the 
Attic orators to ascribe all ancient public regulations to Solon ; but 
most scholars accept Demosthenes as a trustworthy witness. In any 
case, there can be no doubt that antidosis was regulated at Athens at 
a much earlier time than the date of our inscription ; there is, how- 
ever, nothing to prevent us from supposing that the system may at 
this time first have been introduced from Athens into the deme of 
Ikaria, and that the purpose of our decree was to furnish the neces- 
sary regulations for its adaptation to the choregic system in force in 
the demes. 

The first line of the inscription is evidently the heading, and sym- 
metry would seem to require something to be supplied on the right 
side (-7-779 xoprjyia? ?). The heading (7x77X77 ... is, I think, unique ; 
but we may compare a passage of Demosthenes where he uses crrfar) 
in the sense of ^rr)<^Lcr^a- 12 Line 2 gives the name of the mover, 
while the decree proper begins in 1. 3, where we have the phrase r&v 
8r)fj,oT(0v fcal TWV 'Ifca[pLa)v, lB with which we must compare the similar 
phrase 'I/ca/otet? . . . /cal 6 877/1,05 o 'I/capiecov, which occurs in a deme- 
decree already published. 14 In both cases, " Ikarians " is used in the 
introduction in a general sense (tyyfyicrOai ^Iicapievo-iv and e&ofe[z/ 
*\Kapievcn\ while it is afterward used in a special sense, as of a body 
distinct from the demesmen. Of the same nature is the 'licapiov 
dpyvpiov of Inscr. No. 8. 3. I know of no better explanation than 
that suggested by Professor Merriam, and given in the article on the 
deme-decree ; namely, that the " Ikarians " in the restricted sense are 
members of a gens claiming descent from the eponymous hero of the 
deme. While it is true that most names of this class are of the 
patronymic form in 8775, -tS^? such as Eiy/,oX7rtSafc, BpimSat, etc., 
we have also in inscriptions 15 Krjpvfces and 



10 Phaenippea, $ 1. n Hermes, xviii, p. 444, Note 1. 

12 Vs. Leptin., % 159 : Kal rrjs A7]fj.o(f>dvTov trnrjATjs irepl f/s ef^e $op/j.i(av, ev rj yfypairrai KT\. 

13 1 supply -piuv, not -pteW, since in fifth-century inscriptions the contracted form 
is the rule, and even in one of our later inscriptions we have 'I/ca/uo>j>. 

14 Amer. Journal of Archaeology, iv, pp. 421-3. 

15 Cf. TOV yevovs TOV Kypvitcav, DlTT., SylL, 385 ; 'A6-f)vaiotf, VI, p. 274, Kal els rb yevos 



INSCRIPTIONS FROM IK ARIA. 313 

The most important and interesting parallel is to be found in the 
phratry-decree, the continuation of which on the back of the stone has 
only recently been discovered. 16 In this inscription we have mention 
of the " House of the Dekeleians," rov Ae/ceXetwi^ OIKOV, 6 iepev? rov 
Ae/ceXetwz/ OIKOV, etc., which is understood by Kohler to mean a gens. 
But in the portion recently discovered we find the phrase OTTOV av 
Ae/ceXetet? Trpoo-fyoirwo-iv ev acrrei, with which Lolling compares the 
passage in Lysias (xxni. 3) where the speaker tells of going to the 
barber-shop near the Hermai, " where the Dekeleians resort " (iva ol 
Ae/ceXet? Trpoo-fyoirwo-iv), and asking all the Dekeleians whom he 
found there " whether they knew of a certain Pankleon, a demesman 
of Dekeleia." In this passage, Ae/ceXete?? obviously is used of the 
members of the deme of Dekeleia, and must have the same force in 
the corresponding phrase in the inscription : so that, in the same de- 
cree, we find " Dekeleians " used in the general sense of members of 
the deme of Dekeleia and in the more restricted sense of members of 
a gens of the same name tracing their ancestry back to the hero 
Dekelos. 17 This gens of the Dekeleians, as Kohler remarks, seems to 
have held some especially important position among the other gentes 
of the same phratry. In the same way, our Ikarians, owing, no 
doubt, to their reputed descent from the eponymous deme-hero, occu- 
pied a preeminent position, so that it was a traditional custom that in 
deme-decrees they should be mentioned as a distinct body. We know 
very little about the precise relations of a gens to a phratry or to a 
deme, but the gens was more a religious than a political body. So the 
" Ikarian money " was probably a religious fund belonging to the gens. 
Perhaps there existed a cult of the eponymous hero Ikarios, in which 
case we have a double explanation for the use of the word. 

In 1. 4 we have a form of the adjective 0/^0^777777-0?, the only occur- 
rences of which in literature are in Aristotle, where it has the mean- 
ing of " without supplies," based on the late use of the word xopyyia. 
At this period, however, when ^oprjyia had its regular technical sense, 
it can only mean " without a choregos " or " not having served as chore- 
gos," according to the context. This line must be some regulation con- 
cerning the appointment of the choregos. 

16 CIA, ir, 841 b ; AeA-nW 'Ap X aio\oyi K 6v, 1888, p. 161 ff. ; AJA, v, p. 137. 

"[Since this was written, TOPFFER'S Atdsche Genealogie has appeared, in which 
the same view of the Dekeleians is advanced (p. 289) and supported by the citation 
of HEROD., IX. 73 : Sw^ajojs . . . S^/ULOV &K\eiri6ej', Ae/ceAeW Se rS>v /core 
fpyov xp-fia-i/jLOV, K. T. \. A. C. M.] 



314 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHEOLOGY. 

In 1. 5, antidosis is first introduced, and one of the most important 
points in the whole inscription is furnished by the last two letters. 
For these letters can belong only to ^prj/mdrcov; and we thus have the 
only-known instance of either avTiSocns or avTL&iScofjLi, w r hen used in 
the technical sense, governing a word meaning property. In the Attic 
orators it is always an exchange of the liturgy, not of property which 
is spoken of. Dittenberger, Blaschke, and Frankel believe that no 
exchange of property was ever involved in the system, and give inter- 
pretations of the word in accordance with their theory. Dittenberger 
maintains that avriSoa-is is used of the temporary confiscation which 
each party makes upon the property of his opponent. Blaschke, sup- 
ported by Frankel, claims that the word refers to Zuschiebung und 
Zuruckschiebung of the liturgy by the two parties. 18 There are pas- 
sages in literature which seem to point clearly to an actual exchange 
of property ; but it is the object of Frankel's paper, referred to above, 
to discredit the evidence of these passages. In an inscription like the 
one under consideration, however, which furnishes the regulations of 
the system, there can be no talk of jests, or private proposals for set- 
tlement. 19 On the contrary, the phrase is absolute proof that the ori- 
ginal use of the word was that usually attributed to it, namely, an 
actual exchange of property ; however much its use in the fourth cen- 
tury may vary from this. In the Orators it is either employed in 
several distinct senses, or else there is a common meaning which has 
escaped the scholars who have considered it. For example, how are 
we to explain the phrase in the Phaenippea ( 10) /juera ra? avriSoo-eis, 
when no exchange of property had taken place ? 

In 1. 8, airofyaiveiv is the word used by Demosthenes for the giving 
in of an inventory of property by each of the two parties. 20 

In 1. 12, rov o/yaX/mTo? must refer to some well-known temple 
statue, perhaps the Kultbikl of Apollo, as HvOiai is a possible resto- 
ration in the preceding line, and in 1. 30 the Pythion is plainly men- 
tioned. The oath was to be taken with the hand on the sacred statue. 

In lines 15 and 17, the form Trpwro^opoi^ occurs. Athenaios 21 
mentions two plays having the title of Trpwro^opo?. The lexicons 



18 Cf. DITTENBERGER, Ueber den Vermogentausch, etc., p. 3 ff. ; BLASCHKE, De antidosi 
apud Athenienses, p. 8 ff. ; FRANKEL, Hermes, xvm, p. 464, from whom the phrase 
Zuschiebung und Zuruckschiebung is taken, as being a more compact translation of 
Blaschke's Latin than is possible in English. 19 FRANKEL, I. c., pp. 446-8. 

20 Cf., for example, \ 9 of the Phaenippea. 21 vi, 240 ; vn, 287. 



INSCRIPTIONS FROM IKARIA. 315 

translate this as " the first chorus," but there is nothing in the passages 
to indicate that it had not rather a possessive compound meaning, 
" having his first chorus." The play would then be about some one 
who was choregos for the first time. This is certainly the more likely 
sense of the word in our inscription. In 1. 16 we must suppose some 
blunder of the stone-cutter, notwithstanding the usual care with which 
the inscription is cut. 

No. 10. 

Marble stele with akroterion, found north of the church. Total 
height, 0.375 m. ; width, 0.30 m. The lower portion of the slab is 
gone, and of the part remaining the left-hand side of the surface is 
split off obliquely. 



FYH<t>l30AIIKA ........ elirev ] e^&aOcu "l/ca- 

I TOMAH/AA PX pievcrw eiraiveora^i TOV 

EPIMEAEITA ov .......... 2la ort] e 

AI^AIKAI^E i T&V 'Iicapiecov ev rjat? Si/cats e- 

K I M A I ^ K A I 5 vyvco/jiovtos, ev rafr] Koivals KOI 
r A T Q r 4 A H M T ] 



Comment. Height of letters, 0.008 ; arrangement, a-roi^^ov. The 
date is probably the latter part of the fourth century. Estimating the 
portion of the stone which is gone and the average space taken by each 
letter, and allowing the same margin at the beginning of the line as 
at the end, I calculate that thirteen letters are missing in the first line 
and fifteen in the others. The restoration of the first three lines is 
obvious enough, except that in 1. 3 it is questionable whether to give 
only five letters to the demarches name and insert /caXw? between the 
OTL and eTTL/jLeKelrai, or to supply a name of ten letters as I have 
preferred to do, in the belief that it is necessary to insert an adverb 
below. But of the remaining lines just enough is left to show that 
the decree has to do with certain functions of the demarch connected 
with lawsuits a circumstance which adds to our disappointment that 
it is not intact. In 1. 4 we must supply a genitive as object of the 
verb eViyLteXetrat. A personal object of this verb is not unknown in 
inscriptions, and so rwv 'I/capiewv, which gives the right number of 



fTTL/j.(\e'iTa[i '6-irus kv eVjo-r^t r]ats 8//cats e[u Kal SiKaloas ra?s] Koivais, Kai 
ayadbs Trepl~\ TO. T$>V STJ / UOT[<I' Trpay^aTO ..... ? A. C. M.1 

4 



316 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY. 

letters, is a possible restoration. One naturally connects the 
of 1. 5 with the Si/cais of the preceding line, and thinks of a distinction 
between the law cases tried in the city, in which the demarch would 
be the representative of the deme as a whole (therefore called Koivals), 
and the more unimportant cases within the deme, in which the demarch 
administered the oath and put the vote, without, however, having any 
power of decision. The deme-assemblies sometimes acted as arbitra- 
tors in a suit, and then the demarch held a position not unlike that of 
the chairman or moderator of an American town-meeting. 22 The E 
at the end of 1. 4 cannot be the beginning of an adjective to contrast 
with /coevals, as it would have the predicate position, for which there 
would be no reason. This E must therefore belong to an adverb modi- 
fying eV^eXetrat. The contrasting adjective to KOIVCUS would then 
come at the beginning of 1. 6. 

No. 11. 

Base for a votive offering, with a socket cut in the upper surface. 
Length, 0.55 m. ; width, 0.50 m. ; height, 0.17 m. Height of letters, 
0.018 m. Seen by Milchhofer in the church, built into the wall sepa- 
rating the narthex from the nave. 



KH<t>ISIOSTIMAP/ 

IKAPIEY3 

EYIAMENOSANEOHKEN evfa^ei/o? ave 

TQIAIONY3QI TOH 



Comment. Published by Milchhofer in the Berlin, philologische 
Wochenschrift for June, 1887, and Mitth. Inst. Athen., 1887, p. 311. 

No. 12. 

Marble stele with a square hole in the top for holding a small figure 
or statue. Height, 1.07 m. ; width, 0.43 m. ; thickness, 0.33 m. The 
socket in the top is 0.185 m. square and 0.15m. deep. Upon the front 
side is represented in relief a beautiful crown of ivy. The right-hand 
upper corner of the top is broken, and a trifle is also broken away 
from the left-hand upper corner. 

P lAAEAHTAITH^ EF e^TrtytteA/^ral T??? ep^fyacrla- 

^TOYATAAMATC 9 rov fyd\paro[<: avk- 

GE^AMTQIAION Bea-av T&H &iov[vcra>i 

22 Cf. CIA, n, 578; Mitth. Inst. Athen., 1879, p. 200 ff. 



INSCRIPTIONS FROM IKARIA. 317 



Comment. The eVt/zeX^Tat, appointed to oversee the making of 
some important statue, were crowned by the deme and dedicated a 
small figure to Dionysos in honor of the completion of their task. 
Cf. Rangabe", Antiquites Helleniques, 1068 ; CIA, n, 1208 : 



ol ai]/je^e[v]r[e9 UTT]O 
TO ay]a\iJ,a iro^aacrQa 
Tt, <TTe<f)a]vQ)0evTe<; virb rwv 



ret 

Then follow the fourteen names of the eVtyLteX^rat appointed. The 
statue dedicated cannot be the one which they were to oversee, for the 
measurements of the base show that it could have held only a very 
small figure. The honor of crowning in our Ikarian case is indicated, 
not in the inscription, but by the relief of the ivy wreath. The two 
cases are, however, essentially parallel. The statue, rov ayaXparos, 
cannot be the same statue which is mentioned in Inscr. No. 9, for that 
is of much earlier date, and epyaaia can, I think, refer only to the 
execution of a new statue, not to the restoration of an old one. 

No. 13. 

Massive block used as the lintel for the door leading from the 
narthex into the nave of the church. Length, 1.68 m. ; height, 
0.34 m. ; thickness, 0.22 m. At the ends are Byzantine ornaments. 

APISTOME A E TO 

EVT **HC 

KAIT \HEI 

Comment. The large letters on the left were seen by Milchhofer and 
published in Milth. Inst. Athen., 1887, p. 310. The larger letters are 
of Roman imperial date, the smaller from the third or fourth century 
B. c. The name in small letters on the left-hand end is 'Apta-rofieSayv 
or ' A/McrTo/ieV?79, while, of the large letters, Eur may be the beginning 
of any one of many names. On the right, I cannot make out the name 
in small letters. 23 The large letters of the first line seem to be a patro- 
nymic ending dSrjs. 

No. 14. 

Tombstone with relief representing a parting-scene of the usual type. 

23 [Perhaps 'Ea]/ce<rTos. A. C. M.] 



318 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY. 

Below, a few letters of the inscription can be made out with difficulty. 
Height of letters, 0.022 m. 

[ ---- MHMON?] ......... ANAPOKAI? 

No. 15. 

Fragment of tombstone. Length, 0.565 m. ; width, 0.27 m. 

TIMOK 
TIMOKPA 

Comment. Seen by Milchhofer in the left niche of the apse. 24 Cf. 
the Ti/jLOKpiTo? Ti/jLOKparovs in the list of the prytanes of the tribe of 
Aigeis. 25 

No. 16. 

Fragment of marble block. Length, 0.72 m. ; width, 0.33 m. In- 
scription upon the end. Height of letters, 0.014 m. 

IU 



No. 17. 

Fragment of rough stone, 0.35 m. by 0.27 m. 

KOI 

NOTE. Inscription No. 1 (AJA, iv, p. 421) was dated about the 
middle of the fourth century, upon the usual criterion of the variation 
in the form of the spurious diphthong ov. As this diphthong has been 
found in the form o as late as the Chremonidean War, 266/63 B. c. 
(Droysen), 26 our inscription may be much later than was assumed above ; 
and, when the form of the H is taken into consideration, this becomes 
most likely. Dittenberger has traced the development in the forms 
of this letter as P, P", rarely P , fl , TT, and states that the form P 
is the only one which occurs earlier than the third century. This is 
accepted by Reinach (Traiti d' fipigraphie Grecque, p. 205), and is, 
in fact, concurred in by epigraphists in general. Hence, I think that 

"MUOi. Inst. Athen., 1887, p. 311. 

25 CIA, n, 872 ; see Seventh Annual Report of Am. School, pp. 85, 88. 

26 MEISTEBHANS, p. 6, Note 21. 



INSCRIPTIONS FROM IKARIA. 319 

our inscription, notwithstanding the carelessness with which it is cut, 
should be assigned to the third century, especially as it is from a rural 
district ; and it is not likely that the change to FI would take place 
outside of Athens before it had been adopted in the city itself. 27 

Athens, CARL, D. BUCK, 

February 4, 1889. Member of the American School 

of Classical Studies at Athens. 

27 [Whether the date of this inscription falls in the last quarter of the fourth cen- 
tury, or in the third, is of no great moment ; but it is time to protest against the above 
dictum of Dittenberger, especially as it appears to have become so far fixed that some 
inscriptions of the fourth century in which certain instances of fl occur have been 
published as if P alone was there found, notably CIA, n, 834 b (of 329/8 B. c.), 834 c 
(of 317/307 B. c.), in the former of which a few cases of Fl are found in the fac- 
similes published by Philios, Ephem. Arch., 1883 ; in the latter, about half the entire 
number (some 75) have the right limb quite down to the line, or nearly so, but not 
one in the Corpus. 

The fac-similes of Philios are substantially correct, as shown by a squeeze of a part 
of CIA, n, 834 c, for which I have to thank the discoverer of the inscription. These 
are from Eleusis, as is also another belonging to the fifth century, Ephem. Arch., 1888, 
p. 48, with fac-siniile lithographed from a squeeze. Here, in one or two cases, the right 
limb reaches the line, and in several it lacks little of it. The same may be said of 
Bull. Corr. Hellen., 1888, p. 138, No. 6, found under the temple of Eoma on the Akro- 
polis, an Athenian decree of the year 378/7. The Fl , however, does not appear in 
the published text. Still, several instances of fl assigned to the fourth century will 
be found in CIA, n, after excluding all those which have not passed under Kohler's 
eye, or been copied by the most careful hands. 

In the inscription of the Hagnias monument at Ikaria, the P has the right limb 
about three-fourths down to the line. This may also be found in inscription No. 8, 
above, and many times in that of Plotheia (early fourth cent.) mentioned already in 
Note 5, as I have ascertained through the kindness of Mr. Louis Dyer who has ex- 
amined the stone for me in the Louvre. A. C. M.] 



EARLY-CHRISTIAN AND MEDIEVAL MONUMENTS 

IN ITALY. 



AN EARLY ROCK-CUT CHURCH AT SUTRI. 

[PLATE X.] 

The churches that remain from the first two or three centuries after 
the official conversion of Constantine are usually so changed in every- 
thing not affecting their construction that their architectural form and 
their wall-decoration are almost all that can be determined from ocu- 
lar evidence. In descriptions of the internal arrangement of the early 
churches it is customary to use San Clemente of Rome as the standard 
example, and this by virtue of the convenient theory that the present 
church, which we know to have been built during the last years of 
the eleventh century, was an exact reproduction, even in its details, of 
the earlier basilicas. So, ciborium and altar, choir-screens and am- 
bones and raised steps have usually been accepted as features of 
Constantinian basilicas and their successors ; whereas, in fact, they 
differ very considerably from the genuine early examples that still re- 
main, especially at Ravenna and Parenzo. 

But it is especially in two particulars that early churches most suf- 
fered from mediaeval handling, in both cases for liturgic reasons : 
first, by the raising of the choir-level for the construction of a crypt ; 
second, by the destruction of the outward signs of the divisions in 
the congregation which had then long ceased to exist. The necessity 
for the separation of the men from the women, and of the church 
members in full standing from the various classes of catechumens and 
penitents, led to the adoption, in the 'earliest churches, of certain char- 
acteristic features. Such were the atrium and porch in front of the 
church, and the low parapet dividing the side-aisles from the nave. 
The atrium and parapet were disused after the seventh and eighth 
centuries : few indeed are the remnants of these low division-walls 
built up between the columns of the nave ; for, in most cases, even 
320 



AN EARL Y ROCK-CUT CHURCH A T SUTRL 321 

their foundations were torn up to make way for mediaeval pavements, 
or in the course of later reconstructions ; and I have not been able to 
find in any work on architecture a treatment of this detail : in fact, it 
cannot be ascertained how general their use may have been. These 
division-Avails still remain in the church of San Pietro at Toscanella 
(vn cent.), and a very interesting and early example of their use was 
in the basilica of SanValentino near Rome, whose ruins were excavated 
less than two years ago. 1 Another instance is the basilica at Parenzo. 
It is certainly an unexpected and deep pleasure to a student to find 
an untouched building of the early-Christian period which is not only 
a link between the oratories of the catacombs and the basilicas above 
ground, but shows certain unique architectural forms, and preserves 
the primitive division of nave and aisles, and the benches for the con- 
gregation. Such I believe to be the rock-cut church below the old 
town of Sutri, about forty miles to the north of Rome, unchanged 
since it was excavated at some unknown time in the fourth or fifth 
century. Though known to some archaeologists by report or cursory 
examination, no full descriptions or illustrations have, to my knowl- 
edge, been published. The average current information may be gath- 
ered from the words in which Dennis speaks of his visit to it, in his 
Cities and Cemeteries of Etruria (p. 69) : On descending from the 
Porta Romana I entered a glen, bounded by steep cliffs of red and grey 
tufo, hollowed into caves. To the right rose a most picturesque height, 
crowned with a thick grove of ilex. Over a doorway in the cliff was 
this inscription . . . (I) entered and found myself, first in an Etruscan 
sepulchre, and then in a Christian church a little church in the heart 
of the rock, with three aisles, separated by square pillars left in the tufo 
in which the temple was excavated, and lighted by windows, also cut in 
the rock which forms one of the walls. It is believed by the Sutrini to 
have been formed by the early Christians, at a time when their worship 
was proscribed within the town. He was told that a door from an ad- 
joining cave, which served as a sacristy, led to catacombs, supposed to 
communicate with those of Rome, Nepi and Ostia. There are many 
wild legends connected with these mysterious subterranean passages ; the 
truth is that, though their extent has been greatly exaggerated, they are 
very intricate, and it is not difficult to lose oneself therein. On this ac- 
count the Sutrini have blocked up the door leading to their subterranean 

l Bull d. Comm. arch, comunale di Roma, December, 1888. The article is by Pro- 
fessor O. MARUCCHI. Cf. JOURNAL, v, pp. 118-19. 



322 



AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHEOLOGY. 



wonders. . . The vestibule itself had originally been an Etruscan tomb, 
and the church in all probability another, enlarged to its present dimen- 
sions. It is called La Madonna del Parto. Lenoir, in his Archi- 
tecture Monastique (i, p. 88, and fig. 58) gives a ground-plan, adding 
only these words : On voit a Sutri un oratoire a trois nefs, en- 
tierement creuse dam le roc. 2 The only other illustrations seem to 
be two miniature woodcuts in Hiibsch's great work Les Monuments 

de PArt Chretien, etc. They represent a 
section and a very incorrect ground-plan. 
His commentary is also extremely brief. 
Apparently, he places the church among 
pre-Constantinian monuments. He says 
(p. 2) : Dans la campagne romaine, non 
loin de Sutri, on voit une ancienne eglise 
assez grande, taillee dans le roc, et dont le 
dessin, que nous sachions, n'a pas etepublie 
encore. Les figures 10 et 11 (pi. VI) en 
donnent leplan et la coupe. Elle est surtout 
interessante par sa forme oblongue et par 
I'ordonnance de deux rangs de piliers qui 
la partagent en trois nefs. La niche du 
maitre-autel se trouve au fond. Entre les 
piliers il y a un mur d'appui, qui spare 
le public de la nef principale de celui des 
collateraux. Apparemment ces derniers 
etaient reserves aux femmes; le vestibule 
I'etait aux catechum&nes, selon la discipline 
de la primitive eglise. 

There are many proofs of the early 
establishment of Christianity at Sutri and . 
of the importance of its bishops. 3 Traces 

of its catacombs are said to remain at various points in its ledges of 
tufa rock, so well suited to the purpose of the Christian fossores. 
One of the entrances to them is on the site of the early church of 
S. Giovenale, at present destroyed. My visit, made during the past 
summer (June, 1889), was too short to allow of an examination of 
the many subterranean passages, the great part of which are now 

2 It is simply referred to in KRATJS, Real-Encyd. d. Christl. Altert., s. v. Basilika. 
3 NisPi-LANDi, La Sloria di Sutri, passim. 




FIG. 33. Ground-plan of rock- 
cut church at Sutri. 



AN EARLY ROCK-CUT CHURCH AT SUTRL 323 

blocked up. It is evident that the Etruscan tombs which honey- 
combed the rocks on all sides were turned to some use by the Chris- 
tians in the formation of their cemeteries, and that presumably in 
connection with the principal catacomb they excavated the church 
now to be described. Whether it Avas used as a place of worship 
during the period of persecution, or was a posterior addition, like the 
oratories erected over the entrances to the Roman catacombs after the 
conversion of Constantine, will be discussed later. 

The church is so excavated that its length is parallel with the face 




FIG. 34. Rock-cut church at Sutri. Part of Nave and right-aisle, seen through arch 

on opposite side. 

of the rock and that light may be admitted by windows in the left 
aisle. It is not exactly orientated, running from s. w. to N. E. Three 
steps lead through a door into a square chamber measuring 4.60 met. 
along the face of the rock, and 4.61 met. across the front of the church. 
In the right-hand corner is a passage, now walled up, which bent 
gently outward toward the face of the rock, and led into a small 
sepulchral chamber of irregular shape, shown on Lenoir's ground- 
plan. On two sides of this square chamber are cut benches vary- 
ing in width from 55 to 68 centim : they are hollowed out by trenches 
down to the floor-level, evidently for purposes of burial, after the 



324 



AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHEOLOGY. 



Etruscan custom. 4 Both the door leading from the exterior and 
that communicating with the church are of square outline. This hall 
was evidently used as the combined porch and atrium of the church. 
The church itself is of larger dimensions than would be expected in 
a rock-cut edifice, measuring about sixty-five feet in length, or 21.20 
me!.., by 6.70 met. in greatest width. It consists of three aisles sup- 
ported by twenty square piers about 30 cent, thick ten on either 
side. The ground-plan is basil ical, but the church is divided into two 
nearly equal parts ; the lower, 11.75 met. in length, forming the body 
of the church ; the upper and shorter (9.45 met.) performing the same 
service as the transept in some basilicas, being somewhat wider, loftier, 
and with its supports at a greater distance. The general effect is quite 
solemn, from the even, dark tone of the stone, and the dim light that 




FIG. 35. Rock-cut church at Sutri: Section of nave and side-aisles. 

creeps through the five small windows that pierce the rock in the left- 
hand aisle. The size is also magnified by the gradual and continuous 
rise of the floor-level from the door to the apse, and also, perhaps, by 
the curving form of the ceiling of the central nave, which resembles 
a quarter-barrel vault. A view of the interior is given in PL. x. The 
outline of the ground-plan is extremely irregular, being a succession 
of curves that show the hand of inexperienced stone-cutters : the vert- 
ical outlines also are far from being straight. As the stone is a soft 
tufa and no priming is used throughout, there is no opportunity what- 
ever for decorative or architectural details. The piers are connected 

* The measurements of the chamber are as follows : 4.60 met. across N. w. entrance 
and s. E. wall ; 4.61 met. across s. w. entrance into church ; 4.65 across opposite wall ; 
height of door leading out, c. 2.90 met; width of same, 1.75; height of hall, 3.17 
met; height of door into church, 1.84 met; width of same, 1.24. 



AN EARLY ROCK-CUT CHURCH AT SUTRI. 325 

by what is, strictly, neither an architrave or entablature nor an arch. 
It might be termed a curved entablature. 5 This form and the low curve 
of the central vault are easily explicable on practical grounds. While 
the side-aisles could have a simple flat ceiling, without incommoding 
the congregation, the example of the churches above ground was fol- 
lowed to a certain extent in giving greater height to the central nave. 
This could be more easily accomplished by cutting it away in this 
curved shape than in straight angles ; a high, flat ceiling would, besides, 
have been useless for the purpose that caused its adoption in the 
basilicas, that is, for the introduction of windows above the side-aisles. 
This low vault, then, starts not exactly on a line with the piers, but 
leaves a flat projection equivalent to the bench below, thus producing 
an effect of correspondence and at the same time forming a ledge that 
serves as a continuous plinth for the piers themselves, which have 
otherwise no capitals or bases. The curved entablature can be ex- 
plained from similar motives. There was no room for a regular arch, 
and it was necessary to have piers of such a height as to allow the 
congregation in the side-aisles a clear view of the service. The recog- 
nized weakness of the straight entablature was counteracted by a 
slight curve which became more accentuated nearer the piers, so as to 
strengthen them. But it seems as if there might be another explana- 
tion of this peculiar nondescript which I have termed the curved 
entablature, so I shall permit myself a short digression upon two 
churches above ground whose interiors present a striking analogy in 
this respect. 

At Narni, in the Roman province, not many miles from Sutri, are 
two churches dating from the early Middle Ages, if not from an ear- 
lier date the Cathedral and S. Maria in Pensole. Neither of these 
monuments has been adequately illustrated, though both deserve it, if 
not for the beauty at least for the unique quality of their architecture. 
In both, the columns are joined by a curved entablature of the exact 
form of that in the church at Sutri. Here, there was no material 
obstacle to overcome, and the peculiar and thoroughly ugly form was 
adopted wilfully by the architect. Fortunately, these are, to my knowl- 
edge, the only instances of such an aesthetic aberration. 

The following explanation of this peculiar shape in the churches of 
Narni has occurred to me. In the basilicas where the straight entab- 

5 1 do not use the terms " section of an arch " " arches of small curvature," because 
the form at Sutri is not sufficiently regular to be so designated. 



326 



AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHEOLOGY. 



lature was used, it was customary to build into the brick wall imme- 
diately above it a series of very low arches which terminated above 
each column. These received a great part of the thrust of the high 
wall above, taking it away from the entablature, which would other- 
wise have been in danger of breaking, and transferring it to the 
columns, performing, in an inferior way, the use of the disengaged 
arch. But these false or masked arcades were always covered by fres- 
cos, mosaics, or stucco, except when used on exterior constructions, like 
porches (e. g., SS. Vincenzo e Anastasio, Kome). The outline of these 
low arches corresponds exactly to that of those in the churches of 
Narni. Let it be supposed that in a small provincial town like this, 
at an early date in the development of Christian architecture, it being 
difficult to procure marble entablatures, an architect accustomed to them 





FIG. 36. A. Example of freed low arch (Narni) : 
B. Example of masked arch. 

might naturally think of using low arches of the same shape, no longer 
masked but disengaged. This may also explain the origin of the 
curved entablature at Sutri. It would be of the first importance, for 
a solution of the problem, to ascertain the age of the churches at Narni ; 
to know, at least, whether they date from the period between c. 400 
and 800 or c. 1000 to 1200 : both have an early origin. In the crypt 
of S. Maria in Pensole some fragments of Christian inscriptions of 
the fifth and sixth centuries have been found. 6 An even earlier origin 
can be claimed for the Cathedral, whose chapel of S. Cassius, the 
patron saint of the city, is connected directly with an early Christian 
hypogeum, and contains several sarcophagi and inscriptions of the 

6 See EROLI (Marchese Giovanni) in his memoir on the church. 



AN EARLY ROCK-CUT CHURCH AT SUTRI. 327 

fourth and fifth centuries. 7 The columns and capitals do not oifer very 
certain evidence. They are not classic, but rude imitations : the col- 
umns are not monoliths, but are built up usually of three blocks, the 
capitals being pseudo- Corinthian and Composite, but without any ad- 
mixture of Lombard elements. There seem strong grounds for 
assigning these constructions to about the sixth century. On the other 
hand, the porch of S. Maria in Pensole has low arches of exactly the 
same outline as in the interior, and in the porch is an inscription of 
the year 1175. As long as we remain so uncertain as we now are of 
the exact differences between the barbarous decadence in buildings of 
the sixth and seventh centuries and the rude pre-revival of the elev- 
enth, such questions are difficult to answer. The striking analogy to 
the rock-church of Sutri strongly corroborates the earlier date. 

Returning now to the church at Sutri, I will recur to the use of the 
benches cut in the outer walls of the side-aisles and left in the tufa on 
either side of the middle-aisle or built up of separate blocks of the 
material left from the excavation of the church. Similar benches are 
found in the chapels and meeting-rooms of the catacombs, also cut out 
of the rock, around the sides of the hall. Such are those in the cata- 
comb of S. Agnese 8 in Rome. In this case, they are combined in a 
unique way, in a three-aisled building, with the supports of the main- 
aisle and its low division- wall. The early chapels in the catacombs 
appear to have provided for a more complete separation of the sexes 
by the use of the double hall, and in the churches above ground sep- 
arate entrances were provided. In our church there was a single 
entrance, and, as the congregation filed through, the men turned 
abruptly to one side, and the women to the t other, passing by one step 
to the slightly higher level of the side-aisles through square-topped 
door-shaped openings, 70 to 90 cent, wide, narrower than the arcades 
that form the nave proper. 9 Corresponding openings are cut on each 
side in the benches and partition- walls between the seventh and eighth 
piers at the end of the narrow part of the church, at the point where 
the section reserved for the congregation probably ended and that for 

7 E.g., Sarcophagus of S. Juvenalis, first bishop of Narni ; inscription of Bishop 
Pancratius : Hie reguiescit Pancratius episcopus \ fil. Pancratii episcopi \ f rater Herculi 
episcopi | depositus II \ N Octob. cons. Albini Junioris. 

8 MARTIGNY, Diclionnaire des Antiquites Chretiennes, s. v., Catechumenat. 

9 HUBSCH suggested that both side-aisles were given to the women, and the nave 
to the men. This is contrary to the Apostolic Constitutions and to known custom. 



328 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHEOLOGY. 

the clergy began. The four large piers in the choir are joined not by 
a curved but by a perfectly straight entablature. They are cut at very 
irregular intervals, the distances across the nave between the first pair 
being 2.73 met., and between the second pair 3.17 met. 

At various points masonry was employed. This was evidently done, 
in most cases, at the time of the excavation of the church, in order to 
correct mistakes or irregularities : at other points the artificial addi- 
tions may be attributed to restorations. This is especially the case 
with the benches between the aisles, and also with the piers, and is 
more prevalent in the centre than near the entrance. The large mod- 
ern altar that fills the end of the apse made it impossible to ascertain 
whether it had a semicircular ending, though this can hardly be 
doubted. 10 The five small windows are square-headed and of irregular 
sizes, and are pierced at different angles. In the left-hand aisle, near 
the apse, there opens a door leading into an irregular rock-cut chamber, 
in shape a rough hexagon, which serves as a sacristy. It is rudely 
hewn and without any architectural or decorative features. 

A great part of the church was decorated at different times with 
frescos, though none were executed at a very early date. The earliest 
may be attributed to the twelfth, the latest to the fifteenth century. 
One of the most interesting and peculiar, as well as the earliest, is that 
placed in the centre of the vault of the nave, at the opening of the 
choir. It represents the archangel Michael holding the globe and 
sceptre. Its position has helped to preserve it, and especially to leave 
intact the face, which is formed in relief of painted stucco, while the 
rest is simply painted on the flat surface. Several of the other frescos 
are worthy of study. 

The date of the church must be discussed. It preserves certain 
elements of the catacomb chapels, and this is probably the reason why 
Hiibsch places it before Constantine ; but this early date seems to be 
contradicted by the many greater analogies it presents to the churches 
above ground. There is no example of a three-aisled catacomb chapel. 
There are many instances of the construction of chapels and churches 
in connection with catacombs and cemeteries, immediately after the 
time of Constantine, during the second half of the fourth century, of 
which a list is given in Kraus, Real-Encyclop. der Christlichen-Alter- 
thilmer, s. v., BasiUka. Careful investigation may show, to a certainty, 

10 HuBSCH gives a short square apse; LENOIR'S plan, which is far more correct, 
gives a semicircular one. 



AN EARLY ROCK-CUT CHURCH AT SUTRL 329 

that the rock-church of Sutri belongs to this class of buildings, being, 
however, placed, not above the stairway leading to the catacombs, as 
in Rome, but at their entrance, on account of the narrowness of the 
glen in front, and the immense height of the rocks above, which rise 
several hundred feet. The extension of the choir seems to indicate a 
later date than the earliest basilicas, and might be a reason for deciding 
in favor of the first half of the fifth century. The limits seem to be 
350 and 450. There appear to be no edifices of similar character with 
which a helpful comparison might be instituted ; and this fact, while 
enhancing the value of the monument for the study of early Christian 
architecture, helps to involve its exact age in some obscurity. 

MEASUREMENTS OF CHURCH. 

Meters. 

Total length, 21.20 

" width at door, 5.50 

" " at choir, ' 6.70 

" " at apse, 6.94 

Length of nave proper, . . . . . 11.75 

" " choir and apse, 9.45 

Width of central nave between piers, . . 2.47 

" " " " " benches, . . 1.90 

" " side-aisles from wall to pier, . . 1.00-1.16 

" " " from bench to pier, . . 0.70-0.87 

Height of level of side -aisles above nave, . . 0.50 

Width of piers, 0.30-0.34 

Height of benches of nave, .... 0.480.50 

" " " " side-aisles, . . . 0.35-0.37 

" " division between aisles, above benches, 0.12 

Distance between piers of nave, . . 1.30-1.42 

" " " of choir, . . . 2.40-2.80 

Height of vault of central nave, . . . 3.00 

" " " " " " at apse, . . 3.85 

" " roof of side-aisles, .... 2.24 

" " curved entablature above base line, . 1.63 

POSTSCRIPT. Since writing this paper, I had occasion to read 
Okely's volume on Italian Architecture, 11 and found (p. 22) an unex- 
pected confirmation of my suggestion as to., the origin of the curved 

11 Development of Christian Architecture in Italy. By S. OKELY. 8vo. London, 1860. 



330 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY. 

entablature or arch of small curvature. He is the only writer who 
speaks of the churches of Narni in connection with what he terms the 
second stage in the development of Christian architecture; he says : The 
weight of this wall would have been too great for the entablature supported 
only by columns placed under the joints; arches of small curvature were 
therefore built upon the entablature, so as to throw the weight of the wall 
directly upon the columns. Now if we take away the entablature, and 
insert blocks of marble between the capitals of the columns and the spring 
of the arches, so as to restore to them their function of supporting the 
fabric, we shall obtain a row of columns upon which rest visibly arches 
of small curvature, the mechanical construction thus becoming of use 
decoratively. This arrangement may be seen in the Duomo, at Narni, 
and has been drawn in fig. 2 of Plate I. We see here, then, the first 
step in architecture as it developed under the guidance of the funda- 
mental principle, " that every artifice of the construction must be dis- 
played." I have two remarks to make in regard to the above. First, 
in the "drawing of the interior of Narni, Mr. Okely unintentionally 
exaggerates the arched shape : second, it is hardly possible to present 
this curved entablature or low arcade as a transitional form from the 
straight entablature to the arch. The regular arch was used in the 
basilicas of the fourth century long before the probable date of the 
cathedral of Narni. The case is merely sporadic and not a stage in a 
regular development. 

I take occasion to recommend Okely's book as the best in the 
English language on Italian architecture, and as containing elements 
not to be found in any work in other languages. It embodies a sys- 
tem very interesting to study, and a useful classification of monuments 
many of which are not even mentioned in Mothes' recent, ponderous 
and ill-digested work, Die Baukunst des Mittelalters in Italien. 12 Its 
chief fault is an almost entire absence of exact dates. 

A. L. FROTHINGHAM, JR. 
Princeton College, 

Princeton, N. J. 



**I have not consulted TOMASSETTI'S great work on the Campagna Romana, which 
may speak of Sutri. 



CORRESPONDENCE. 



LETTER FROM GREECE .* 

TIRYNS AND MYKENAL The correspondent of the London Times, Mr. 
W. J. Stillman, published in The Nation, No. 1250, a letter from Athens, 
in which he discusses at some length the ancient structures of Tiryns and 
Mykenai, and sets forth his new theories on prehistoric chronology. These 
latter theories need not be discussed here ; but I deem it my duty to set in 
their true light those of his views which refer specifically to the archi- 
tecture of Mykenai and Tiryns, and to show that his assertions are in 
many cases erroneous. As I myself directed a part of the excavations 
at those places, and have carefully studied them all and drew the plans 
of them, I cannot allow the actual facts to be obscured and erroneous 
statements about the ruins to be made. 

Mr. Stillman remarks first upon the largest bee-hive tomb at Mykenai, 
known as the " Treasury of Atreus." He admits that this monument 
belongs to the heroic age and that it had, even at that early period, an 
architecturally well-developed fayade with two pilasters, to the left and 
right of the door. But the famous, richly decorated pilasters which were 
found at the entrance he supposes not to have formed the original facade, 
but to be part of a restoration, undertaken perhaps in the seventh century 
B. c. Mr. Stillman believes that such a restoration must be assumed, first, 
because the bases, which are still in place, are so little corroded, and, secondly, 
because on the two pilasters and on the entire fayade traces of stone-sawing 
can be recognized in many places. 

Now, what is to be said of these reasons ? In the first place, it is, of 
course, wholly impossible to infer from the degree of corrosion whether a 
stone belongs to the seventh century B. c. or is a few centuries older. If, 
after twenty-five centuries, a stone still looks as fresh as if it had been cut 
only a few days ago, clearly it may just as well be three thousand years 
old. The reason for the slight corrosion lies simply in the fact, that these 
two bases were very early buried below the surface, and accordingly were 

*The following letter of Dr. Dorpfeld was translated from the German and sent 
to us by Professor Goodell of Yale University. Dr. D. had intended it for publica- 
tion in the Nation. We would have liked, for the better understanding of the 
questions in dispute, to reprint from the Nation those portions of Mr. Stillman's 
letter which are referred to by Dr. Dorpfeld, but our space will not permit, and we 
must refer the reader to the Nalwn, of June 13, 1889. ED. 

5 331 



332 . AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY. 

not exposed to the destructive influence of the weather. Secondly, as to 
the numerous traces of stone-sawing which the fayade of the bee-hive 
tomb exhibits, Mr. Stillman has often adverted to these as unmistakable 
evidence that the fa9ade could not have been built before the seventh 
century B. c. For he believes that the stone-saw was not invented till 
about 600 B. c., and accordingly he regards all buildings on which traces 
of the stone-saw are visible as later than the seventh century. This, in 
fact, is the chief reason why Mr. Stillman is unwilling to recognize the 
great antiquity of the buildings of Tiryns and Mykenai. But how does 
he know that the stone-saw was unknown and therefore not in use before 
the seventh century ? He has misunderstood a statement of Pausanias 
about the invention of roof-tiles sawn out of marble. This author says, 
in describing the temple of Zeus at Olympia (v. 10.3), that the temple 
was covered, not with ordinary tiles, but with tiles of marble, and adds 
the following remark about the inventor of these tiles : " The invention is 
said to be due to a Naxian, Byzes, artist of the statues in Naxos which 
bear the inscription, 



Evepyds //, yevci Aryrovs Trope, Bveu) 
Trais os Trpamaros Tve \iO 



ov 



As to date, this Byzes was a contemporary of Alyattes the Lydian and 
Astyages, son of Kyaxares, king of the Medes." From this statement, 
we learn that the Naxian Byzes, or more probably his son Euergos, was 
the first to make roof-tiles of marble by means of the saw, and that this 
occurred about 600 B. c. That is, before this time there were only roof- 
tiles of burnt clay, which were made with curved surfaces (thus : ^ ), 
exactly as the roof-tiles are to-day universally made in Greece. Euergos 
was the first to invent tiles with flat surfaces, which he could make from 
marble with the saw. It was not the invention of the stone-saw, then, 
which was attributed to Euergos, for this was a very ancient tool, already 
well known to the Babylonians and Egyptians, but the employment of the 
stone-saw in the preparation of marble tiles. Such tiles sawn out of 
marble and also older curved marble tiles, which were made without the 
saw, have been found during the most recent excavations on the Akropolis 
at Athens, among the ruins of the buildings destroyed by the Persians. 
Mr. Stillman is then mistaken when he places the invention of the 
stone-saw in the seventh or sixth century, and is therefore wholly in- 
correct when he regards buildings that show traces of stone-sawing as 
later than the year 600 B. c. Moreover, he might have convinced him- 
self of his error if he had observed somewhat more accurately the very 
building which he himself now ascribes to the heroic age, viz., the palace 
of Mykenai. For the thresholds here show just as clearly the traces of 



CORRESPONDENCE. 333 

the stone-saw as the thresholds, antae, and jambs in Tiryns, as the Lion 
Gate and the bee-hive tomb in Mykenai, and the bee-hive tomb in Orcho- 
menos. We may even look upon the frequent occurrence of traces of the 
stone-saw as strong evidence that we have to do with a structure of the 
heroic period, that is, with one older than the seventh century. It is true, 
in the fifth century, and even later, stones were sometimes sawn, but less 
frequently, because they had other and better tools. In the heroic age, 
when the chisel was not known, only the pointed pick and the stone-saw 
were used for cutting stone. Both these tools were also used on the fa9ade 
of the large bee-hive tomb at Mykenai, and Mr. Stillman is, therefore, 
mistaken when he assumes a restoration of this tomb in the seventh or 
sixth century. 

Secondly, Mr. Stillman goes on to discuss the royal palace on the sum- 
mit of the citadel of Mykenai, which was recently excavated by Mr. 
Tsountas, and the plan of which was drawn by me after careful investi- 
gation. It gave me pleasure to see that Mr. Stillman ascribes this palace 
to the heroic age, though the walls consist for the most part of rubble and 
clay. 1 Formerly, such walls were, in his opinion, a certain indication of 
late, perhaps Byzantine, origin. Although Mr. Stillman does not himself 
openly acknowledge his former error, still all archaeologists will be glad of 
his tacit admission. But, if Mr. Stillman acknowledges now that the 
building discovered at Mykenai is a Homeric royal palace, then one can 
easily prove, on the spot, that the walls of Tiryns are built of precisely 
the same material and in precisely the same way, and, therefore, that they 
must be assigned to the same time. 

Above the palace at Mykenai were found some wretched huts, and 
still above these the foundations of a Greek building which I have 
explained as a temple of the sixth or fifth century B. c. Now, Mr. Still- 
man asserts that these foundations neither belonged to a temple nor are as 
old as I have said. On archaeological questions Mr. Stillman often has 
peculiar views, which he firmly maintains against all comers. For instance, 
he believes, and has, in conversation with myself and others, defended his 
belief, that the very ancient Pelasgic wall back of the Athenian Propylaia, 
the well-known boundary- wall of the precinct of Artemis Brauronia, 
belongs to the time of Hadrian ! As it is unnecessary to discuss 
such an opinion, so I might also set aside Mr. Stillman 's ideas with regard 
to the Mykenaian temple. Still, considering the great importance which 
the question of the age and form of this temple has for the history of the 

1 [Of the "beautifully polished blocks of stone" and "marble floors" mentioned 
by Mr. Stillman there is not a trace. That this is so, is obvious to any observer on the 
spot, and is distinctly implied by the detailed statements of Mr. Tsountas in his ac- 
count in the HpaKriKd for 1886, p. 72. The TRANSLATOR.] 



334 AMERICAN JO URNAL OF ARCHMOL OGY. 

architecture of the early period, I will briefly give the reasons which go 
to prove that the foundations discovered upon the summit of the citadel 
of Mykenai belong to a temple of archaic times. In the first place, the 
ground-plan of these foundations is not a simple parallelogram, as Mr. 
Stillman asserts, but the foundation of the cella is plainly distinguishable 
from that of the outer row of columns. The building was, then, a perip- 
teros, and, judging by its entire form, a peripteral temple with six columns 
on each end. Then, again, the rudeness of the walls cannot be cited as 
proof that they do not belong to a temple, for the construction of the 
lower foundations of the Hera temple and of the treasure-houses at Olympia 
or of the old Dionysos temple in Athens are not a whit better. Further, 
the statement of Mr. Tsountas (UpaKTiKa. for 1886, p. 61), that only a 
single block of the cornice has been found, is erroneous : two such blocks 
of archaic form are still to be seen near the temple, and a third at a little 
distance from it. Besides these, many early Greek roof-tiles are still lying 
near the temple. Formerly, as the watchman and overseer of Mykenai 
has told me, drums of columns, also, were strewn about near the founda- 
tions. Further, on the slope of the hill, near the watchman's house above 
the Lion Gate, I have myself seen one capital of a column and one 
triglyph-block, which are now in the museum at Charvati, and which, like 
the portions of the cornice, are of poros stone. An architrave-block of 
the same material, belonging with these, is still lying within the citadel. 
Since, now, all these architectural members, judging from their form, 
belong to the sixth or the beginning of the fifth century B. c., we are en- 
tirely justified in recognizing in the foundations upon the top of the citadel 
the remains of a temple of the sixth or fifth century. It is true that, near 
the temple, roof-tiles of Koman times have also been found, and an in- 
scription of the second century B. c. ; but these discoveries only show that 
the temple was repaired in Roman times. Or shall we, from the circum- 
stance that a great many roof-tiles with Roman stamps were found in the 
temple of Zeus at Olympia, draw the conclusion that this temple was not 
built in the fifth century, but by the Romans? If the Argives, at the 
capture of Mykenai in the fifth century, found the temple completed and 
destroyed it, then it was certainly reconstructed. But Mr. Stillman as- 
sumes that the Argives, when they captured the citadel, found neither the 
temple nor the huts lying beneath, but the royal palace which lies under 
the latter. That this supposition is impossible, is proven, on the one hand, 
by the wall-paintings, which were found, partly still on the walls and 
partly in small pieces lying about on the ground. These remnants ex- 
hibit ornaments which no longer occur in Greek and archaic times, but 
which are especially characteristic of the heroic age. On the other hand, 
all the objects, particularly the fragments of pottery, which were found 



CORRESPONDENCE. 335 

in the ruins of the palace belong without exception to heroic times, and 
not to the fifth century. Evidently, Mr. Stillman is unacquainted with 
these objects ; otherwise it would have been impossible for him to place 
the destruction of the palace in the fifth century. Furthermore, it may 
be distinctly stated, that Mr. Tsountas, to whose authority Mr. Stillman 
appeals, is in doubt only as to whether the uppermost structure is a temple 
or not. That it is an early Greek building, and therefore that the palace 
had been for some centuries destroyed and buried in rubbish when the 
Argives, in the fifth century, captured Mykenai on these points Mr. 
Tsountas entertains, he informs me, no doubt whatever. And this is, of 
course, the essential thing. For whether the uppermost structure is a 
temple or a building of another sort is of little consequence for determin- 
ing the age of the palace. But the proofs that it actually was a temple 
I have given above. 

Toward the close of his article, Mr. Stillman speaks again of Tiryns, and 
asserts that he found in the walls of the palace " well-burned brick laid 
in mortar," and that " the Byzantine character of the ruin has always 
been admitted by the principal Greek archaeological authorities." The 
latter assertion is simply not correct, for Mr. Philios and Mr. Tsountas, 
whom Mr. Stillman probably means by his " authorities," agree with me 
that the palace itself dates from the heroic age, and that the church above 
it is Byzantine. The latter is in fact indicated as such in the plan of 
Tiryns drawn by me. But burned brick and mortar are not to be found 
in the walls. These are wholly of unburned brick with clay for mortar, 
but in some places the heat was so intense, when the citadel was destroyed, 
that the brick as well as the clay were burned red and some parts were 
even vitrified. Such a wall, as Mr. Tsountas told me, was actually taken 
by Mr. Stillman for a wall of burnt brick laid in mortar. I can only 
recommend him simply to examine the other end of the wall ; he will 
then recognize that the brick there as well as the mortar are still wholly 
unburnt. Only that end of the wall is burnt which was next to the stout 
wooden beams of the door. 

When, a few years ago, Mr. Stillman asserted that the palace at Tiryns 
belonged to Byzantine times, he appealed to the authority of the celebrated 
English architect Penrose, who had been visiting Tiryns with him. Being 
persuaded that such an opinion could be due only to insufficient acquaint- 
ance with the ruins, I publicly invited Mr. Penrose and Mr. Stillman to 
go with me to Tiryns, that I might show them the buildings and point out 
on the spot the proofs of their great antiquity. Mr. Penrose accepted 
this invitation. He went with me to Tiryns and Mykenai, was convinced 
of the great antiquity of the structures there, and then without hesitation, 
in a letter published in the London Academy, he openly and honorably 



336 AMERICAN JO URNAL OF ARCH^EOL OGY. 

acknowledged his former mistake. Mr. Stillman, on the other hand, did 
not accept my invitation, although, last spring here in Athens, I again 
offered by word of mouth to accompany him thither. In May, however, 
without letting me know of it, he went to Tiryns and Mykenai with two 
Greek gentlemen, and, now that Mr. Penrose has deserted him, he appeals 
to these authorities. Accordingly, I can do nothing else than hereby to 
offer once more to Mr. Stillman to accompany him at any time to Tiryns 
and study the ruins with him. If he declines, then the weakness of his 
arguments must be evident, even to himself. 

Athens, Dr. WILHELM DORPFELD, 

September 24, 1889. Director of the German Archceological 

Institute at Athens. 



KEVIEWS AND NOTICES OF BOQKS. 



NEROUTSOS-BEY. L'ancienne Alexandrie. fitude archeologique et 
topographique. Pp. 132 and a map. Paris, 1888 ; Leroux. 
The results of excavations made during the last fifteen years are reviewed 
in this work. To the 24 chapters of text an excellent map is added, and 
in an appendix are found a series of interesting Greek, Roman, and Early 
Christian inscriptions. The situation of the famous buildings of Alexan- 
dria will be of special interest to most readers. The temple of Isis Plusia, 
the Caesareum, the palace of Hadrian, and the temples of Sarapis, Isis, 
and of Ptolemy and Arsinoe, are all discussed and the positions of most 
of them firmly settled. The Mausoleum of Alexander and the grave of 
Cleopatra are fixed in their proper sites ; and then, coming down to a later 
period, the author discusses Christian churches. Some of these still stand 
on the sites of heathen temples, and others have been turned into mosques. 
The plan given of the city would have been improved, if the modern 
names of the localities had been entered on it, especially so, since these 
are often mentioned in the text. "In regard to the positions of the gate of 
the Sun and the gate of the Moon, the author seems to depart from the 
current belief without sufficient cause. He places them on the east and 
west sides of the city, instead of on the north and south sides. On two 
plates are represented sepulchral urns and some painted terracottas from 
the cemetery on the west side of the city. The inscriptions at the end of 
the volume and the well-chosen explanatory remarks attached to them give 
us interesting facts about the history and mixed population of this Graeco- 
Egyptian city. P.WEIZSACKER, in Woch.f. Mass. PhiloL, 1889, No. 29/30. 

TOMMASO TEERINONI (Monsig.). I sommi Pontefici delta Campania 
Romana con notizie storiche intorno alle titta e luoghi piu importanti 
delta medesima provincia. 2 vols. 8vo. Roma, 1888-89 ; Cuggiani 
Cecchini. 

The region described in these volumes is mainly the ancient land of the 
Hernici and the Volsci, called, in the Middle Ages, Campania, while the 
neighboring region, intimately connected with it in its mediaeval history 
and extending along the coast from Rome to Terracina was called Marit- 
tima. The principal cities of Campania were Anagnia (Anagni), Aletrium 
(Alatri), Ferentinum (Ferentino), Verulae (Veroli), Signia (Segni), and 
Frusino (Frosinone). They are of unusual interest for both their pre- 
337 



338 AMERICAN JO URNAL OF AROHMOLOG Y. 

Roman and their Mediaeval antiquities. There has yet to be discovered 
a Pelasgic or " Cyclopean " citadel that can vie in grandeur with that of 
Alatri, with which one can compare only the Pyramids of Egypt. This 
entire region is but little known even to archaeologists, and one might say 
that the smaller localities are quite unknown. I give in a note a list of 
the localities described. 1 The region extends up to the borders of the 
Abruzzi on the east, of the Neapolitan provinces on the south, and of the 
Monti Lepini on the west. Its cities never fell under the dominion of petty 
tyrants in the Middle Ages but were governed by their own officers: 
throughout the contests between Popes and Emperors in the xn and xm 
centuries they remained faithful to Rome, and this solidarity is shown in 
their monuments. For this reason, the author has added to his description 
a short biography of the different popes who were either natives of or 
especially connected with this region. Four great pontiffs of the xm 
century, that most interesting period in mediaeval history, were natives of 
Anagni and its neighborhood Innocent III, Gregory IX, Alexander IV, 
and Boniface VIII. Rome often proved an insecure place of residence 
at this time, and it was natural that Anagni should then share with 
Viterbo the privilege of being a regular papal residence. Last of all, 
and worthy of being placed by the side of these illustrious men, comes 
the present pope, Leo XIII, born at Carpineto. Frosinone and its neigh- 
borhood produced three popes at a much earlier date, the sixth and 
seventh centuries, S. Hormisdas, S. Silverius, and Honorius III : short 
biographies of them are given. The long account of the Acts of Leo 
XIII can only be excused in view of the occasion. It is quite out of 
place in a work of erudition, as this wishes to appear. But, in reality, 
its erudition is extremely superficial. There is no adequate description 
of a single one of the monuments, whether Pelasgic or mediaeval, although 
this would be supposed to be the most evident duty of a writer on this 
region whose historical data, which he repeats in a desultory and elemen- 
tary way, are well known, but whose monuments need illustration. It 
would not be necessary to call attention to the work, were it not the only 
one written in this century on the region. When, as in the case of the 
great Cistercian monastery of Casamari, he is forced to deliver some 
opinion, an error of a hundred and fifty years in dating the buildings 
gives some idea of the condition of the author's knowledge of the history 

1 Anagni, Carpineto (Ecetra), Acuto, Anticoli, Porciano, Gorga, Sgurgola, Morolo, 
Serrone, Piglio, Arcinazzo, Monte Tuino, Filettino, Trevi, Vallepietra, Monte 
Porcaro, Jenne, Segni, Montefortino, Gavignano, Montelanico, Valmontone, S. Vita- 
liano, Ferentino, Ceccano, Patrica, Giuliano, Prossedi, S. Lorenzo, Alatri, Guarcino, 
Torre Caietani, Trivigliano, Vico, Collepardo, Trisulti, Veroli, Casamari, Monte San 
Giovanni, Bauco, Ceprano, Frosinone, etc. 



REVIEWS AND NOTICES OF BOOKS. 339 

of mediaeval art. The second volume includes a scanty collection of Roman 
inscriptions in the different localities. A. L. F., JR. 

CLASSICAL ARCH/EOLOGY. 

K. B[ERNHARDI]. Textbuch zu Th. Schreibers Kulturhistorischem 
Bilderatlas des klassischen Altertums. 8vo, pp. 388. Leipzig, 1888. 
This work is issued as an explanatory text to the second edition of the 
now famous Bilderatlas of Schreiber but can be used with the first edition, 
as well. It makes no claim to independent scientific value, and is written 
in a style that is popular and easily intelligible. A few misprints in the 
atlas itself are corrected, and the appearance of the book is neat and attrac- 
tive. In treating of the Attic calendar, it perhaps would have been better 
to point out the corresponding months of our calendar. M. LEHNERDT, 
iuWoch.f. klass.Philol., 1889, No. 36. 

H. COLLITZ und F. BECHTEL. Sammlung der griechischen Dialektin- 
schriften. Band III, Heft II. Die Inschriften von Korinthos, 
Kleonai, Sikyon, Phleius und den korinthischen Kolonien, von F. 
BLASS. 8vo, pp. 61-115. Gottingen, 1888 ; Vandenhock u. 
Ruprecht. 

The inscriptions of Corinth, with few exceptions, are upon pottery objects, 
and those of Sikyon and Phlious are very few. Several seem to have been 
omitted from the Sikyonian list that deserve to have a place there. Kor- 
kyra is well illustrated by the long (146 line) inscription of GIG, 1845. 
W. LARFELD, in BerlpJiil Woch., 1889, No. 26. 

RODOLFO FONTEANIVE. Quida per gli avanzi di costruzioni poligonie 

dette ticlopiche, saturnie opelasgiche netta provincia diRoma (Pubbl. 

della Sez. di Roma del Club Alpino). 8vo., pp. 1 96. Roma, 1887 ; 

Tip. Ippolito Sciolla. 

There is no more picturesque region in Italy than that through which 
the author takes us from hill to hill, crowned with the gigantic walls built 
by the sturdy tribes which one by one succumbed to Rome. The ruined 
wall& of the citadels, the landscape, and the brilliant costumes of the peas- 
antry, all appeal to the imagination of the young writer, who is not only 
an archaeologist but an Alpinist and lover of nature. And so that which 
might have been a dry enumeration of stone walls takes color and life with- 
out detracting from scholarly exactitude. It was written as a contribu- 
tion to the annual publication of the Roman section of the Club Alpino, 
and is the first attempt to bring together in a somewhat familiar shape the 
mass of material dispersed in the many volumes of the publications of the 



340 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY. 

German Institute and in separate monographs. For this is a subject that 
has excited an almost passionate interest among archaeologists and" his- 
torians ever since, in the last years of the last century, Petit-Radel began 
his famous collection of models of the Pelasgic and " Cyclopean " monu- 
ments. He and, a few years later, Dodwell and Gell sustained a similar 
opinion regarding them, while the opposite ground was held by men like 
Gerhard and Bunsen, the founders of the German Archaeological Institute 
in Rome. This dispute involved the most vital questions connected with 
the origins and race and early history of the early tribes of this region 
Aborigines, Pelasgians, Latins and their relations to Rome. Petit-Radel 
and his co-thinkers sustained the Pelasgic origin of these early cities, Ger- 
hard and Bunsen denied it. Sig. Fonteanive is perfectly familiar with the 
literature of the subject, including the little-known work of our compatriot 
Mr. J. I. Middleton, whose book 1 with careful drawings was published in 
1812, only a few years after Petit-Radel commenced his publications. The 
use of the term " Cyclopean," as attributed to these primitive massive con- 
structions, is discussed and the ancient origin of the word made clear. So 
also with the term Pelasgic, also used by Greek and Latin authors to desig- 
nate the primitive military architecture of the pre-Hellenes. The first 
Pelasgic manner seems to have been sometimes known as Tirynthian, be- 
cause its most illustrious example in Greece was the akropolis at Tiryns, 
while the second and more regular and perfected stage was termed " Les- 
bian." A summary is given of the Pelasgic legend, as the writer terms it, 
up to the time when, in Niebuhr's opinion, " the Pelasgi, who formed the 
greatest nation of Europe, inhabited the land from the Po and the Arno 
to the banks of the Bosphorus." The writer is, however, tempted to rank 
himself among those who sceptically scoff at the idea of the existence of 
such a nationality and culture as the Pelasgic. Still he resumes with rela- 
tive impartiality and in a useful manner the different opinions held on the 
subject by various writers, some of which hold the earliest walls, where 
the stones bear no trace of human handiwork, as on the island of Pantel- 
laria, to be the work of the aborigines of Italy, the Siculi or Sikani, pre- 
vious to the Pelasgic advent. Others, like Gerhard, are disposed to be- 
lieve in a much later date and that the polygonal mode of construction 
was employed by the Romans themselves even during several centuries of 
the Republic. The city-walls, temple-precincts and sepulchral construc- 
tions that come within the category are practically, and without reference 
to date, but to methods of construction, divided into three epochs accord- 
ing as they are built ; (1) of uncut large and small stones of irregular 

1 Grecian Remains in Italy, a Description of Cyclopian Walls and of Roman Antiquities : 
London, 1812. See C. E. NORTON'S article in the JOURNAL, vol. i, pp. 3-9. 



REVIEWS AND NOTICES OF BOOKS. 341 

shape ; (2) of large blocks fitted together without interstices, but with 
their front surface left uneven ; and (3) of large slabs accurately smoothed 
even in front and placed in strata more or less exactly horizontal. A care- 
ful examination is then made of what has been written in regard to the 
form of doorways and ceilings used in these classes of constructions, espe- 
cially the vault and arch. A very useful chapter is that on the topographi- 
cal distribution of the monuments, which contains for each region a good 
bibliography of the best works. Their position was determined by the 
mountainous character of the region : the land of the Hernici and the 
Volsci, and that of the Aequicoli, the Marsi, the Sabini, the Samnites 
and New Latium. These fortified cities are found all along the ridges of 
the Monti Lepini, out to Monte Circeo, on the south, along the Sabine hills 
and running eastward through the highlands of the Abruzzi, and, turning 
northward, they penetrate to the Umbrian hills by way of Reate. Then, 
beyond the Roman province, the series begins in maritime Etruria to end 
beyond the high chain of the Etruscan Appenines (Monte Amiata) in the 
Umbrian cities of Ameria, Cesi, Spoletum, Narnia and Tuder. These sites 
are described in succession, in so far as they come within the special Roman 
province. The careful description of Norba, pp. 137 to 149, is a good ex- 
ample of the combined use of earlier authors and personal inspection. It 
makes one wish for a systematic exploration and excavation of the site, often 
promised but never carried out. The city was destroyed in the time of 
Sulla, never to rise again, and not only its walls remain in great perfection, 
as in other cities, but it is unique in Italy in having numerous remains of 
polygonal constructions (including two temples ?) within its wall, superior 
in extent and architectural value to the ruins of Tiryns and Mykenai. A 
list of the sites described in the volume is appended in a Note. 2 

A. L. FROTHINGHAM, JR. 

2 Part I. Denomination. Part II. ThePetasgic Tradition: ch. 1. The legend; oh. 2. 
Objections to it. Part III. Division into periods and technical methods in polygonal con- 
structions: ch.l. Division into periods; ch. 2. Technical methods, including the forms 
of openings and roofing; ch. 3. How these distinctions into periods and methods are 
not rigorous; ch. 4. The exact age of the polygonal constructions. Part IV. Topo- 
graphical Review : ch.l. Pyrgi; 2. Viterbo-Bomarzo ; 3. Grotte Torri (Cures) ; 4. The 
Corniculani hills and Monte Gennaro (Montecelio, S. Angelo, Ameriola, Palombara, 
Moricone, Monteverde, Marcellino, Ceano and Turrito, from Vitriano to Tivoli) ; 5. 
In the valley of the Anio (Santa Balbina, Sacco Muro) ; 6. Tibur^Tivoli ; 7. In the 
valley of Arci (Minutola, Empulum^Ampiglione, Saxula=Sassula, Sicelion=Cicili- 
ano); 8. Trebia Aequorum=Trevi; 9. Tusculum and Rocca di Papa; 10. Praeneste= 
Palestrina; 11. Olevano and Bellagra; 12. Ferentinum=Ferentino; 13. Aletrium= 
Alatri; 14. Verulae=Veroli; 15. Signia=Segni; 16. Artena Volscorum ; 17. Cora= 
Cori; 18. Norba near Norma ; 19. Setia=Sezze; 20. Anxur=Trachinie=Terracina; 
21. Circeus Mons=promontorio Circeo; 22. Fundi = Fondi. 



342 AMERICAN JO URNAL OF ARCH^OLOG Y. 

PAUL HERRMANN. Das Grdberfeld von Marion auf Oypern (48. 
Berliner WineJcelmanns-Programm). 4to, pp. 64 with 3 plates. 
Berlin, 1888; Reimer. 

This essay gives a general review and survey of the excavations at 
Polis-tis-Chrysochou during 1885 and 1886, though special attention is 
given to such of the antiquities as have come to the Berlin Museum. The 
plan of the work is well considered, its carrying out diligent and careful. 
After a description of the locality comes a description and chronologic 
classification of the tombs ; then, a description of the usual contents of 
each group of tombs ; finally, a notice of the figurines and ornamented 
pottery. In accordance with previous investigations, the earlier tombs 
are given to Marion, the later to Arsinoe. There does not seem to be 
proof for his supposed Phoenician layer of tombs under the others. The 
large seated terracotta figures are rightly explained as a substitute for 
statuary or reliefs. F. DUMMLER, in BerL pliil. Woch., 1889, No. 35. 

AUGUST HERZOG. Studien zur Geschichte der griechischen Kunst. 4to, 
pp. 64; 6 plates. Leipzig, 1888; "W. Engelmann. 
The first of these studies relates to the history of groups and their de- 
velopment in Greek art. It extends itself not only over statuary, but 
over reliefs and vase-paintings. The author finds two general classes of 
groups the pyramidal, and the copulative where the figures are opposite 
or behind or beside each other and seen from the side. Examples of the 
copulative class are the common group of Dionysos supported by a Satyr 
and of Eros and Psyche in the Capitoline Museum. The element that 
unites such groups in the later periods is found to reside partly in the dis- 
position partly in the action of the figures united. In the early archaic 
period such bond seems wholly lacking. Of the pyramidal class, vase- 
paintings and the Campanian wall-pictures show numerous examples. It 
is to Polygnotos that the pyramidal group owes its best development, 
though preceded by many gable-groups of otherwise great masters. Her- 
zog notices that genre and pathetic subjects always adapt themselves easily 
to representation in groups. Consequently, the Hellenistic age, from its 
fondness for such subjects, was naturally the chief patron of painting and 
sculpture in groups. A second study of the author relates to the series of 
gods shown in the vase-paintings of Southern Italy. He finds that the 
gods chosen for these pictures are conditioned by the action, sometimes 
only very generally, or even are only decorative. In general, these two 
essays of Herzog are characterized by carefulness in inference and by a 
fine degree of observation and valuation of the relations of form and emo- 
tion. P. WEIZSACKER, in Woch.f. klass. PhiloL, 1889, No. 25. 



REVIEWS AND NOTICES OF BOOKS. 343 

E. HUBNER. Bibliographic der klassischen Altertumswissenschaft. 

Grundriss zu Vorlesungen iiber die Geschichte und Encyklopadie 

der klassischen Philologie. 2d ed. 8vo, pp. xiv, 434. Berlin, 

1889 ; W. HERTZ. 

In this second edition, which makes its appearance thirteen years after 
the first, we have a complete bibliography of classical philology (Klassische 
Altertumswissenschaft'). The book is now expanded to thrice its former 
compass. The bibliography of the History of Greek Literature is greatly 
increased in the new volume, as are Numismatics, Geography, the Plastic 
Arts, and Domestic Life. In this part of the book only independent works 
are mentioned, but occasionally the author finds himself compelled to make 
exceptions to this rule in respect to articles published in languages other 
than German. Valuable also are the opinions and review-notices that are 
given in short space. Berl.phil. Woch., 1889, No. 34. 

A. MAYRHOFER. Geschiehtlich topographische Studien iiber das alte 
Rom. 8vo, pp. 115. Miinchen, 1887 ; Lindauer. 
These studies are a continuation and amplification of their author's work 
on Die Brucken im alien Rom. They are divided into three chapters. The 
first chapter treats of the meaning of the word pontifex. Like others, the 
writer derives the word from pons and facere, but does not refer its origin 
to the pons sublicius. He thinks that, in a very early period, on the return 
of regularly recurring sacrifices, temporary bridges were erected for the 
occasion and then taken down. Sacrifices, as we know, often took place 
on bridges, and he thinks Ovid's line (Fasti, 5. 634), pontibus infirmos 
praecipitasse senes, refers to bridges thus erected and as often removed. 
Another proposition brought forward by Mayrhofer is, that the Janiculum 
was, in very early times, united to the Tiber by a wall. This, however, has 
no claim to originality, being only a reiteration of 0. Gilbert's opinion. 
The second chapter discusses the streets on the right bank of the Tiber, and 
makes the strange assertion, that the laying- out of streets was dependent 
on the previous construction of bridges ; whereas the fact is exactly the re- 
verse: theVia Aurelia is found to have changed its course three times where 
it left the city. Quite contrary to reason, also, is the supposition of Mayr- 
hofer, that the Pons Aurelius and the Pons Aelius were reserved for the 
emperor's private use until the sixth century after Christ. A third chap- 
ter is devoted to the situation of the Porta Aurelia, which is usually placed 
on the left bank near the Pons Aelius. The result of the present investi- 
gation is, that it was further down the river at the end of the Pons Nero- 
nianus and thus on the right bank. Throughout these " studies," lack of 
care betrays itself. The argument is often confused, and frequently seems 



344 AMERICAN JO URNAL OF ARCHMOLOO Y. 

illogical. Misprints and infelicities of expression are not rare. O. RICHTER, 
in Berl. phil. Woch., 1889, No. 33. 

K. MEISTERHANS. Grammatik der attischen Inschriften. Zweite 
vermehrte und verbesserte Auflage. 8vo, pp. xn, 237. Berlin, 
1888; Weidmann. 

It can only be remarked of the second edition of this excellent work, 
that all the recently discovered inscriptions and all the recent literature 
on the subject have been made use of in preparing it. It could only be 
wished that the third edition contain a more complete index, especially of 
proper names. The book, besides its thorough treatment of forms and of 
syntax, contains many pertinent remarks concerning the pronunciation 
of Attic Greek, notably in regard to theta : and Meisterhans shows him- 
self quite uninfluenced by the pronunciation of this letter in English and 
Modern Greek. The size of the book, its lucid manner of treatment, and its 
print, are further reasons why it should be in the hands of every teacher of 
the Greek language. C. HABERLIN, in Woch.f. Mass. Philol, 1889, No. 26. 

P. NARDUCCI. Sulla fognatura della Cittd di Roma. Roma; Forzani. 
Roman archaeology has reaped much benefit from the rapid develop- 
ment of building in the city and the consequent subterranean works, 
more especially as regards the study of the topography of ancient Rome, 
which has made great progress of late years. Very important materials 
for the history of ancient Roman building are contained in this book. The 
author, Signer Pietro Narducci, is an engineer who was commissioned by 
the Roman municipality to make minute investigations into the state of 
both the ancient and modern system of drains in the city. The present 
work is the fruit of his researches ; and to its technical interest it adds an 
archaeological one, on account of its description of Roman drainage from 
the most ancient times and also in the Middle Ages an examination car- 
ried on by the author under exceptionally favorable conditions. Signor 
Narducci's treatise is accompanied by a large atlas of plates and tables. 
Academy, June 8. 

HANS OHLRICH. Die Florentine!- Niobegruppe. 8vo, pp. 61. Berlin, 

1888 ; Mayer and Miiller. 

Pliny was in doubt whether the group of Niobe and her children was a 
work of Skopas or Praxiteles ; Ohlrich has no fear in stating that neither 
could have composed it. The group was made for erection on the side 
of a rocky elevation, and probably adorned the garden of some king or 
other patron of art during the Hellenistic period. Stark has already shown 



REVIEWS AND NOTICES OF BOOKS. 345 

that the group had its origin in Kalikia or Syria. Ohlrich fixes its date 
as the second century before Christ, and names as its source the art-school 
at Antioch. All the representations of the death of Niobe point to some 
famous painting as their original. The manner of wearing the hair and 
clothing, the proportions of the figures, and especially the grandeur of its 
design show that this painting goes back to the first half of the fourth cen- 
tury. The temple of Palatine Apollo had its doors adorned with two con- 
trasting ivory reliefs : one represented the repulse of the Gauls from Par- 
nassos, the other the death of the Niobids. Evidently, therefore, both 
were favorite subjects of the Hellenistic period, and the scene of action in 
both was a rocky slope. Probably the angry deities stood above Niobe 
and her children, since their upward gaze makes this presence well-nigh 
unavoidable. It was only when the group was placed on a slope or in 
some similar position that Niobe herself came to occupy the central posi- 
tion. In a sarcophagus relief in the Vatican this is not the case, nor was 
it so, probably, in the original painting. Herein lay the improvement 
brought about by the sculptor of the group when he thus translated it 
into the round. The dissertation contains also a general review of grouped 
statuary, beginning with the gable-group and coming down to the Hellen- 
istic period. In the course of this review/it becomes evident that the Niobe 
group presupposes the conquests of Alexander and the impulses such as art 
and especially painting received at the hands of the succeeding princes. 
The results that are reached by Ohlrich in this valuable and masterly 
work it is safe to say will not be overthrown in their general outlines. 
P. WEIZSACKER, in Woch.f. klass.Philol., 1889, No. 31. 

SALOMON REINACH. Bibliotheque des monuments figures grees et 
remains. Vol. I. Voyage archeologique en Grece et en Asie mineure 
sous la direction de Philippe Le Bas (1842-44). Planches de topo- 
graphie de sculpture et d'architecture gravies d'aprs les dessins de 
E. Landron, publics et commente'es par Salomon Reinach. 4to, 
pp. xxiv, 164 with 311 plates. Paris, 1888 ; Firmin-Didot, 
The difficulty, not to say impossibility, of reaching the various archaeo- 
logical publications and their illustrations has now been felt and expressed 
in many countries. The work before us edited by the tireless Salomon 
Reinach would seem to be an answer of France to this general complaint 
in the fields of archaeology. Its object is to form the beginning of a Cor- 
pus of ancient monuments. The German Institute has this same goal in 
view in its expected volumes illustrating sarcophagi and tombstone reliefs. 
An arrangement of ancient monuments according to place of discovery or 
museum in which they are stored cannot be thought of, since objects of art 



346 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHEOLOGY. 

are always changing owners. The plan adopted in the present work is to 
arrange the published monuments by the books where they are published, 
and the unpublished by the museums where they are kept. The difficul- 
ties of uniting two systems, of deciding what is published and what unpub- 
lished, begin to be foreshadowed, and the need of a monster index is in- 
evitable. No better beginning could be made than with the plates of Le 
Bas. Many new ones hitherto unpublished are inserted by Reinacb, and 
he accompanies the whole with a brief explanatory text. The plates pre- 
serve their old designations : Itineraire, pi. 1-72 ; Monuments figures, pi. 
1-151 ; and Architecture (this last including Athens, Peloponnesos, the 
Islands, and Asia Minor). The size is in all important cases that of the 
original plates, and the price is unusually low. The Antiquites du Bosphore 
Cimmerien, which are promised in the second volume, will not be less wel- 
come than this first publication. KOPP, in BerlphiL Woch., 1889, No. 24. 

D. SIMONSEN. Sculptures et Inscriptions dePalmyre & la Glyptotheque 

de Ny Carlsberg. Copenhagen ; Lind. 

The unique collection of antiquities from Palmyra brought together by 
Mr. Carl Jacobsen, with the assistance of the Danish consul at Beyrut con- 
sist, in the main, of funerary monuments, sculptured in high relief, dating 
from the two centuries that preceded the destruction of Zenobia's city by 
the Romans. A number of them, evidently portraits of the deceased, are 
here reproduced in photogravures, which show the peculiar form of art 
represented that of the Greek decadence and also enable us to recog- 
nize the elaborate nature of the dress and ornaments worn. One of them is 
a mummy. In many cases the monuments bear inscriptions in Aramaean, 
giving little more than the family names of the deceased, with conventional 
expressions of mourning. These inscriptions have been carefully repro- 
duced by zincography, with the assistance of Prof. J. Euting, of Strassburg. 
Though several of both the monuments and the inscriptions have already 
been published, this complete catalogue to the collection forms an invalu- 
able aid to the study of Palmyrene art. Academy, Aug. 31. 

CHARLES WALDSTEIN. Catalogue of Casts in the Museum of Classi- 
cal Archceology, Cambridge. 12mo., pp. vin, 123. London and 
New York, 1889 ; Macmillan & Co. 

This catalogue is eminently practical and admirably adapted to increase 
the educational value of the casts of ancient sculpture which form a part 
of the Fitzwilliam Museum at Cambridge. That collection is not very 
large, comprising only 618 pieces, but has been most carefully selected by 
Dr. Waldstein, and by Professor Col vin before him, so as to illustrate the 



REVIEWS AND NOTICES OF BOOKS. 347 

general progress of Greek sculpture. A relatively large number of casts 
(113) fall into the archaic period, as is proper in a museum of this char- 
acter. 206 represent the work of the fifth century, and as many that of 
the fourth. The remainder are classed as Hellenistic and Graeco-Roman. 
These are arranged in separate rooms or galleries, so that the visitor, on 
entering the museum, first passes through the archaic room, then through 
the fifth and fourth century rooms, and completes his tour with the study 
of Roman portraits. The catalogue supplies him with a general introduc- 
tion to the whole subject and more special introductions to the collections 
in each room. These introductions are brief, but discriminating and help- 
ful. The matter referring to the casts avoids unnecessary description, is 
full of useful artistic as well as archaeological hints, and contains valuable 
reference to the most accessible and at the same time trustworthy sources 
of information. The latter half of the catalogue, prepared by the Assistant 
Director, M. R. James, contains fewer personal opinions, and is on that 
account less interesting reading but no less useful as a catalogue. A. M. 

F. WIESLER. Archdologwche Beitrage. I. Uber einige Antiken in 
Regensburg, namentlich eine Bronzestatuette des Mercurius. 4to, 
pp. 39 ; one copper-plate engraving. Gottingen, 1888 ; Dieterich. 
This essay is chiefly concerned in explaining a curious statuette of Mer- 
cury which, besides the usual attributes of the god, bears a quiver, a scroll, 
and a wand entwined with a single serpent. Such combinations of attri- 
butes are shown by the author to be not uncommon in the late period to 
which he assigns this statuette. The present instance shows a union of 
Mercury with Sol, Apollo, and Aesculapius. Other bronzes of the Regens- 
burg collection are touched upon. A bronze bull, statuettes of Fortuna and 
Sol, and a hanging lamp in the shape of a dove. Woch. f. klass. PhiloL, 
1889, No. 32/3. 

CHRISTIAN ARCHEOLOGY. 

MARIANO ARMELLINI. Le Chiese di Roma dalle loro origini sino al 
secoloxvi. 8vo, pp. 805. Roma, 1887 ; Tipogr. Editrice Romana. 
The great celebration of the fiftieth anniversary of the consecration of 
Pope Leo XIII has led to the publication of many interesting works which 
would otherwise never have seen the light. This may be one of them. At 
all events, the many lovers of Rome and its memories will rejoice in this 
new contribution to her monumental history. Of the thousand churches 
that Rome could boast of in the fourteenth century the greater number 
have been cast down or renovated either by the blind vandalism of the 
Neo-Paganism of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries or by the vainglo- 
rious bad taste of the baroccoism of the eighteenth. But they have not 
6 



348 AMERICA N JO URNAL OF ARCH^EOL OGY. 

utterly perished. They live "in the chronicles and legends; in the myths 
that often gathered about their early history : " and the archives and libra- 
ries of Italy are full of material out of which the history of the churches 
of Rome can be recomposed well-nigh completely. But, as the author 
justly remarks, this would take an army of workmen ; and so the present 
work is but a tentative guide and catalogue. In it, however, are classi- 
fied about 800 churches within the walls, and 118 suburban churches. 
More than half of these, 452 in number, have been entirely destroyed, 
and the greater part of the remaining number rebuilt. . 

The author is well known, being one of the founders of the Society of 
Christian Archaeology in Rome, together with Padre Bruzza, De Rossi, 
Stevenson, Marucchi, and others. His studies have been concentrated 
on the Christian antiquities of Rome, and the Mediaeval churches, a field 
too much neglected by those who study the art of the Catacombs. 

In part first, the " preliminary notices of the churches of Rome" are 
sufficient to give a good idea of their origins ; of pre-Constantinian and 
Catacomb oratories; of the writers and collectors of information regarding 
Roman churches; of the parochial iituli into which the city was divided; 
of the Fraternitas Romano, and the triple distribution of the churches of 
Rome in the xm and xiv centuries; and of the catalogues of the churches 
made between the xn and xvi centuries. 

As early as the fourth century originated the division of the city into 
tw T enty-five parishes, each of whose churches was connected with some sub- 
urban cemetery or catacomb ; and it was outside the walls and in con- 
nection with these catacombs that a large number of churches were erected. 
Long before the Renaissance, there was shown a lively interest in the sacred 
monuments of the city, and this is proved by the itineraries for the use of 
pilgrims compiled in the fifth, sixth, seventh and succeeding centuries ; as 
well as by a later series of documents, of which the Mirabilia and the Gra- 
phia aurea UrbisRomae, written in the xir century, are the most promi- 
nent examples. Then came the critical and archaeological students of the 
Renaissance, from whose writings our author has derived so large a part 
of his material: Panvinio and Ugonio, Grimaldi, Severano and Martinelli, 
in the xvi and the early part of the following century, with their succes- 
sors Bruzio, Garampi and Terribilini. The last and greatest of these men 
of colossal erudition was Francesco Cancellieri, who worked, at the begin- 
ning of this century, on a, Roma Sacra, leaving an incomplete and fragmen- 
tary work which will always remain a storehouse for historians. Of all this 
material Professor Armellini does not pretend to take account. But, if he 
did nothing else than gather in this convenient form a good proportion 
of the information scattered in the few published and the many unpublished 
volumes of his predecessors, he would be doing an extremely useful work. 



REVIEWS AND NOTICES OF BOOKS. 349 

There were two great periods of church-building in Rome, but they were 
of unequal importance. The first and greatest extends from about 320 to 
850, and it is said that at that time Rome contained over fifteen hundred 
churches. Most of them were adorned with mosaic-paintings or frescos, 
and many with statues of gold and silver, and with altar-fronts, veils and 
hangings of tapestry and embroidery, to say nothing of a multitude of sacred 
vessels and garments. Then came a period of anarchy, ignorance and pov- 
erty, when the churches decayed, were robbed and ruined. This began with 
the close of the ix and ended with the dawn of the xn century, which saw 
the beginning of a new era of artistic activity that lasted until the " Cap- 
tivity of Babylon " at Avignon in the xiv century. Then were reestab- 
lished the old customs, the great religious association called the Fraternitas 
Eomana, then came the revival of church music and the rebirth of monas- 
ticism. Several lists of the churches of Rome at this period are published 
by Armellini. 

The second and main part of the volume is devoted to " historico-topo- 
graphic notices of the intra-mural churches of Rome." They are arranged 
in strict alphabetic order. The reason why this order was used, instead of 
the topographic, is the obvious one, that, on account of the lack of topo- 
graphic documents, the exact location of many of the destroyed churches 
is not known. The desired information is given by the addition, in an appen- 
dix, of a topographic index of the churches whose site has been identified. 

In these short notices of churches the order followed is: foundation; 
possessions ; vicissitudes and history ; present condition and description. 
Usually, there are references to the principal sources of information. Many 
inscriptions are reproduced, especially if at present lost; and some of the 
accessories, such as tombs, ambones, ciboria and altars, are briefly referred 
to. Certainly, we have no right to expect to find, in such a book as this, 
thorough archaeological or artistic descriptions of monuments : however 
desirable, this would not be the occasion for them. But we feel inclined 
to criticize the author on one point, precisely because his book is so excel- 
lent and useful to students: that point is the fullness and accuracy of the 
historical data, and the fuller reporting of inscriptions. To illustrate this, 
let me take one of the most important and best-preserved of the early 
churches, that of Santa Sabina on the Aventine, built early in the fifth cen- 
tury by Celestin I and Sixtus III. Its fine interior, its ancient mosaics, its 
portico and beautiful cloister, its many sepulchral monuments and inscrip- 
tions help to make it one of the few whose mediaeval character is still free 
from modern contamination. Armellini refers to the mediaeval restora- 
tions and additions in these words : " Eugenius III and Gregory IX mag- 
nificently restored our basilica ; " and he does not give at length or even 
refer to the three long inscriptions, still in existence on its walls, which 



350 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHEOLOGY. 

relate the consecration of the church in 1238, of the altar SS. Angelorum 
in 1248 under Innocent IV, and of that of S., Peter Martyr in 1263 under 
Urban II. He has not noticed, apparently, the many sepulchral slabs in 
the pavement, with incised figures of the deceased, executed with extra- 
ordinary talent, and perhaps unequalled in Italy at that time. They 
date from various years between 1215 and 1313, and are mainly of the 
Savelli family. All these have inscriptions. Two of them he reports 
from Martinelli, as if they were now destroyed, and one of these, the beau- 
tiful tomb and inscription of Dna Stephana de Isula, he dates from 1313 
instead of 1303. 

If Professor Armellini's fellow-students were to come to his aid in sup- 
plementing the present volume so as to make a second edition of double 
its size, I should be happy to make my modest contribution. Especially 
desirable in a book like this is an exact arrangement of successive head- 
ings under which the material regarding each church can be grouped, as 
it is not at present.* Bat it is very easy to criticize. Few would have 
even attempted the laborious undertaking which has here been carried out 
with so great a degree of success. A. L. FROTHINGHAM, JR. 

W. BODE und H. VON TSCHUDI. Beschreibung der Bildwerke der 
christlichen Epoche (Berlin Museum). 4to, pp. 263 and 68 pages 
of cuts. Berlin, 1888; Spemann. 

Beside being of thoroughly scientific interest, this book is an excellent 
manual for the study of mediaeval and renaissance sculpture. 1 The large 
number of cuts and illustrations is a valuable innovation in museum cata- 
logues. The Berlin Museum is richer than any other outside of Italy in 
renaissance sculpture, and this catalogue therefore gives a good general 
picture of its development. Especially noticeable are the works of the 
family Delia Robbia, of Donatello and his school, and of the younger 
Florentine sculptors of the xv century, Desiderio, Benedetto, Verrochio. 
The number of bronze plaquettes is also noticeable ; and their close imi- 
tation of the antique would- interest all classical students. Many are taken 
directly from gems and cameos, others are freer interpretations of classic 
myths; mostly more or less after Ovid's Metamorphoses. Until far into the 

* It is also evident that the author is not thoroughly acquainted with the families 
of artists that flourished in Rome in the xn and xin centuries the schools of Paulus, 
Rainucius, Laurentius, Vassallettus, and others. He shows this, e. g., on p. 281 in 
reporting the sepulchral inscription of a Magr. Jacobus films olim Angeli Nicolai. He 
thinks this Jacobus to be the father of the famous artist Cosma, whereas the father 
of the latter was Jacobus son of Laurentius. He thus omits many of the important 
inscriptions with artists' signatures of this period. 



REVIEWS AND NOTICES OF BOOKS. 351 

xvii century he seems to have been the chief source of inspiration for this 
sort of decorative art. H.WEIZSACKER, in Berlphil. Woch., 1889, No. 35. 

C. MAUSS. La Piscine de Bethesda a Jerusalem. Paris ; Leroux. 

This sumptuously edited volume is an indispensable addition to the libra- 
ries of all who are interested in the archaeology and topography of Pales- 
tine. M. Mauss was the architect to whom was entrusted the work of 
restoring the church of St. Anna on the northeast side of the Haram at 
Jerusalem ; and this book contains an account of the arch geological dis- 
coveries made during the progress of the work, and is adorned with a pro- 
fusion of valuable and beautifully executed illustrations. The main object 
of the book is to prove that the church of St. Anna occupies part of the site 
of the Pool of Bethesda. The arguments in favor of this conclusion are 
drawn partly from the discoveries made under the foundations of the church, 
such as a mosaic pavement, a fragment of a column ornamented with Chris- 
tian symbols, and the remains of aqueducts as well as of the porches of an 
ancient pool ; partly from the evidence of old maps, and of writers like 
Antoninus, who visited Jerusalem at the beginning of the vn century. 
Academy, Aug. 31. 

EUGENE MUNTZ. Guide de I'J&ole Nationals des Beaux-Arts. Ou- 
vrage accompagne de23gravures. 8vo, pp. 288, Paris, 1889 ; Quantin. 
It is rare to be favored with so careful and authoritative a guide to a 
great public institution. In this case it is particularly fortunate, as the 
Ecole des Beaux- Arts has never before had a guide of any sort, though its 
history covers 'nearly two centuries and a half. It is derived directly from 
the Ecole Academique, founded in 1648 at the same time as the Academic 
royale de peinture et de sculpture, whose place it took completely at the time 
of the suppression of the latter. It was first confined to the arts of sculp- 
ture and painting, and began to teach architecture only at the time of the 
Revolution, when it was amalgamated with theAcademie d' architecture, 
founded in 1671. It was thoroughly reorganized in 1819, and was estab- 
lished in its present quarters of the Rue Bonaparte in 1830. A decree of 
1863 introduced a radical change by suppressing the distinct sections of archi- 
tecture and sculpture and painting, and by removing the institution from the 
direction of the assembly of professors and confiding it to a director and a 
council. It also instituted studies for the practical teaching of the three 
arts and of engraving. Although this government intervention is not 
characterized by M. Miintz, it may be here stated that it was severely 
criticized and condemned at the time by many eminent men. It must be 
admitted, however, that the facilities for study were then greatly increased 
by the addition of numerous courses. 



352 AMERICAN JO URNAL OF AR CHJEOL OGY. 

The convent of the Petits-Augustins, commenced by the orders of Mar- 
guerite de Valois in 1608, was used by the heroic Alexandre Lenoir for 
his Musee des Monuments Francais, by which so many works of French 
mediaeval and renaissance art were rescued from destruction at the time 
of the Revolution. In 1820, four years after the dissolution of the Museum 
by the Restoration, the first constructions were begun next to the monas- 
tery, to make ready for the installation of the Ecole des Beaux-Arts. The 
successive stages of the work on the new buildings lasted until 1862, and 
the main series of constructions form the chef-d'oeuvre of the architect 
Duban, and is a marvel of adaptability. 

f The volume contains a complete catalogue of the various collections, 
objects, and works of art contained in the buildings. These are varied 
and valuable. The library contains several hundred thousand drawings 
and prints, besides a collection of printed books on art and archaeology 
which is the handiest to consult if not the most complete in Paris. Here, 
also, is a fine collection of photographs and casts of coins. In the vesti- 
bule, the Cour Vitree, the Chapel and some galleries, is a well-chosen col- 
lection of casts of architecture and sculpture, covering the widest field 
from Egypt to the close of the Renaissance. It is not lacking in originals : 
such are some pieces of superb renaissance architecture, like the arcade 
from the Hotel de la Tremoille (c. 1500) ; the portal of the Chateau d' Anet 
(1548) byPhilibertdel'Orme; the arch of the Chateau of Gaillon (1508): 
such are also many pieces of French sculpture of the xv and xvi centuries, 
all remnants of the Lenoir collection. In the hemicy cle is the famous fresco 
by Paul Delaroche, representing the Genius of the arts distributing crowns. 
The collection of original drawings, by old masters and new", is extremely 
interesting; and, for the study of the progress of French art during the 
last hundred years, there is hardly anything equal to the exhibition in 
the halls devoted to the grands prix of sculpture and painting. But I 
will stop here, as I have no space to follow M. Miintz as he guides us 
through the labyrinth of halls and galleries, all witnessing to the artistic 
love and taste of the French nation. A. L. F., JR. 

F. M. NICHOLS. The Marvels of Roma \_Mirabilia Urbis Eomae], 
or a picture of the Golden City. An English version of the medi- 
aeval guide-book with a supplement of illustrative matter. Rome, 
1888; Spithover. 

Mr. Nichols has been for some years known as a very careful and accu- 
rate student of the topography of ancient Rome. The present charming 
volume is a popular contribution, and is addressed to a large public inter- 
ested in the history of the eternal city and the vicissitudes of its monuments 
during the Middle Ages. In his words, " The little book of which an 



REVIEWS AND NOTICES OF BOOKS. 353 

English version is here published for the first time was the standard guide- 
book of the more learned visitors to Rome from the twelfth to the fifteenth 
century. Its statements were received with the respect due to a work of 
authority, and their influence may be traced in the writings of many of the 
authors who flourished during that period," even Petrarch. Many of the 
ancient buildings it describes have since been destroyed, hence even its 
scanty words are precious though slight indications. 

The early and original Latin text was a work of about the middle of the 
twelfth century, in the opinion of De Rossi and other specialists : a later 
recension, with many alterations and additions, was made shortly after, and 
usually goes by the different title of Graphia instead of Mirabilia. Al- 
though several editions of the various forms of the Latin text exist by 
Montfaucon, Parthey, Jordan, and others the best is that by Urlichs, in 
his Codex Urbis Romae Topographicus, on which the present translation is 
based, though help was received from Professor Jordan. Translations 
are given also of supplementary documents under five heads. I. A de- 
scription of the marvels of the Roman churches, compiled in 1375. It is 
interesting, and supplies a deficiency in the Mirabilia, which deal almost 
exclusively with ancient classical monuments, n. A description taken from 
the Itinerary of the Hebrew traveller of the xn century, Benjamin of Tu- 
dela. in. Extracts from the Ordo Romanus, written in the xn cent, by 
canon Benedict. It describes the routes taken by the processions, and is 
of extreme topographical interest, iv. Three documents two papal bulls 
and the list of relics of the Lateran basilica " examples of the two classes 
of records (legal instruments and inscriptions) which furnish the most trust- 
worthy evidence upon mediaeval history and topography." v. The city of 
Rome, from a plan drawn about 1475 with the names attached to the dif- 
ferent buildings. 

Mr. Nichols adds, to every part of these various texts, careful notes elu- 
cidating satisfactorily all the difficult points in topography, legend, or de- 
scription, and showing a complete mastery of his subject. I will close with 
an enumeration of the chapters of the Mirabilia. Part i. (1) The founda- 
tion of Rome; (2) the town-wall; (3) the gates; (4) triumphal arches; 
(5) the hills; (6) thermae; (7) palaces; (8) theatres; (9) bridges; (10) 
the pillars of Antonine and Trajan, and the Images that were of old time 
in Rome; (11) cemeteries; (12) places where saints suffered. Part n 
contains the most characteristically mediaeval part, being Divers histories 
touching certain famous places and images in Home: it reproduces some of 
the favorite and naive legends then current. Part in is again devoted to 
the monuments in the form of a perambulation of the city, beginning at the 
Vatican, proceeding to the Capitol, the Palatine, and Santa Croce in 
Gerusalemme; then returning to the Tiber. A. L. F., JR. 



354 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY. 

STEPHEN W. WILLIAMS. The Cistercian Abbey of Strata Florida. 

The important abbey of Strata Florida in Cardiganshire has hitherto 
escaped treatment in a monograph, though the publications of the Cam- 
brian Archaeological Association have given some attention to its history. 
Its annals make Strata Florida a worthy subject for the monastic historian. 
In 1164 a convent of Cistercian monks came first to Strata Florida, but 
whether they came from the immediate vicinity, from the Welsh abbey of 
Blanchland, or direct from the parent house at Citeaux is not known. 
Khys ap Tewdwr, Prince of South Wales from 1077 to 1089, established 
a house for monks during his troublous sovereignty on the banks of the 
Flur, two miles southwest of the abbey which was founded about a cen- 
tury later by his grandson Rhys ap GrufFydd. The great church and 
block of conventual buildings were not completed until Whitsun Eve, 
1203. Here the princes and great men of the country sought interment, 
so that Strata Florida has been not inaptly styled the Westminster Abbey 
of Wales. In 1284 the belfry was struck by lightning and caught fire, 
the whole of the lead-covered church being completely gutted except the 
presbytery. Ten years later the monastic buildings were destroyed by fire, 
deliberately caused by Edward I. In the days of Owen Glendower much 
of the monastery was again burnt by the English, and Henry IV devas- 
tated its lands, so that by the time of the Reformation the magnificence and 
power of Strata had so much waned that the Dissolution found but seven 
monks watching over the ashes of the mighty princes there laid to rest. 

Until recently, nothing of the remains of this great monastery was visi- 
ble save an archway and piece of the wall of the western front of the church. 
This work is of transitional Norman style and not a little remarkable, the 
five co-ordinate arches of the great western doorway being bound together 
by a curious ornament resembling pastoral staffs. This singular doorway 
is well depicted on the frontispiece to this volume. In 1887-8, excavations 
were made at the expense of the Cambrian Archaeological Association, under 
the direction of Mr. Stephen Williams. The outlines of the great church 
(213 X 61 feet) have now been ascertained and to a great extent laid bare, 
as well as the chapter-house and adjacent buildings. One of the most in- 
teresting discoveries was the unearthing of a series of monks' graves on the 
eastern external side of the south transept, several of which had their carved 
headstones, as well as the flat slabs, still in situ. The flat stones show the 
rough diagonal tooling of the Norman period, but several of the headstones 
have early interlaced patterns of Keltic type. Our conjecture is that these 
have been reused, having been brought here from some older place of inter- 
ment. The most valuable find was the large remains of tile pavements, 
both incised and encaustic, in the transept chapels. These tile pavements 



REVIEWS AND NOTICES OF BOOKS. 355 

are exceptionally good in design and rich in glazing and coloring. Some 
of the patterns are unique, and Strata Florida may now fairly claim to 
have the finest series of tile pavements of any old abbey in England or 
Wales. Excellent drawings are given of these tiles, both in detail, and 
as illustrating their general position and design. The Rev. A. S. Porter, 
F.S. A., our best authority on ancient tiles, pronounces those of Strata Florida 
to date from about the middle of the xiv century. Athenaeum, Aug. 24. 

CmiACO-MiGUEL VIGIL. Asturias monumental, epigrdfica y diplo- 
mdtiea. Tom. i, Texto ; torn, n, Ldminas. Oviedo, 1887. 
It was not an unimportant moment for the historiography of Spain, when 
some ten years ago these two volumes were laid before the Royal Academy 
of Madrid, and by their recommendation the government was urged to print 
and circulate as many copies as possible. Vigil is the Nestor of Spanish 
antiquarians, and, as a collector and investigator of Asturian inscriptions, 
he has greatly assisted Hiibner in preparing the second volume of the Cor- 
pus. The work is at present represented by two volumes, (1) a descriptive 
text, (2) plates consisting of photo-engravings of original drawings. The 
largest part of this latter volume gives plates of inscriptions. A third 
volume, now in preparation, will contain documents and chronicles. The 
whole work aims to advance historical study, but is not without value for 
the philologian. In treating of the Latin inscriptions, even of those already 
published in the Cbrptw, Vigil's remarks have great value and independence. 
Many new inscriptions have also been added ; early Latin, as well as Chris- 
tian. It is, however, the topographical remarks that will be of most last- 
ing value. For all future work in this province, a certain footing has been 
gained that will spare the coming investigator endless toil. On the treat- 
ment of the manuscripts, like praise cannot be bestowed: as examples of 
paleography and artistic decoration they have scarcely any value. Nor 
does Vigil state how in the second half of the ninth century Oviedo, if not 
the richest, was certainly the most valuable library in all Spain. It is from 
the school of these scribes of Oviedo that the so-called Oruz de los angeles 
de Oviedo, so common in collections of Spanish manuscripts, finds its ori- 
gin. The author mentions several of the curious complexes or labyrinths 
of letters found in these manuscripts. In one of them, the words Siloprin- 
ceps fecit can be read out from a centre in various directions 506 times, but 
such are not limited to Spain. Vigil closes a long controversy over the 
Westgothic numeral X~, by deciding conclusively that it means 40. In 
the development of Spanish Latin, of book-lore and of episcopology, his 
work offers interesting material. Sincere should be the hope of all students 
of Spanish antiquity that the other provinces might be as fully and as thor- 
oughly treated as Asturias. R. BEER, inBerl.phil. Woch., 1889, No. 25. 



356 AMERICAN JO URNAL OF ARCHJEOLOG Y. 

PREHISTORIC ARCHXEOLOGY. 

H. et L. SIRET. Les premiers dges du m6tal dans le Sud-Est de I'Espagne. 

8vo, pp. 110. Bruxelles, 1888 ; Polleunis, Ceuterick et Lefebure. 

This valuable contribution to the prehistoric ages of the Spanish penin- 
sula is an abstract from the larger work of 437 pages and 70 plates which 
was written by the same authors in 1887. The excavations were carried 
on from 1881 to 1887 on the coast of the province Almeria, between the 
cities of Carthagena and Almeria. On this space of 75 kilometers, some 
forty sites of prehistoric habitation were examined. Fifteen of these be- 
longed to the stone-age. They contained pieces of broken stone and pol- 
ished stone, comprising all the usual tools, weapons, vessels, hand mills, and 
ornaments. These men of the stone-age had small dwellings with stone 
walls, but large tombs in which many persons were buried together. An- 
other group of prehistoric settlements, seven in number, represent a transi- 
tion from stone to metal. Here the dwellings become real houses ; their 
walls built of stone and earth, and their roofs held up by rafters covered 
with bundles of reeds and branches. In the tombs of this transitional 
period, urns full of charred bones occur among skeletons, which are not 
burned ; but of most importance is the occurrence of metal. Besides half- 
smelted copper slags, appear simple copper implements, such as needles, 
arrow-heads, and chisels. A few bronze articles were also found, espe- 
cially ornaments. The neighboring mountains produce copper, but the 
tin, whether in the form of bronze or not, must have been imported. The 
third group of settlements, of developed metal-workers, have their villages 
constructed on sloping hillsides, and somewhat fortified by surrounding 
walls or ramparts. The houses show the same construction as before. The 
saws and mills are now the only remains of the stone-age. Pieces of clay 
vessels, bone implements, and bronze and copper objects, were found in 
these houses. In the graves of this period, incineration has given way to 
the primary form of simple burial. Tombs were often made in the floor 
of the huts, and the bodies placed immediately in the earth or else inclosed 
in large urns. The gifts to the dead found in these tombs were very vari- 
ous, and numerous clay vessels of artistic shape, especially drinking-cups, 
daggers, halberds, knives, rings and pendants (together some 300), and 
other objects were contained in them. The weapons, for the most part, 
were copper, but notably three swords, the only ones found, were of bronze. 
Silver rivets adorned the handles of some of the weapons, and many of the 
pendants found in the graves of the women were of silver. In other coun- 
tries, silver is hardly known during the bronze age, but gold is usually 
more common. The occurrence of native silver in the mountains of Spain 



REVIEWS AND NOTICES OF BOOKS. 



357 



is the explanation of this phenomenon. Only a very few gold objects were 
found in these graves. 

The meaning of these different stages of civilization seems to be, that the 
original people of the stone-age were visited by a more-civilized, friendly 
people. These taught them the use of copper, and imported rings and other 
ornaments of bronze. In the next stage came other strangers, but enemies. 
Proof of this is the finding of the fortified settlements and bronze objects of 
much more advanced workmanship than the native products. Thus, the 
three swords were evidently booty won from the invaders. The friendly 
visitors who introduced the custom of incineration were most probably of 
Aryan descent. The hostile visitors who came later might well be some 
Phoenician people, urged on by their well-known fondness for silver. The 
70 crania gathered from the graves do not, however, seem to give any in- 
formation as to these various races. A. G. MEYER, in Berl. phil. Woch., 
1889, No. 34. 



ARCH^OLOGICAL NEWS. 
SUMMARY OF RECENT DISCOVERIES AND INVESTIGATIONS. 



Page. 
ALGERIA, ...... 362 

ARABIA, 365 

ARMENIA 365 

ASIA MINOR 369 

AUSTRIA-HUNGARY, . 398 

BELGIUM, 396 

CAUCASUS, 365 

CENTRAL ASIA, . . . 365 
DENMARK, 399 



Page. 

EGYPT 358 

ENGLAND, 401 

FRANCE, 394 

GERMANY, 396 

GREECE, 374 

HINDUSTAN 363 

ITALY 382 

JAPAN, 363 

KRETE 382 



Page. 

KYPROS, 373 

MEXICO, 402 

RUSSIA 399 

SICILY 391 

SPAIN 393 

SWITZERLAND, . . . 396 

SYRIA 368 

TUNISIA 362 



AFRICA. 

EGYPT. 

PRESERVATION OF MONUMENTS. An appeal has been made to the 
public for contributions to a fund raised by the Society for Preserving the 
Aneient Monuments of Egypt, which was founded last year (see iv, p. 472), 
to assist in protecting the works of art referred to in its title, to arrest 
their further ruin by natural causes, and protect them " from injury by 
tourists and others," whose ravages have already inflicted enormous and 
irreparable damage. From the first it has received the sympathy of the 
Prime Minister, and has been officially put in communication with the 
Khedive's Government, which had already made efforts in the direction 
aimed at by the Society, and has given assurances of the most cordial co- 
operation. The vast extent of the country and the enormous number of 
remains still in more or less good preservation demand costly inspection 
and operations far beyond what the Egyptian Government can meet in 
an ordinary way. As a step forwards, that government has assessed, in a 
small sum, travellers by the Nile steamers going to Upper Egypt, and thus 
last year obtained about 1,000. Although the depredations by